The APUSH Review WHAT DID WE GET OURSELVES INTO? the constitutional era
It’s all about the $ America suffered a depression during the 1780sAmerica suffered a depression during the 1780s –Huge national and state debts were left from the Revolution. –Excessive use of credit to purchase consumer goods after the war (especially debts to British merchants. –British flooded American ports with cut-rate goods. Economic democracy preceded political democracy: land readily available and inexpensive.Economic democracy preceded political democracy: land readily available and inexpensive. Manufacturing was bolstered by non-importation agreementsManufacturing was bolstered by non-importation agreements –Americans lost markets in the British empire (Navigation Laws) –New commercial outlets compensated for lost ones (Baltic region; Asia)
Why can’t we all just get along? Foreign Policy challenges of the New NationForeign Policy challenges of the New Nation –Britain Refused to make a commercial treaty or repeal Navigation LawsRefused to make a commercial treaty or repeal Navigation Laws –Spain Closed the Mississippi River at the mouth in 1784Closed the Mississippi River at the mouth in 1784 –France Demanded repayment of money loaned during the warDemanded repayment of money loaned during the war U.S. trade with its profitable West Indies and other portsU.S. trade with its profitable West Indies and other ports –The Mediterranean -- North African Pirates (Barbary Pirates) U.S. previously enjoyed protection under Britain who paid for its subjects' protection -- without protection, & without money to pay, U.S. was vulnerableU.S. previously enjoyed protection under Britain who paid for its subjects' protection -- without protection, & without money to pay, U.S. was vulnerable
Ok, the Articles were just a rough draft Miracle at Philadelphia – the Philadelphia ConventionMiracle at Philadelphia – the Philadelphia Convention –Early decision to re-write, rather than tinker with the Articles of Confederation Open agreement secretly arrived at - Washington's pleaOpen agreement secretly arrived at - Washington's plea –Intent of the Convention Economic - protect property rights and make America safe from democracy.Economic - protect property rights and make America safe from democracy. Idealistic - make a perfect UnionIdealistic - make a perfect Union Pragmatic - dealing with the question of sovereignty. Placing common interests over regional or personal concerns.Pragmatic - dealing with the question of sovereignty. Placing common interests over regional or personal concerns.
Who was invited to the party? 55 delegates from 12 states55 delegates from 12 states –Young (average age 42), professional (over half were lawyers), men of economic substance –Many were Revolutionary War veterans –Absent: Thomas Jefferson, Patrick Henry, other Revolutionary War heroes –Key Participants Washington - president of the conventionWashington - president of the convention Madison - researched every previous republicMadison - researched every previous republic Franklin - 81 years old, the steadying influenceFranklin - 81 years old, the steadying influence
How about a compromise? Great Compromise (bicameral legislature representing both people and states)Great Compromise (bicameral legislature representing both people and states) –Virginia Plan or Large States Plan (Edmund Randolph) 2 house legislature with representation based on population for both2 house legislature with representation based on population for both President and courts chosen by legislaturePresident and courts chosen by legislature –New Jersey Plan (William Patterson) Congress with each state having l voteCongress with each state having l vote separate executive and judicial branchesseparate executive and judicial branches increased powers of Congressincreased powers of Congress –Great Compromise Lower house membership dependent on populationLower house membership dependent on population Upper house with two members from each stateUpper house with two members from each state All revenue bills must begin in lower houseAll revenue bills must begin in lower house
How much is a person worth? North-South issues came to dominate the conventionNorth-South issues came to dominate the convention Slavery was the biggest issueSlavery was the biggest issue "Three-fifths" Compromise"Three-fifths" Compromise –North argued that slaves should not be counted since they were not citizens –South argued their smaller population would lead to northern domination –Compromise: Slaves would count as 3/5 of a person for representation purposes in the House –African slave trade to end in 1808 –Fugitive slave provision allowed southerners to cross state lines to reclaim their "property"
Let’s ratify the darned thing already Because of fear of opposition from states, only 9 of the 13 were needed for the Constitution to take effectBecause of fear of opposition from states, only 9 of the 13 were needed for the Constitution to take effect Because of opposition from state legislatures, conventions elected by the people were given authority to approve or reject ConstitutionBecause of opposition from state legislatures, conventions elected by the people were given authority to approve or reject Constitution Federalists vs. AntifederalistsFederalists vs. Antifederalists –Most Federalists were wealthy and well-educated and sought the creation of a more powerful central government –Most Antifederalists were farmers who were loyal primarily to their state governments Feared taxation power of federal governmentFeared taxation power of federal government Republican government could not rule a large nationRepublican government could not rule a large nation
The finished product PreamblePreamble Article IArticle I –Legislative Article IIArticle II –Executive Article IIIArticle III –Judicial Article IVArticle IV –States Rights Article VArticle V –Amendments Article VIArticle VI –Law of the Land Article VIIArticle VII –Ratification Separation of Powers Ability to adapt Appease the states
I know my rights! Bill of Rights - One of first priorities facing the new government Antifederalists had sharply criticized the Constitution for not having one.Antifederalists had sharply criticized the Constitution for not having one. Many states had ratified under the condition that one be included.Many states had ratified under the condition that one be included. First ten amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1791. Provided safeguards for some of America's most precious principles:First ten amendments to the Constitution adopted in 1791. Provided safeguards for some of America's most precious principles: –I. Freedom of speech, press, assembly, & religion –II. Right to bear arms –III. Troops may not be arbitrarily quartered on the people –IV. Unreasonable searches and seizures forbidden –V. The individual is guaranteed certain rights when on trial and the right to life, liberty and property –VI. Right to a fair and speedy trial in criminal cases –VII. Right to a trial in civil cases (law suits against other citizens) –VIII. Excessive fines and unusual punishments are forbidden. –IX. The people retain rights not enumerated in the Constitution –X. Powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the states and the people.
