Presentation on theme: "“The Collapse and Recovery of Europe”"— Presentation transcript:
1“The Collapse and Recovery of Europe” WWII in EuropeAP World HistoryChapter 21“The Collapse and Recovery of Europe”1914 – 1970s
2Path to WWII Italy’s Conquests Wanted more land = invaded and conquered Ethiopia1939 = invaded and conquered Albania
3Path to WWII Spanish Civil War Between Communists and Fascists in SpainSoviet Union backed the CommunistsMussolini and Hitler backed the FascistsSent supplies and troops to help the Fascists winNew fascist dictator in Spain = Francisco Franco
4Hitler on the Offensive March 1936 = Hitler sent troops into the RhinelandAllies did nothingOctober 1936 = Hitler & Mussolini signed the Rome-Berlin Axis = an allianceLater joined by Japan = became the Axis PowersNo counter-alliance from the AlliesMarch 1938 = German “Anschluss” with AustriaAnschluss = means unionHitler invaded Austria and united it with Germany
5Hitler on the Offensive September 1938 = Hitler demanded that Germans in the Sudetenland join Germany3 million Germans thereSudetenland = in northwestern region of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakian leaders declare martial law
6Hitler on the Offensive September 15, 1938 = Neville Chamberlain (leader of England) and Hitler meetHitler wants the Sudetenland to join GermanyChamberlain goes with policy of appeasement = granting concessions to maintain peace
7Hitler on the Offensive March 1939 = Hitler sent troops into Czechoslovakia and took it overAugust 1939 = Hitler and Stalin signed the Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression PactThey agreed to not invade each otherThey agreed to stay neutral if the other went to warBoth sides knew that this pact wouldn’t last long
8Hitler on the Offensive Now Hitler didn’t have to worry about Soviets attacking from the eastHe could do whatever he wanted in the westSeptember 1, 1939 = Hitler invaded Poland2 days later = Poland, Great Britain, and France declared war on GermanyWWII had begun
9Attack on PolandGermans used military tactic called blitzkrieg = “lightning war” = aimed at taking the enemy by surpriseLuftwaffe = German air force: swept in dropping bombsPanzers = armored tanks: crossed the Polish borderInfantry = more than 1.5 million men poured inQuick and efficient – Poland fell in a few weeks
10Hitler on the Offensive May 1940 = Hitler conquered and invaded Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Belgium
11Battle of BritainAugust 24 - September 6, = Nazis sent over 1,000 planes a dayRAF lost 466 planes & 103 pilotsEven heavier losses for the GermansSeptember 7 - November 3, = German bombers hit London with a blitz = series of air raidsIn 1 night alone = 70,000 bombs fell on London
12Cooperation from the U.S. U.S. wanted to remain neutralNeutrality Acts (1937) = banned arms, shipments, loans, and credit to warring nationsAs Hitler got more aggressive, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt felt the need to aid the AlliesCash-and-Carry Policy = Great Britain could trade cash for supplies from the U.S.
13Invasion of the Soviet Union Having failed in Great Britain = Hitler turned his sights on the Soviet UnionJune 22, 1941 = Hitler broke the Non-Aggression Pact and invaded the Soviet UnionWithin a few days = Nazis destroyed most of the Soviet air force, disabled thousands of their tanks, and captured 1/2 a million Soviet soldiers
14Invasion of the Soviet Union Stalin issued his scorched-earth policy = if Soviets had to retreat, they would destroy/burn everything that could be of use to the invadersGermans ended up getting as far as Moscow = about 600 miles into the Soviet UnionDecember 1941 = Soviets able to launch a successful counterattack to save Moscow and force the Nazis to retreat from the city
15The HolocaustHitler’s goal = complete extermination of all Jews in Europe= the Holocaust = more than 6 million Jews were mass murderedAnother 6 million non-Jews were also killed = gypsies, Slavic people, mentally and physically disabled, homosexuals, political opponents, etc.
16The HolocaustKilling squads used to murder many Jews in the Soviet UnionSS soldiers took their valuables, marched them to the outskirts of town, and shot themBodies were dumped in mass gravesKilling squads killed more than 1 million Jews this way
17The Holocaust“The Final Solution” = Nazi code term for the extermination of all European JewsGenocide = the carefully planned killing of an entire group of people based on their race or cultureNazis began rounding up hundreds of thousands of Jews and shipping them on trains or trucks to concentration camps and death camps
18Turning Points in WWII Battle of Stalingrad in the Soviet Union Allies reclaim North AfricaAllies reclaim ItalyD-Day
20The Battle of Stalingrad February 1943 = German officers surrendered100,000 German soldiers killed80,000 Germans = POWsLarge quantities of German military equipment seizedThe Soviets began to slowly but surely continue westward towards GermanyGermany’s entire 6th Army lost
21War in the Desert: The Reclaiming of North Africa As British troops advanced westward, Allies landed more troops in Morocco and AlgeriaGoal = to “squeeze out” the Germans in the middleMay 1943 = the Germans surrenderedAllies now controlled all of North Africa
22Reclaiming Italy July 1943 = Allies attack island of Sicily Conquered it in 6 days then continued to mainland ItalyKing Victory Emmanuel III fired MussoliniNew Prime Minister of Italy signed a secret act of surrender to the AlliesBut: there are still German troops in Italy and they aren’t giving upAllies continue north through ItalyJune 4, 1944 = Allied forces entered Rome and Germany surrendered
23D-Day Operation Overlord = Allied code name for the invasion of France June 6, 1944 = D-Day = the day of the attackAllied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy and fought their way forward amid German machine-gun fireHeavy German resistance but it was a successAugust 25, 1944 = Allied troops had regained Paris
24The Battle of the Bulge: Germany’s Last Stand December 1944 Germans cut through the center of American forces, creating a “bulge” in the Allied line of troopsMarch 1945 = advances of German troops were stoppedMeanwhile Soviet troops are starting to invade Germany from the eastMay 7, 1945 = Germany surrendersMay 8, 1945 = V-E Day = Victory in Europe Day
25The dead bodies of Mussolini (2nd from left) and his mistress (in the middle). The others are also the bodies of executed Fascists.
