Presentation on theme: "(a musical introduction to make you laugh). Historical Context Early 19 th century: much of Western Europe under control of France (under Napoleon). Could."— Presentation transcript:
Historical Context Early 19 th century: much of Western Europe under control of France (under Napoleon). Could not defeat the British Navy. Tried to weaken Britain: cut off trade with other countries - this backfired. The British navy: bigger, stronger, more effective. Many of the ships stopped by the British were from the United States. In November 1806, Napoleon ordered that all European ports under his control be closed to British ships. He later extended this policy to neutral ships who have entered a British port before arriving at the continent. Britain replied with a series of Orders in Council. These required all neutral ships to acquire a license in a British port before they could sail to Europe.
British Response Orders in Council. These required all neutral ships to acquire a license in a British port before they could sail to Europe. Result: all neutrals would have to choose whose orders they would follow. Britain = more powerful navy American economy depended on trade with Europe,
The Chesapeake incident of 1807 Off the Virginia Coast USS Chesapeake was approached by HMS Leopard (British), which asked to board and reclaim 4 deserters. When the Chesapeake refused, the British vessel opened fire, in violation of international law and outraging the entire United States.
In 1812, the British Empire was embroiled in a long war with France under Napoleon. Part of the British strategy was to use their Royal Navy to blockade French ports in an effort to ruin the French economy.
The United States of America was angry: felt they should be allowed to trade with France as a neutral country. the British were supplying First Nations people who they were trying to conquer.
Battle of Tippicanoe Indiana in 1811: Led by Shawnee chief, Tecumseh The Shawnee were defeated and many fled to Canada Believed if they could get help from the Canadians and the British, they would be able to keep their way of life.
Many in the United States also believed in Manifest Destiny, the idea that the United States should control all of North America.
War Hawks American politicians who wanted war. Increase their land ownership by taking land from the Aboriginals. A successful invasion of British North America would eliminate the colonists there as possible allies of the native peoples. Thought it would be easy: border long, soldiers limited, population small, British focused on Napoleon in Europe.
In 1812 with most of the British army was tied up fighting Napoleon in Europe, the United States tried to conquer Canada, a British colony. Many Americans thought it would be easy, a “mere matter of marching” to quote Thomas Jefferson. They expected that they would march into Canada, where they would be welcomed as liberators and easily take over. Instead they ran into stiff resistance.
Madison’s Declaration 1.Impressment of American citizens into the British navy 2.British ships stopping and searching American vessels 3.British naval blockade, by which United States' "commerce had been plundered in every sea" 4.British Orders in Council 5.British inciting of Amerindians against the United States
General Sir Isaac Brock, who was in charge of defending Upper Canada (Ontario today) had spent years planning for an American invasion. He had built defences, made plans and developed a close relationship with First Nations Peoples, particularly a powerful chief named Tecumseh.
Laura Secord Summer 1813 USA attempt to invade Canada. American soldiers stopped at Laura Secord’s home. She overheard them talking about a surprise attack on the British and Canadian force at Beaver Dam. Her husband was still suffering from wounds at the Battle of Queenston Heights. Laura walked 23km through fields and forests. In less than a day, she arrived with her message at the headquarters of the British commander, James FitzGibbon.
Tecumseh Wanted a separate Indian country. Helped Isaac Brock capture Fort Detroit. Americans were able to gain control of Detroit and the surrounding areas. The British and the Natives fell back into Canadian territory. Tecumseh was able to convince the British to take a stand at Battle of the Thames
The United States Army: greatly outnumbered the defenders of Upper Canada Primarily a defensive force British, Canadian and allied First Nations forces defeated the American invaders time and again. All of the invasions of Canada ended in failure, though there were many close calls and many sacrifices would be made: Both Brock and Tecumseh were killed in action.
In 1814, Napoleon was defeated and the war in Europe was coming to an end. Britain was then able to send many more ships to North America. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2sXXwIE hsQ&feature=related http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A2sXXwIE hsQ&feature=related
The Peace Ghent, Belgium. signed on December 24, 1814. Rush-Bagot Agreement of 1817. USA and Britain: not to put gunboats on the Great Lakes. Each side was allowed to keep one armed ship on Lake Champlain and Lake Ontario and two on the other Great Lakes.
At the end of 1814, both sides agreed to peace. For the Americans, the war had been a dismal failure. For the British, the financial and human costs of decades of fighting France were piling up and no advantage was evident to continuing the war with the United States.
The Americans repaired the president’s house and painted it white
Blacks Participating in the War Freedom, equality & in Canada to all American Blacks who fought against the USA. Thousands of blacks volunteered, particularly the Blacks from Chesapeake Bay area. William Hammond trained the slaves in combat. They were known as the Colonial Marines. Slaves proved they could fight.
The Arrival of the Chesapeake Blacks to NS 1812-1815: 2,000 Black refugees arrived in NS. As part of the peace agreement in 1814, the British gave the United States £250,000 (app. 1 million dollars US) in compensation for the slaves they lost. In 1815, the economy in NS dropped and the first to lose their jobs were the Refugees.
Settlements in NS Preston and Hammonds Plains were chosen as the sites for the major settlements. These were isolated communities Others were Refugee Hill (Halifax), Cobequid Road, Preston and Middle Sackville A lot of the land was too small and barren Most of the homes were poor quality. Lord Dalhousie (Lt. Gov-NS): offered them seeds for potatoes, cabbage and turnip. The former slaves found it difficult to adjust to the NS harsh winters, as they were from the south: suffered many illnesses (colds, flu and pneumonia). Crops fail due to cold. Felt trapped in NS, because they could not leave as they feared being put back into slavery
In 1821, the government had sent approx. 100 Refugees to Trinidad, where they would not be put back into slavery. Some had volunteered and some were sent due to an outbreak of scarlet fever in Hammonds Plains. Those who stayed kept farming and sold their products in the Halifax market Many women in Hammonds Plains sold crafts in Halifax Others remained as unskilled labourers