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The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism Chapter 12.

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Presentation on theme: "The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism Chapter 12."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism Chapter 12

2 War of 1812 Army was ill prepared ◦ Supplemented by militias Canada ◦ Important battle ground ◦ British weakest there ◦ Americans not smart = offensive  3 pronged invasion  U.S. fort captured

3 Great Lakes  Looked to the navy  Skillfully handled  Better gunners  “Old Ironsides” Constitution  Thicker sides  Heavier Firepower  Larger crews

4 Cont. Control of Great Lakes ◦ Oliver Hazard Perry  Victory on lake Erie  Captured a British fleet  Infused new life into the Americans 1814 ◦ Americans grimly defending own soil ◦ Napoleon vanquished = Isle of Elba  Americans faced it alone ◦ Redcoats pouring into Canada

5 Cont. British prepare for an attack on N.Y. ◦ Using lake-river routes  Lake Champlain waterway Thomas Macdonough ◦ Challenged the British = Sept. 11, 1814 ◦ Plattsburgh ◦ Floating slaughterhouses ◦ Snatched victory  British army forced to retreat ◦ Saved the union from dissolution

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7 Washington Burned August 1814 ◦ 4,000 redcoats = Chesapeake Bay  Moving towards Washington  6,000 militiamen dispersed Washington Burned ◦ Set fire to most public buildings = Capital and White House

8 Cont. Baltimore held strong ◦ Fort McHenry hit with cannon = Could not capture the city Francis Scott Key ◦ Detained American ◦ Wrote “The Star Spangled Banner”

9 Battle of New Orleans January 1815 ◦ Troops led by Andrew Jackson  7,000 ◦ British launched frontal assault  2,000 killed / wounded ½ hour ◦ U.S. victory  70 casualties ◦ Before battle peace agreement already signed  Treaty of Ghent --- Christmas eve 1814

10 Treaty of Ghent ◦ Christmas Eve 1814 ◦ Armistice  Restore conquered territory  No mention of grievances previously fought for ◦ Virtual Draw

11 Consequences of War 6,000 killed / wounded Led to end of Federalist Party ◦ Sectionalism / Hartford Convention Growth of American industries = Manufacture products Confirmed the status of the U.S. / free and independent nation ◦ Less dependent on Europe Canadian patriotism / nationalism Rush Bagot Agreement = 1817 ◦ Limited naval armament on the lakes

12 Hartford Convention December 15, 1814 ◦ Hartford Convention  Federalist discontent  Massachusetts called for convention  Hartford Connecticut  Mass, Conn, R.I. = Full delegations  N.H. and Vermont = Partial  26 men = 3 weeks Discuss grievances ◦ Compensation ◦ 2/3 vote  Embargo  New state admission  War declared ◦ 3/5 clause ◦ President = single term  “Virginia Dynasty”

13 Nationalism Nationalism ◦ Most important by- product of War ◦ Emerged as one nation Writers to use American scenes / themes ◦ School textbooks / magazines  “North American Review” Nationalistic Spirit Revived Bank = 1816 Army expanded Capital restored

14 American System 1815 ◦ Madison moves U.S. toward economic independence  Establishing a protective tariff  Manufacturing would flourish  Re-chartering the National Bank  Credit  Development of transportation  Steamboat  Erie Canal = N.Y  Madison / Clay

15 Era of Good Feelings James Monroe --- Elected in 1816 ◦ Secretary of State  John Quincy Adams ◦ Foreign policy = Nationalism  National interest placed ahead of regional concerns ◦ Era of Good feeling?  Tariff, bank, land, sectionalism

16 Panic of 1819 Over speculation in frontier lands ◦ Deflation ◦ depression / bankruptcies / bank failures ◦ Unemployment /soup kitchens “Wildcat Banks” ◦ Foreclosed mortgages

17 Missouri Compromise 1818 ◦ Settlers in Missouri requested admission to the Union  Free State or Slave State? ◦ Missouri Compromise ◦ Series of agreements passed ◦ 36˚30´ Line ◦ Henry Clay

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19 Sharing Oregon Expansion of territory Anglo-American Convention of 1818 ◦ Fixed the U.S. border at the 49 th parallel  Michigan west to the Rocky Mountains ◦ Agreed to jointly occupy Oregon territory with British  10 years

20 Florida 1818 ◦ Americans believed Florida was destined to be theirs ◦ Jackson sweeps into Florida  Seizes 2 Spanish posts  St. Marks / Pensacola ◦ Florida Purchase Treaty 1819  “Adams-Onis Treaty”  Spain ceded Florida  U.S. abandon claims in Texas

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23 Menace of Monarchy in America Napoleon invaded Portugal and Spain ◦ Did not have money to maintain overseas colonies ◦ Napoleon defeated in 1815 ◦ Now wanted to reclaim their colonies Russians moving into Alaska ◦ Russo-American Treaty 1824 ◦ Establishing posts in California

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25 Monroe Doctrine 1823 ◦ President Monroe = Message to Congress  European powers not to interfere in the Western Hemisphere  Do not attempt to create new colonies  Do not try to over throw newly independent republics  The U.S. would consider actions dangerous to peace and safety  U.S. would not involve itself in European affairs Principles known as = Monroe Doctrine ◦ Foundation for future U.S. foreign policy


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