Presentation on theme: "Violence in the new frontier between settlers and Native Americans was problematic Native Americans were split on several solutions Assimilation Cultural."— Presentation transcript:
Violence in the new frontier between settlers and Native Americans was problematic Native Americans were split on several solutions Assimilation Cultural Diffusion Traditions Military Action
The Battle of Tippecanoe – A member of the Shawnee tribe, Tecumseh argued that Natives Americans must unite. – He argued against the “land-trick” deals, such as the Fort Wayne Treaty, made by the U.S. government Because Native Tribes held their land in common, they could not be sold unless all agreed. Americans would get a few to agree, and ignore protests against.
August, 1810, Tecumseh and several dozen men visit Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory to warn against purchasing land. “…it will produce war among the different tribes and at last I do not know what will be the consequence to the white people.” Tecumseh
President - James Madison (1809 – 1817) Neutrality was a problem Britain set up blockades to make all neutral trade go through their ports France condemned all neutral traders who obeyed Britain. Madison complained that all neutral rights were being violated by both France & Britain.
WARHAWKS – Led by John C. Calhoun & Henry Clay gained control of congress by 1812 and pressured Madison to act by asking for a Declaration of War against Britain. Argued that Britain was contributing to the Native revolts, & for its policy towards American shipping rights
America was unprepared for this war. America failed at attempts to take Canada and by 1813 had only won Control of the Detroit frontier British defeated Napoleon & transferred large amounts of troops to America. August of 1814 the British Marched on Washington and burned the public buildings including the White House. President Madison was forced to flee. Treaty of Ghent (late 1814), acknowledged that the war was a draw.
ERA of GOOD FEELING – Followed the War of – It was a short lived period of peace and harmony
Difference of opinion began to develop – national government vs. state rights, particulary, slavery. By the 1820 the Era of Good Feeling was over and SECTIONALISM (Loyalty to states first & foremost.) – In the South, supporters of state right proclaimed that the states were supreme over the federal government.
James Monroe (term 1817 – 1825) – Set a major foreign policy precedent. – No need to write this: Imperial Russia was intruding on the Pacific territorial claims of the U.S. The European alliance of Austria, France, Prussia, & Russia sought to reclaim colonies in Latin America that had claimed to be independent since the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
MONROE DOCTRINE – A U.S. doctrine, which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers would no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the newly independent nations of the Americas.
TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS (Called this by southerners) – 1828 – High protective tax aimed to protect northern industries from foreign competition. – Southerners felt the tariff would ruin their economy b/c it would raise the cost of foreign manufactured goods, which could lead to reciprocation.
– Doctrine of nullification States can proclaim acts by the federal government unconstitutional. States have the right to secede the union – In direct opposition to Article VI » (supremacy clause)
John Quincy Adams – 6 th President – Son of John Adams – Opposed Slavery – Served one term as President
Background (NO NEED TO WRITE) Andrew Jackson became President in 1829 – John C. Calhoun is Vice-President – He was born in the South – Famous war hero from 1812 – Despised the “old aristocracy” – Northern merchants who controlled the central – Hated the Bank of the United States However, he was sworn to defend the Constitution of the United States & federal law. – He famously said at a Jefferson day party; “Our union – it must be preserved.” Calhoun countered; “The Union –next to our liberty, most dear.”
Jackson backs the Tariff Act of 1832 Calhoun resigns – South Carolina adopts Doctrine of Nullification (Ordinance of Nullification) – Special state convention declares the tariff “null & void.”
Spoils System – Made official by Jackson – Gave jobs to friends & supporters (patronage) – Dismissed 200 previous presidential appointees & 2000 government officials
Indian Removal Act 1830 Gave Natives land in parts of Louisiana Purchase in exchange for land in the east Forcibly removed 100,000 members of 5 tribes – Took their 100 million acres – Gave them 32 million acres in what is now Oklahoma
– Worcester v. Georgia Gold was found on Cherokee land Cherokees sued in federal court Court ruled that Georgia had no authority to take over Cherokee territory. Georgia ignored the ruling Jackson sided with Georgia
– Trail of Tears Army rounded up 15,000 Cherokees Forced to walk 116-day march westward 1 out of 4 Cherokee died The $6 million spent to relocate them was deducted from $9 million payment for their land.
Bank Controversy The Congressional charter of the Bank of the United States was not up for renewal until 1836 Opponents of Jackson tried to have it renewed in 1832 McCulloch v Maryland – Ruled the creation of the Bank of the United States was proper use of the elastic clause. – Ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal law. Jackson blocked the charter with a veto – Believed Congress had stretched its power too far.
Jackson’s veto proved to be a disaster. – The Bank provided economic stability – Without it, unregulated banks generated paper securities with little value made unwise loans & speculated land with depositors’ money – Contributed to an economic depression – Jackson’s successor Martin Van Buren who presided over this mess lost his re-election bid as a result
The Antebellum Period Reform Movements Religious Reform – 2 nd Great Awakening (Early1800s) challenge of the traditional American religions of the time (particularly predestination) Belief that men & women could eliminate sin Mormonism – belief that held Jesus appeared in Pre- Columbian America
Educational Reform – Horace Mann Called for state funded schools – Separate grades – Longer school year – Standard texts – Teacher training schools – Advocates saw education as a way to assimilate immigrants
The Social Reform Movement 1.Abolition 2.Women’s Rights 3.Mentally Ill 4.Temperance
The Abolition Movement
William Lloyd Garrison Abolitionist (anti-slavery) Wrote The Liberator an abolitionist newspaper
“Once you learn to read, you will be forever free.”
“I did not run off, for I thought that wicked, but I walked off, believing that to be all right.”
Harriet Tubman/ Fredrick Douglass/ Sojourner Truth (Isabella Baumfree) Abolitionists Worked to establish the UNDERGROUND RAILWAY – To smuggle escaped slaves to Canada
Women’s Rights Seneca Falls Conference 1848 – Declaration of Sentiments Declared all men and woman are created equal Demanded equality
The Mentally Ill Dorothea Dix – Led movement to improve the treatment of the mentally ill
AMERICAN EXPANSION PROBLEM Between 1803 & 1850 America expanded and the question of slavery in the new territories becomes a heated argument.
Things to Know for Examination Purpose of Protective Tariffs Monroe Doctrine Spoils System Seneca Falls Convention – Declaration of Sentiments Jackson’s policy towards Native Americans What did advocates of school reform say? 2 nd Great Awakening Problem with expansion