26The Fate of the Fascists: Adolf Hitler April 30, 1945 = Hitler and his wife, Eva Braun, committed suicide in the study of his “Führerbunker” in BerlinHitler = by gunshotEva = by cyanide poisoningPer earlier instructions, their bodies were brought out to the garden, doused with gasoline, and burned1947 photograph of the rear entrance of Hitler’s bunker
27Human Costs of World War II: World War II was the most devastating war in history.Fighting cost the lives of millions of soldiers on both sides & sixty million people were killed.The majority of European deaths were civilians, as air bombings there left cities in shambles & the war also destroyed much of the countryside.Many people were homeless & famine and disease spread through the cities.The Holocaust claimed the lives of six million JewsJapan lost two million people.Tokyo was heavily damaged, while Hiroshima & Nagasaki were obliterated.
28Impact of World War II on Both Civilians & Soldiers: The Allied home front played an important role in winning the war.Factories produced weapons & supplies for the war, & many women worked in the factories.The Allies used propaganda to help strengthen support for the war & to help conserve materials &resources, since there was a shortage of consumer goods.
29The Nuremberg Trials:The Nuremberg Trials, conducted in , saw twenty-two Nazi leaders charged with “crimes against humanity” for these actions, illustrating to the world that such behavior was indefensible & unacceptable regardless of the circumstances that each individual bears responsibility for his own actions.An International Military Tribunal, representing 23 countries, conducted the trials & ten of the Nazi leaders were hanged & their bodies were burned at a concentration camp.
30WWII in the Pacific August 6, 1945 = atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima No response from JapanAugust 9, 1945 = second atomic bomb dropped on NagasakiAbout 200,000 Japanese died in these two cities from the explosionsThousands more would die in the following months and years from the blasts’ radioactivityAugust 14, 1945 = Japan surrenderedSeptember 2, 1945 = proclaimed V-J Day = Victory over Japan Day
32Occupation of Japan after WWII U.S. forces occupied Japan after WWII from 1945 to 1952Occupation led by General MacArthurDemocratic constitution imposed on Japan by the U.S.Land, sea, and air forces = all disarmedDuring the occupation – the U.S. sent over $2 billion in financial aid to Japan to help restore it
33World War II Military Deaths: Nation:Estimated Military Deaths:Soviet Union7,000,000Germany3,500,000China2,200,000Japan1,300,000Great Britain350,000United States300,000
34Estimated Number of People Killed by the Nazis: Jews6,000,000Romani (Gypsies)400,000Polish Catholics3,000,000Ukrainians & Belarusians1,000,000Soviet Prisoners of War3,500,000Others: Included religious & political opponents; the seriously ill; & those whom the Nazis considered socially undesirable1,500,000
36Effects of World War II More than 70 million people fought in WWII About 55 million died because of the warAbout 40% = Soviet troops = country that lost the most lives in WWIIMillions more died in campaigns of genocide in Europe and AsiaAs many as 12 million people left homelessMany areas of Europe and Asia = completely destroyed and devastated
37The Division of Germany February 1945 = Yalta ConferenceGermany, as well as the city of Berlin = divided into 4 zonesControlled by Great Britain, France, the United States, and the Soviet UnionBy 1949 = uniform administration emerged in the western zones and Germany split into two halvesWestern half = democratic = Federal Republic of GermanyEastern half = communist = German Democratic Republic
38The United Nations Created in 1945 International organization aimed at resolving disputes and maintaining peace after warMost powerful nations = the United States, Great Britain, France, Russia, and ChinaAll hold the 5 permanent seats on the UN Security Council – all have veto powerAlso created in 1945 = the World Bank and the International Monetary FundDesigned to regulate the global economy and prevent another world-wide depression
39The Marshall Plan Designed to rebuild shattered European economies About $12 billion funneled into Europe from the United StatesWhy?Genuine humanitarian concernDesire to prevent another world-wide depressionWanted overseas customers for American productsWanted to undermine the appeal of communism in EuropeVery successful European economies grew rapidly between 1948 and the 1970s
40NATO Created in 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization Military and political alliance led by the United StatesCreated because of the communist threat, as well as the possibility of future German aggression
41COT WWII Changes Continuities Weapons of war Casualties of war Superpowers emerging from warOccupation and demilitarization of Japan (refocus on economy)Msss female suffrageConsumer based cultureUnited Nations ( security council, International Monetary fund, World Bank)Divided GermanydecolonizationExtent of the War ( theaters in Atlantic, Pacific, Northern Africa)N.A.T.OMarshall PlanSelf-determination of former coloniesUniversal Declaration of Human Rights (Hague- court where violations could be heard)Weapons of mass destruction ( militarism)U.S.A (first world), U.S.S.R (2nd World) first superpowers (Cold War)AlliancesNeo-colonialismUnited States reluctance and later entrance into warGenocideScorched earth policyRussia’s CommunismWarAnti-semitismtotalitarianismCasualtiesMassive economic disturbanceAnxiety of warEurope’s theaterNationalismMilitarismCommunismPatriarchyAgriculture (although new technologies will be applied under green revolution)Racism (Apartheid, Jim Crow)