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Climate Policy, Gender, and Equity Aditi Kapoor Alternative Futures ISST/HBF New Delhi, July 02, 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "Climate Policy, Gender, and Equity Aditi Kapoor Alternative Futures ISST/HBF New Delhi, July 02, 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 Climate Policy, Gender, and Equity Aditi Kapoor Alternative Futures ISST/HBF New Delhi, July 02, 2013

2 Gender and Climate Change Adaptation DimensionWomenMen Responsibilities Food Water, fodder, fuel, herbal medicine, decoration, religious requirements, personal enhancement Limited water and fodder responsibility Assets Labour, limited forest rights, limited livestock Land, house, livestock, water body, credit, labour Knowledge and Skills Ability to work hard and long hours, ability to go to bed hungry, farm & livestock/forest products knowledge, related traditional knowledge Literacy, market knowledge, technical knowledge Capacities Concurrent care and resproductive tasks, heaps of tolerance Mobility, participation in decision-making fora, ability to access facilities, leisure time

3 Differential Livelihood Impacts Drought/ Climate Change Impacts on womenImpacts on Men Lower food productionLeast to eat; sleep on an empty stomach Additional work as wage labour – feminisation of agriculture labour 1 st priority to available food Untimely rainfall Rain in villages where it used to snow Lower farm production & consequences of male distress migration – work overload on own farm and as wage labour + care giver Distress migration Higher summer temperatures Lower milk production among animals, water and fodder needs more labour/time More tiring work in fields (intense rain:weeds) Longer hours - early morning More labour – harder soil Lesser tasks in the field Distress migration Effect on regeneration of species Medicinal herbs and fodder unavailable in forests now (HP)

4 Differential Adaptation Impacts Adaptive Interventions Gender LensLessening the Burden of Climate Variability Organic/NPM agriculture to restore soil fertility and retain soil moisture More food security for both More labour and time invested by women Less information/knowledge/ inputs accessed by women Less participation in decision- making bodies Community vermicomposting (CRIDA) Organic manure/tank silt from Panchayat to women Weather-related information (mobile phones) to women Rain gauges with women Traditional saline/drought/ flood resistant seeds and animal species More food security for both Gives women fodder/ fuelwood (not HYV) Seed exchange Opportunity to reclaim traditional knowledge Farm-to-lab transfer of adaptive knowledge and technology Women and men farmer trainers Appropriate seeds/animal species from PRIs/block Rain-water harvesting Benefits women moreWater for farm and kitchen gardens + animals and household consumption

5 National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) Impact of climate change “particularly severe for women” Scarcity of water, reduction in yields of forest biomass Increased malnutrition, risks to human health - children, women and the elderly most malnourished, anaemic, vulnerable Lower yields from dairy cattle and a decline in fish breeding - women main workers in dairy farming and fish processing Lower harvests and distress migration - women and children left behind “Special attention to gender in the Adaptation Missions”

6 Gender-Blind State Action Plans on Climate Change No focus on differential impacts and different capacities Techno-managerial approach in State Plans with no scope for ‘bottoms-up’ learning from practice State-level ongoing vulnerability studies only focus on physical natural resources, not on users and the social stratification of these users (HP, WB) Structural essentials missing - women’s strategic roles in decision-making, participation at different fora, ownership & control of resources and as knowledge managers to combat climate variability Thus, focus on even practical needs missing! Eg. GM & Agriculture; Carbon Seq. & Green India Mission

7 Limits to Gender and SAPCCs Low status of nodal department (envt/forests) Very high learning curve: no capacity building/exposure Negligible understanding about climate change across departments Almost nil understanding on gender Gender & Climate change…… ……Mainstreaming gender too tall an order in this scenerio

8 Our Work: Gender Equity in SAPCCs & Governance Structures Objectives Objectives: Inclusion of gender in State Plans & building capacities within governance structures Focus States Focus States – MP, Uttarakhand, HP, UP, WB, Bihar Policy asks Policy asks: Inclusion of gender components, especially in adaptation sectors, in government documents and governance structures Success Success – Gender in MoEF approval committee for State Plans; Current Uttarakhand, MP Plans; Now UPSAPCC; Capacities built for over 1500 PRI women in Bihar with PRI and Agriculture Depts. Nepal govt takes up training

9 Gendered Questions Disasters – Who is affected more? Women – 14 times more women likely to die than men (UN) Loss and Damage – Who lose?Women - decline in foodgrains, scarcity of water, reduced forest biomass (NAPCC) Soil Carbon Credits – Who toils? Women – making and applying organic manure more time consuming and labourious (Kapoor) REDD + - Who’s the main stakeholder?Women - largest source of cooking fuel is firewood; women are the main gatherers of NTFP (WB) Climate Finance – Who gets overlooked?Women – financially the most excluded (WB) Adaptation – Who invests more labour and time? Women - agro-forestry, inter- cropping, crop-rotation, livestock rearing, kitchen gardens (Kapoor)

10 Gender Responsive Policy/Practice Framework DimensionWomenMen Disaggregated Data Baseline, M&E, impacts, outcomes, outputs InvisibleYes Assets Eg. Inalienable land rights, lease, livestock, forest/water rights; own income and the right to spend it NoYes Knowledge/Skill eg. Technical, access to technology to lessen labour, use of own knowledge LimitedYes Capacities Take decisions at home (what crops/seeds/livestock, what government scheme to access, what livelihood option to choose, to migrate or not? ‘Work-life’ balance (leisure time/workload); Participate in public decision-making at every level NoYes

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