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14.1 CHURCH REFORM AND THE CRUSADES The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims.

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Presentation on theme: "14.1 CHURCH REFORM AND THE CRUSADES The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims."— Presentation transcript:

1 14.1 CHURCH REFORM AND THE CRUSADES The Catholic Church underwent reform and launched Crusades against Muslims.

2 Learning Goals:  Explore how the Catholic Church underwent reform and launched crusades (holy wars) against Muslims and others.  Why it matters now: The Crusades resulted in trade and exploration between Christians and Muslims but left a legacy of distrust.

3 The Age of Faith  Spiritual Revival  Starting in the 900s, monasteries help bring about a spiritual revival  Reformers help restore and expand Church power Founded in 910, this is the Benedictine Abbey of Cluny as it looked in 2004. Coat of Arms of Cluny Abbey: "Gules two keys in saltire the wards upwards and outwards or overall a sword in pale argent".

4 Problems in the Church  Some Church officials marry even though the Church objects  Some officials practice simony—selling religious offices  Kings use lay investiture to appoint bishops  Reformers believe only the Church should appoint bishops


6 Reform and Church Organization  Starting in the 1100s, popes reorganize the Church like a kingdom  Pope’s advisors make Church laws; diplomats travel throughout Europe  Church collects tithes; uses money to care for sick or poor “Peasants paying tithes” (17 th century) school of Pieter Brueghel the Younger


8 New Religious Orders  Dominican and Franciscan orders form  Friars in these orders vow poverty; travel and preach to the poor  Some new orders for women are founded

9 Cathedrals—Cities of God  Early Cathedrals  Between 800- 1100, churches are built in Romanesque style  Style includes thick walls and pillars, small windows, round arches

10 A New Style of Church Architecture  Gothic style evolves around 1100; term from Germanic tribe, Goths  Gothic style has large, tall windows for more light; pointed arches  Churches have stained glass windows, many sculptures  About 500 Gothic churches are built from 1170 to 1270

11 Gothic Architecture The master builders in France, where the Gothic style originated, developed techniques of structural engineering that were key to Gothic architecture: 1.ribbed vaults that supported the roof’s weight 2.flying buttresses that transferred weight to thick, exterior walls 3.pointed arches that framed huge stained glass windows 4.tall spires that seemed to be pointing to heaven


13 Traditional Church Floor Plan “Liturgical East” Source: ( a website explaining church architecture.

14 Typical “Chancel” Layout “Liturgical East” Notice that the “apse” is “fenced off” by a communion rail. Only the clergy attending the altar or table are allowed past this point. The sacrament is dispensed only through the clergy bringing it to the rail. Source: ( a website explaining church architecture.

15 Between 1095 and 1291, the Catholic Church launched the Crusades against the Muslims for supremacy in the Holy Land The Crusades

16 The Crusades: The Beginning  In 1093, the Byzantine emperor Alexis Comnenus sent an appeal to Robert, Count of Flanders and to Pope Urban II.  The plea was to send soldiers to help defend his capital city of Constantinople against waves of invading Muslim Turks. Byzantine Emperor Alexios I Komnenos who asked Pope Urban II for help (left) Artistic depiction of Pope Urban II (left), and him preaching the First Crusade (right)

17 Urban II Declares a Holy War  After the pope had read this appeal, he declared a holy war, a crusade, to regain control of the Holy Lands from the Muslims.  “God Wills It!”

18  In 1096, between 50,000 and 60,000 knights joined the Crusades. Mostly Frenchmen and Normans.  Pope Urban promised the knights that if they died in battle, they were assured a place in heaven. Did You Bring the Map?

19 Goals of the Crusades  Pope wants to reclaim Jerusalem and reunite Christianity  Kings use Crusades to send away knights who cause trouble  Younger sons hope to earn land or win glory by fighting  Later, merchants join Crusades to try to gain wealth through trade.

