Presentation on theme: "After the Pretest Read Chapter 10 section 1 Answer the main idea questions on page 363 1-5pages 356-363 Read chapter 10 section 2 Pages 366-371 define."— Presentation transcript:
After the Pretest Read Chapter 10 section 1 Answer the main idea questions on page pages Read chapter 10 section 2 Pages define the words in question 1 on page 371 and answer questions 2-3 of the main idea section.
Warm-up 9/6/2013 What do you think the daily responsibilities of President are? Make a list of what you think these responsibilities might be. What do you think the responsibilities of Lincoln were as the Civil War comes to an end? Do you think it would be more challenging then being the President today?
Warm-up Explain what conditions for life in the southern sates or the Confederacy must have been like after the civil war. What do you think conditions were like for freed African Americans? Who do you think needs to solve all these problems? How could they do it? To think about this consider the emancipation proclamation, Sherman’s march to the sea, the 13 th amendment
Reconstructing the South Who is involved? What might their possible goals be? What about the people who were freed?
Lincoln’s Plan for Reconstruction Lincoln was not looking to punish the confederacy. He decided to offer general amnesty or pardon to all southerners who took a oath of loyalty to the United States Southern states would also have to accept Union proclamations concerning slavery.
Radical Republican’s Vision of Reconstruction. The Radical Republicans were lead by Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania and Charles Sumner of Massachusetts. Their view was not to reconcile with the south or as Steven’s put it “Revolutionize Southern institutions, habitats and manners.” The Radical’s three goals were 1.Prevent the leaders of the Confederacy from returning to power after the war. 2. The Republican party to become the powerful institution in the South. 3.They wanted the federal to help African Americans achieve Political equality by guaranteeing their right to vote.
A Sumner Side Story
Why the republicans want former slaves to have the right to vote. Before the civil war there was a debate over how slaves should count in elections. In response the three fifth’s compromise was passed. The compromise stated that the vote of a slave was worth 3/5 the vote of a white citizen. What’s the republican’s worry post civil war? The south will reclaim political power By giving former slaves the right to vote southern states may not be able to get control of congress
The Wade Davis Bill The bill was developed by moderate republicans the were not quite in agreement with Lincoln or the Radicals. The Wade Davis Bill proposed that adult males of the South take an oath of allegiance to the Union. They would also have to deprive former confederates officials the right to vote or hold office. Lincoln Would veto this Why? He felt it put out too many bad feelings or kicking the south while their down.
Southern Crisis While This discussion is taking place what is the state of the South? The Economy has collapsed Hundreds of thousands were unemployed and homeless Thousands of African Americans known as freedmen ran to Union soldiers for aid. What do you do with the currently freed slaves?
The Freedman Solution General Sherman set aside abandoned plantations as a place for Freedmen 40,000 African Americans across half a million acres of land As a necessity Congress Establishes the Freedman’s Bureau As part of the military they would feed and cloth the refugees of the war. As Well as help to establish labor contracts.
Johnson takes office Lincoln’s Assassination would drastically change the politics of reconstruction Johnson had been a southern democrat before the Civil War. He stayed loyal to the north when his home state of Tennessee seceded Johnson Attempted to bring in the same ideas that Lincoln did to reconstruction
The Johnson Plan President Johnson offered a pardon to all former citizens of the Confederacy who took an oath of loyalty and returned their property. Johnson did say that the former confederate states could not elect former officers and politicians. He also issued another proclamation that had North Carolina revoke its ordinance of succession and take up the thirteenth amendment.
The Pardon of Lee
Johnson V The Radicals The South Followed many of the Presidents demands and began to elect members of congress. Some of which were former Confederate officers and politicians Including Alexander Stevens former Vice President of the confederacy As a mostly republican congress returned from a recess they were angered by Johnson’s actions
Warm-up You have ten minutes to study for your quiz 13th amendment 14th amendment Radical Republicans The Lincoln plan for reconstruction, or ten percent plan The wade Davis Bill Veto Freedman’s Bureau Black Codes
Quiz 13th amendment 14 th amendment Radical Republicans The Lincoln plan for reconstruction, or ten percent plan The wade Davis Bill Veto Freedman’s Bureau Black Codes
By allowing former confederate leaders to take office Johnson inadvertently lead to the limiting of the rights of freed slaves The Black Codes developed in the south tended to keep African American rights close to the same rights as when they were slaves.
Civil Rights Act of 1866 As a means to counter the black codes congress passed the Civil Rights act of It granted citizenship to all person born in the U.S. except Native Americans
Fourteenth Amendment Granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States. No State could deprive any person of life liberty or property. Some southern politicians actually supported this amendment due to the growing violence in the south.
