# Work Work – when a force causes an object to move in the direction of that force. Work & Energy are scalar quantities. Joule (J) – SI unit for Work &

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Work Work – when a force causes an object to move in the direction of that force. Work & Energy are scalar quantities. Joule (J) – SI unit for Work & Energy James Prescott Joule (1818-1889) – English physicist; studied heat and work. This led to the theory of conservation of energy. Developed Kelvin scale with Lord Kelvin.

Work Done by a Constant Force Equation: As long as this person does not lift or lower the bag of groceries, he is doing no work on it. The force he exerts has no component in the direction of motion.

Work Done by a Constant Force Work done by forces that oppose the direction of motion, such as friction, will be negative.

6-2 Work Done by a Varying Force (For those who know calculus)For a force that varies, the work can be approximated by dividing the distance up into small pieces, finding the work done during each, and adding them up. As the pieces become very narrow, the work done is the area under the force vs. distance curve.

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle Energy was traditionally defined as the ability to do work. We now know that not all forces are able to do work; however, we are dealing in this unit with mechanical energy, which does follow this definition. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle We can combine and and we get the following: We define the kinetic energy: © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle This means that the work done is equal to the change in the energy: If the net work is positive, the energy increases. If the net work is negative, the energy decreases. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Principle Because work and kinetic energy can be equated, they must have the same units: kinetic energy is measured in joules. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Potential Energy An object can have potential energy by virtue of its surroundings. Familiar examples of potential energy: A wound-up spring A stretched elastic band An object at some height above the ground © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Potential Energy In raising a mass m to a height h, the work done by the external force is We therefore define the gravitational potential energy: © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Potential Energy This potential energy can become kinetic energy if the object is dropped. This is due to the earth doing work. Potential energy is a property of a system as a whole, not just of the object (because it depends on external forces). If ΔU G = mgy, where do we measure y from? It turns out not to matter, as long as we are consistent about where we choose y = 0. Only changes in potential energy can be measured. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Potential Energy Potential energy can also be stored in a spring when it is compressed; the figure below shows potential energy yielding kinetic energy. This will be further explored latter this unit. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Conservation of Energy Just like conservation of mass and conservation of momentum, this means that the total energy of the system is constant. Energy gets rearranged into different forms, but the total amount stays the same.

Problem Solving Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy In the image on the left, the total mechanical energy is: E = K + U g = ½ mv 2 + mgΔy The energy buckets on the right of the figure show how the energy moves from all potential to all kinetic. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

How is energy rearranged? Think of a roller coaster. – There is work done to lift you up the first hill – At the top of that hill you have potential energy – You roll down the hill and gain kinetic energy as you lose potential energy – As you roll up the next hill, you trade the kinetic energy you gained to build back potential energy

Non-conservative Forces Like the spike in the previous example, energy can be lost in a system. Not all forces conserve the energy in the system. These forces (mainly friction) remove mechanical energy from a system and convert it something that ultimately isn’t as useful. We call this type of energy Dissipated Energy. This is because it is hard to impossible to reclaim as potential or kinetic energy. © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

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