Washington’s in charge Washington's Neutrality Proclamation (1793)Washington's Neutrality Proclamation (1793) U.S. still obligated to France under alliance of 1778U.S. still obligated to France under alliance of 1778 Washington believed war should be avoided at all costsWashington believed war should be avoided at all costs –Proclaimed US neutrality in the war between Britain & France –Warned citizens to be impartial to both Britain & France American ReactionAmerican Reaction –Jeffersonians enraged, especially by Washington not consulting Congress – Federalists supported it America & France benefited from U.S. neutralityAmerica & France benefited from U.S. neutrality –America's neutrality meant it could still deliver goods to the West Indies –France did not officially call upon U.S. to honor its obligation –If U.S. entered war, British navy would blockade coasts
Mr. Jay’s Treaty Jay Treaty (1794) -- Temporarily eased U.S. conflict w/ BritainJay Treaty (1794) -- Temporarily eased U.S. conflict w/ Britain Significance: Most important cause for formation of Democratic Republican partySignificance: Most important cause for formation of Democratic Republican party –British had continued menacing Americans on U.S. soil and on the high seas –Federalists unwilling to go to war –Washington sent Jay, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, to London in 1794 America won few concessionsAmerica won few concessions –British renewed their pledge to remove their posts from U.S. soil (as in 1783) –British consented to pay damages for recent seizures of American ships –Jay forced to bind U.S. to pay pre-Revolution debts owed to British merchants Jeffersonian outrage vitalized the new Democratic-Republican partyJeffersonian outrage vitalized the new Democratic-Republican party –South felt betrayed that northern merchants would be paid damages –Southern planters would be taxed to pay pre-Revolution debt
Goodbye George He had reluctantly accepted a second term when his friends begged him to stayHe had reluctantly accepted a second term when his friends begged him to stay Washington lost his nonpartisan standing when he became a Federalist, took a lot of abuse from JeffersonWashington lost his nonpartisan standing when he became a Federalist, took a lot of abuse from Jefferson Refused to accept a third term as PresidentRefused to accept a third term as President Farewell AddressFarewell Address –2/3 domestic related: warned against evils of political parties -- partisan bitterness –Warned against permanent foreign alliances (like treaty w/ France) –Jeffersonians angered that speech seemed to declare U.S. hostility toward France –Isolationism - dominant U.S. foreign policy for next 100 years
Hello Mr. Adams XYZ Affair – French try to extort US envoys who are on a diplomatic missionXYZ Affair – French try to extort US envoys who are on a diplomatic mission –War hysteria sweeps US Undeclared Naval Warfare, 1798-1799 - “Quasi -War”Undeclared Naval Warfare, 1798-1799 - “Quasi -War” –Guess we’d better create a navy! Convention of 1800Convention of 1800 –France agreed to end the 22-year Franco-American alliance –Significance: Major war with France avoidedMajor war with France avoided Rapprochement made possible the Louisiana PurchaseRapprochement made possible the Louisiana Purchase If war occurred, Napoleon would not have sold LouisianaIf war occurred, Napoleon would not have sold Louisiana Adams felt this to be his finest achievementAdams felt this to be his finest achievement
It’s an alien invasion! Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) –Federalists passed a series of oppressive laws to reduce power of Jeffersonians and silence anti-war opposition Alien ActsAlien Acts –Attack on pro-Jeffersonian "aliens" –Most immigrants lacked wealth and were welcomed by Jeffersonians. –Scorned by Federalists who did not want the "dregs" of Europe voting in U.S. Sedition ActSedition Act –Anyone who impeded the policies of gov't or falsely defamed its officials, would be liable to a heavy fine and imprisonment –Direct violation of the 1st Amendment to the Constitution
Mr. Jefferson makes a power play Virginia and Kentucky ResolutionsVirginia and Kentucky Resolutions –Republicans convinced Alien and Sedition acts were unconstitutional Process of deciding constitutionality of federal laws hitherto undefinedProcess of deciding constitutionality of federal laws hitherto undefined –Jefferson & Madison secretly created a series of resolutions Premise: States had the right to nullify unconstitutional laws passed by CongressPremise: States had the right to nullify unconstitutional laws passed by Congress Aim not to break up the union but preserve it by protecting civil libertiesAim not to break up the union but preserve it by protecting civil liberties –Result: No other states passed the Jefferson & Madison resolutionsNo other states passed the Jefferson & Madison resolutions Federalists argued that the people, not the states, had made the original compact. Argued Supreme Court, not states, could nullify lawsFederalists argued that the people, not the states, had made the original compact. Argued Supreme Court, not states, could nullify laws –Significance: Later used by southerners to support nullification and ultimately secession prior to Civil War