Military Reconstruction In 1867 congress passed the military reconstruction act. The act split the former confederacy into five districts. A general from the union army would be put in charge of each district. Former confederate states had to call to order a constitutional convention. The result was that all new state constitutions had to give the right to vote to all adult male citizens.
Republican’s struggle Republican’s knew that they could override any veto that the President put forth since they had the votes. They were still worried though that Johnson could slow down their plans on reconstructing the south by refusing to uphold laws. Two laws are passed to try and deal with this.
The Tenure of Office act and Johnson’s impeachment The Tenure of office act required the Senate to approve the removal of any government Johnson would test this act by removing Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton who supported programs put together by Republicans. Within three days the house voted to impeach Johnson for refusing to uphold the Tenure of Office Act. The Senate was one vote shy of impeachment. Johnson would finish his term quietly and not run for reelection.
Republicans take control With union troops supporting the freed slave populace Grant was able to win six southern states and most of the North. Clearly giving republicans control in the country.
The Fifteenth Amendment Once the Republicans had retaken power by electing grant they would continue their reconstruction plans. Why would the Republican’s pass the Fifteenth Amendment? 1 They saw how the votes of former freed slaves could help the party. 2 They worried about the south taking rights away The amendment made it so you could not deny someone the right to vote based on race color or previous servitude.
Results in the south of the Amendment We see an increase an in African American’s participation in southern politics As well as anger on the part of white southerners
Southern Transformation As the republicans take control we see more Northerners move into the south. They were referred to as carpetbaggers, because some arrived with suit cases made from cheap carpet. These people were seen as con men and swindlers. Some did take advantage of the south. Others were simply seeking opportunities that did not exist in the north.
Southerners V. Southerners Besides anger towards carpetbaggers southerners they were also angry at some southerners who would work with Republicans They were known as scalawags Mixed group that made up the scalawags. They were small planters that did not want plantation owners to regain control. As well as former Whigs who did not like being aprt of the southern Democrats.
The African American Community in the South Churches became the center of African American communities. Churches sponsored different community events: Festivals, Picnics, schools, and political events Religion had always played a big role in the lives of African Americans, and once slavery had ended they began to build their own churches.
Southern Education Reconstruction governments began to build comprehensive public school systems in the south. By % of African American children were enrolled in school Eventually a number of academies were established that would become a network of Amfrican American Colleges.
Origins of the Ku Klux Klan Though these changes were occurring in African American Society they would face intense discrimination Southerners were angry at Northern Republicans but had no way to strike back at them. The Klu Klux Klan started in Tennessee and was based around the goal of driving out carpet baggers and intimidating African Americans
Nathan Bedford Forrest
Ku Klux Klan Act The Klan grew throughout the south and began to drive out members of the Freedmen’s Bureau as well as terrorizing republican supporters Grant was outraged by these actions and pushed congress to pass three different acts to stop the Klan Under these acts U.S. Marshals started to bring clan members to justice but only a few were actually found guilty in the court of Law.
Success of Grant Though Grant was able stop the Klu Klux Klan for awhile his overall success was limited. Grant viewed the role of the President as a man who only became involved to fix problems. Grant legitimacy was questioned due issues like the Whisky ring Scandal The scandal was based around the aid of the President helping major grain distributors cheat on their taxes.
Panic of 1873 Aside from the Scandal a serious economic recession occurred during Grant’s administration. A series of bad Railroad investments forced a number of Railroad companies to go bankrupt. After which people began to fear investing their money into projects. Small banks collapsed, stocks fell, business closed, and unemployment was on the rise.
Election of 1877 The election that followed Grant’s presidency was full controversy The Democratic nominee Samuel Tilden essentially tied Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes. Due to the fact that Hayes one by only one electoral vote. (well within a margin of error)
Compromise of 1877 A committee of 15 was appointed by congress to solve the election issue. The compromise that lead to election of Hayes was incredibly controversial. Ther Republican party would remove union troops from the South in exchange for Hayes to become President. (Clearly this would effect the rights of African Americans)
New South As the south attempted to build the idea of “New South” was proposed by a news paper. The idea was that the South would rebuild with a strong industrial economy.
Tenant Farmers Many freedmen working on white farms were paid wages but eventually the ide of tenant farming developed. This was the idea that Freedmen could pay for the land they farmed by paying for rent.
Share cropping Eventually Tenant farmers would have trouble paying for rent. They would become sharecroppers. To pay for the land they farmed freedmen would pay in the crops that they farmed. In other words merchants could collect crops to pay debt. Not paying debt could lead to time in prison.