Personal issues became political issues and political issues became personal issues
I. Black Nationalism/Black Power The Black Power Movement advocated personal, political and economic control of African American lives MLK—SCLC--Nobel Prize in 1965—assassinated in 1968 Malcolm X—Nation of Islam (assassinated in 1965) Stokely Carmichael—SNCC Huey Newton—Black Panthers
II. Women’s Liberation—Equal Rights Movement Feminism—theory of social, political, and economic equality of men and women Education: College Degrees for women 1950—25% 1970—43% Economics—Women made significantly less money than men Marriage—average age in 1960—19
Landmarks in Women’s Rights Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique—1963 Friedan was first President of National Organization of Women (NOW)—1966
‘‘The problem lay buried, unspoken, for many years in the minds of American women. It was a strange stirring, a sense of dissatisfaction, a yearning that women suffered….Each suburban wife struggled with it alone. As she made the beds, shopped for groceries, matched slipcover material, ate peanut butter sandwiches with her children, chauffeured Cub Scouts and Brownies, lay beside her husband at night—she was afraid to ask even of herself the silent question— ‘Is this all?’’’ Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique
‘‘ Ms. ’’ MS Magazine was started by Gloria Steinem
Equal Pay Act—1963 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title IX Affirmative Action EEOC—Equal Employment Opportunity Commission The Equal Credit Opportunity Act of 1974 The Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade—1973 Equal Rights Amendment proposed in 1972—died in 1982 after passage by less than 38 states (Texas passed it)
III. Native Americans AIM—American Indian Movement—founded in 1968 Efforts to reclaim Native culture that was hindered by years of boarding school educations Occupation of Alcatraz--1969-70 for 19 months March on Washington—1972 Occupation of Wounded Knee—71 day stand-off
In 1973, Brando turned down the Oscar, citing that Hollywood needed to improve the image of the Native American in films.
Tribal Life Oil development Casinos Federal and tribal law
IV. Latinos—Chicano Movement Cesar Chavez, Dolores Huerta, and the United Farm Workers led national boycotts Hector Garcia, Civil Rights Leader in Texas
Court Cases Mendez v. Westminster (1947)—repealed school segregation laws for children of all races in California Delgado v. Bastrop (1948)—stopped segregation of Mexican-American children in Texas schools Hernandez v. Texas (1954)—Mexican Americans, though not a separate race, were still entitled to protections of the 14 th Amendment White v. Regester (1973)--required legislative districts of Mexican American barrios to elect their own candidates into office Edgewood v. Kirby (1984)—required changes in school finance to increase funding for students in poorer school districts.
Other concerns… Bilingual education fair pay Political clout Immigration Note: Immigration Law of 1965 allowed equal numbers of people from all continents (good for Asia and Africa, bad for Latin America)
Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring Pesticides and Food laws ‘‘Don’t mess with Texas’’ Clean Air Act Earth Day—April 22 Anti-Emissions Legislation Alternative Energy Recycling
VIII. Americans With Disabilties Act (passed in 1973, amended 1990) Access to all public buildings required Amenities in restrooms, public buildings, classrooms Special programs in education, health care fields etc.
IX. Education Changes Head Start Public Television Federal grants for arts and sciences Teaching the individual Texas— “no pass no play” State testing requirements “No child left behind” G.W.Bush “Race to the Top” Obama
X. Gay Rights The law 1960s and 70s 1980s and AIDS 90s and 2000s Windsor v. U.S. As of 2014, fourteen states have legalized gay marriage (Texas is not one of them)
XI. Consumer Advocacy Unsafe at Any Speed—book by Nader Ralph Nader—spokesman for consumer rights and third party presidential candidate in 90s and 2000 Federal Consumer Advocate—recent appointment
Everybody has a cause… Animal rights Pro-Life/Pro-Choice
Terms 3. Chicanos—Mexican-Americans 5. Credibility Gap—lack of confidence by the public that the federal government is telling the truth (especially about the war in Vietnam) 7. The Establishment—the existing power structure in society 8. Title IX— “no one shall, because of sex, be denied the benefits of any educational program or activity that receives federal aid” 9. Job Corps—federal job training program for disadvantaged youths 10. Equal Pay Act—requires businesses to pay women the same as men 11. Roe v. Wade (1973)—Supreme Court ruling declaring that abortion is legal