20 Why Knights Joined  Many of the knights thought it was an opportunity to better their place in society. They believed that they might acquire land and property through battle.  Leave the manor, see the world, participate in an incredible adventure… sure beats being a serf!  Religious motives – liberate the Holy Land from the Muslims.

21 First Crusade: 1096-1099 Recipe for Disaster  1097, three armies of European knights gathered in Constantinople but were not equipped to fight in the desert environment or familiar with the geography or culture of the Holy Land.  Due to supply line problems, only 12,000 of the original 60,000 were able to fight.  Muslims were not the best hosts…

22 Victory is Ours! Um, er… kinda  In 1099, Christians concentrate their forces on Jerusalem and take the city after weeks of a vicious seige. Plunder away!  The crusaders won Jerusalem and a narrow strip of land, called Edessa, where four feudal crusader estates were established.  Muslims easily conquer everything outside of Edessa, and by 1144, take that too (setting up the Second Crusade).

23 The Second Crusade  A Second Crusade was organized in 1147 to recapture Edessa with the scraps of troops that were left, plus 35,000 reinforcement troops from Western Europe.  These Crusaders were unsuccessful. Only about 30% of the defeated army returned to Europe (but they had some cool relics).  For those of you keeping score: Muslims 2, Christians 0

24 The Third Crusade: 1189-1192  The Third Crusade was led by three powerful rulers

25 The Third Crusade: This time it’s Personal  Europe reacts with wild enthusiasm. “We must regain the Holy Land!”  The Third Crusade was launched in 1187 by three of Europe’s most powerful kings:  Philip Augustus (France)  Frederick I Barbarossa (Germany)  Richard III the Lion-hearted (England)

26 The Third Crusade : 1189-1192  One is Richard the Lion- Hearted—king of England  The Robin Hood stories and legends often surround Richard I returning from the Third Crusade. 19th-century portrait of Richard by Merry-Joseph Blondel

27 Survivor: Jerusalem?  Barbarossa drowned on the journey. How sad.  Philip Augustus had a falling out with Richard and went home. Quitter.  Richard is left to regain Jerusalem from the great Muslim leader, Saladin. This would be no easy task.

28 Deal or No Deal?  After the armies of Richard and Saladin had fought many battles, the two leaders, who respected each other a great deal, agreed on a truce.  The agreement was that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control, but that Christian pilgrims could freely visit the holy city in safety.

29 The Third Crusade: 1189-1192  Phillip II of France abandons Crusade after arguing with Richard  The argument was over Richard breaking off an engagement with Phillip’s sister.

30 The Third Crusade : 1189-1192  In 1192 Richard and Saladin make peace after many battles  Saladin keeps Jerusalem but allows Christian pilgrims to enter the city

31 The Fourth Crusade  In 1198, Pope Innocent III, appealed for yet another crusade to capture Jerusalem.  The knights met in Italy to prepare for war, however, during their stay they became entangled in the politics of the Church.


33 Sore Losers: The Sack of Constantinople  Instead of going to the Holy Lands, they ended up attacking the city of Constantinople.  This attack solidified the permanent split between the western and eastern branches of Christianity.  Victory: Islam (by default)

34 Later Crusades: More of the S(h)ame  Other Crusades were launched to the Holy Lands and North Africa.  Children’s Crusade- in 1212, thousands of children from Europe marched to the Holy Lands to fight the Muslims. God would turn Jerusalem over to them! (Muslims fight to hold back laughter).  5 th Crusade: Loss  6 th Crusade: Loss  7 th Crusade: Loss  8 th Crusade: Do you see a pattern here?  Final Record: Christians 0-8-1

35  Literature: Sinbad the Sailor, Ali Baba, Aladdin, Arabian Nights  Food: sugar cane, syrup, nutmeg, saffron, pepper  Cosmetics: rouge, henna, glass mirrors  Music: guitar and violin introduced  Art: stained glass windows  Math: Arabic numbers, decimals, algebra, sine and tangent Impact of the Crusades

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