Presentation on theme: "Model Projects – Suggested Approach"— Presentation transcript:
1Model Projects – Suggested Approach September 22-23, 2011International WorkshopPPP Models and Technological Solutionsfor Sewage and Waste ManagementModel Projects – Suggested ApproachWay Forward?byIITBombayDelhiGuwahatiKanpurKharagpurMadrasRoorkee&
2for Sewage and Waste Management September 22-23, 2011International WorkshopPPP Models and Technological Solutionsfor Sewage and Waste ManagementModel ProjectsCluster of Pulp and Paper Industries in Uttarakhand and Uttar PradeshTannery Effluents and Sewage Treatment in Kanpur, Uttar PradeshSewage Treatment in Patna, BiharSewage Treatment in Kolkata, West BengalDistillery Industries in Ganga Basin
3Ganga Basin Drainage Area of the Ganga River Covering 11 States in India (AIWFS Data)
5Service Provider / Operator DBFO Model for STPsCentral GovernmentState GovernmentULBsPublicService Provider / Operator
6DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components The service provider/operator builds, and then maintains and operates the facility for the contract period after commissioning.Responsibility for the arrangement of uninterrupted power supply for the facility is with the service provider/operator.The service provider/operator and ULB will have joint rights (as stipulated in the contract) for the commercial exploitation of the products, i.e., treated water, sludge and sludge-derived products generated through sewage treatment. A special purpose vehicle (SPV) may be set up for this purpose by the service provider/operator and ULB using the PPP model.Any treated sewage, sludge, etc. discharged from the sewage treatment facility during the contract period to be disposed of by the service provider/operator in a safe manner and as per provisions of the contract.
7DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period unless the contract duration is extended.Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after conclusion of the contract period.The facility reverts back to the ULB after the end of the contract period unless the contract duration is extended.Any liabilities arising out of site contamination during the construction period and contract period for operation of the facilities by the service provider/operator lie with the service provider/operator, even after conclusion of the contract period.
8DBFO Model for Sewage Treatment - Essential Components In this model, the income to the service provider/operator will be from two sources:Payment made to the service provider/operator in the form of annuities. The expected amount of annual payments (for each year of operation after commissioning) will be clearly specified in the contract. However, the actual annual payments shall be linked to the quantity of treated sewage (of specified quality) produced by the service provider/operator in that year.Profit (if any), from commercial exploitation of resources generated through sewage treatment, i.e., sale of treated water, sludge and sludge-derived products, as per provisions specified in the contract.In return, the service provider/operator is expected to invest the entire funds required for initial creation of the sewage pumping and treatment infrastructure as per the approved DPR and also take care of operation and maintenance of the facility through the operation and maintenance contract period.
9DBFO Model for Industry Central Pollution control BoardState Pollution Control BoardIndustryIndustry Association(Company Ltd)Service Provider / Operator
10DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups Most of the ETPs perform much below the expected level and most of the times effluent discharge norms are violated.Lack of knowledge and expertise to manage the ETPs and lack of resources and man power for enforcing the regulations and taking actions have been cited for poor performance.In several instances causes beyond technical and financial are responsible for unabated pollution of rivers.
11DBFO Model for Industry Clusters/Groups It is recommended that ETPs are planned on DBFO model with third party involvement as a company floated by the Association of Industries. The ETPs will be in the premises of the industry. Land for the ETP is to be provided by the industry.The company will be responsible for managing the effluent recycling plants through service provider/operator using DBFO model and will receive funds in the beginning of the year from each of the industry towards supply of treated water of industrial grade produced from effluents discharged by the same industry.The service provider/operator will get the payment based on quantity of industrial grade water produced from the effluents on monthly basis.Renewing consent to operate the industry may be linked to deposition of funds in the accounts of the company floated by the Association.
12Cluster of Pulp and Paper Industries in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh Model Project 1:Cluster of Pulp and Paper Industries in Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh
13Pollution of River Ganga: Contribution of Pulp and Paper Industries Through Tributaries - Ram Ganga and KaliWastewater Discharge in Ram GangaUttarakhand: 162 mld; Uttar Pradesh: 74 mldIndustrial Waste in Kali86 mld; 13,000 TPD BOD LoadPulp and Paper Industries Contribution:Through Ram Ganga Uttarakhand: 146 mld (90%); Uttar Pradesh: 39 mld (53%)Through Kali 37 mld (43%)
14River Ganga – Origin (Gangotri) to Destination (Ganga Sagar) Gangotri GlacierDelhiKolkataMumbaiGanga SagarChennaiBay of BengalRiver Ganga – Origin (Gangotri) to Destination (Ganga Sagar)
15“Kannauj – Kanpur” Stretch GangaRamgangaKaliKannauj u/s (Fatehgarh)On River Kali at KannaujOn River Ganga (Ramganga)at KannaujKannauj d/s (after confluence of Ramganga and Kali)Kanpur u/s at BithoorKanpur u/s at ShuklaganjKanpur d/s at Jajmau/Jane“Kannauj – Kanpur” Stretch
16Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Clusters:Kashipur – Thakurdwara ( )Muzaffarrnagar ( )Meerut (2+3+3)Moradabad (4)Water Consumption/Wastewater Generation is High; Not Closely Spaced; Conveyance Costs are High; CETPs are not viable options; Particularly if ZLD is to be achieved
17Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Present Status Scale of Operation: 25 – 250 TPDMills with 100 TPD Producing Bleached Variety of Paper have CRPOthers making Craft Paper from Agro Residues do not have CRPAll mills have ETP PC, AT, SCPerformance!
18Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Water Requirements for Four Different CategoriesCategoryExisting Water Consumptionm3 / T paper (Average)Achievable Water Consumptionm3 /T paper* (Average)Best AchievedWater Consumptionm3 /T paper (Average)Bench mark forwater ConsumptionA1: Agro BasedWriting & printing paper mills100806050A2: Agro BasedKraft paper mills754530B1: RCF BasedWriting & printing paper, Duplex board, newsprint20B2: RCF based351015* as per discussions with the representatives of the pulp and paper industries
19Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Typical Characteristics of Water and WastewaterParametersRaw WaterEffluentA1: Agro Based Writing & printing paper millsA2: Agro Based Kraft paper millsB1: RCF BasedWriting & printing paper, Duplex board, newsprint millsB2: RCF BasedKraft paper millspH6TDS, mg/l2901560TSS, mg/lNil46656-680COD, mg/l1010BOD, mg/l543Colour- *-*-Turbidity, NTU35-191062 -35Hardness, mg/l as CaCO3* Mills are using RCF only at present
20Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Estimated Capital and Operation and Maintenance Costs for ETPsCapacity,MLDTreatment Cost up to Tertiary Treatment without RO , `/m3(including capital, O & M, and Reinvestment Cost assuming 15 Years Life of ETP as on 2010)Treatment Cost up to Tertiary Treatment with RO , `/m30 – 5151005 - 2010Note: Actual cost will be technology and location specific
21Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Estimated Production Cost and Selling Price for Different Grades of PaperGrade of PaperProduction cost` / T paperSelling Price` / T paperA1: Agro BasedWriting & printing paper32000 – 3400038000 – 40000A2: Agro BasedKraft paper ( 100 % agro)19000 – 2000023000 – 24000B1: RCF Based32000 – 3300035000 – 36000B2: RCF BasedKraft paper22000 – 22500
22Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Estimated cost of Water Reuse/ Recycle after Tertiary Treatment in a Typical Mill of Capacity 25 TPD Paper and Pulp MillCategoryAchievable Water Consumptionm3 /T paper*(Average)Average Production Cost` / T paperEstimated Cost, ` / T paperPercentage Increase in the Average Production CostChemical Recovery from Black Liquor Using CRP/CCRPComplete Recycling of EffluentAttaining Zero Discharge ParadigmA1: Agro BasedWriting & printing paper mills80330001631,200 (5,875)#1,363 (6,038)#4.1(18.3)#A2: Agro BasedKraft paper mills4519500675(3,225)$838(3,388)$4.3(17.4)$# Considering 25 and 55 m3/T paper without and with RO treatment respectively; $ Considering 15 and 30 m3/T paper without and with RO treatment respectively; Cost of recovery of solids from RO Reject on drying is included in the RO treatment
23Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Estimated cost of Water Reuse/ Recycle after Tertiary Treatment in a Typical Mill of Capacity 25 TPD Paper and Pulp MillCategoryAchievable Water Consumptionm3 /T paper*(Average)Average Production Cost` / T paperEstimated Cost, ` / T paperPercentage Increase in the Average Production CostChemical Recovery from Black Liquor Using CRP/CCRPComplete Recycling of EffluentAttaining Zero Discharge ParadigmB1: RCF Based Writing & printing paper, Duplex board, newsprint mills2032500Not Applicable300(2,000)*(3,000)*0.9(6.2)*B2: RCF BasedKraft paper mills1022250150(1,000)*0.7(4.5)**Considering RO treatment; Cost of recovery of solids from RO Reject on drying is included in the RO treatment
24Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Recommendations: B1 and B2 Categories Increase in average production cost for B1 and B2 categories of industry is in the range of 4 – 6 %.The cost of tertiary treatment of the trade effluent is not prohibitive and is technically feasible.Achieving zero liquid discharge implies only an increase in cost of the paper production by a few percent of the production cost for B1 and B2 category of industry and must be enforced to save the precious resources like river Ganga in particular and Ganga system in particular.The implementation of this may result in slight reduction in profit margin or alternatively the cost will be passed on to the consumers.Thus it is strongly recommended that the “polluter pays principle” must be strongly adhered to achieve zero discharge paradigm in case of the pulp and paper industries.This will immensely help saving the rivers, in particular the river Ganga, from adverse impacts without significant impact on the industry or economy or employment opportunities.
25Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Recommendations: A1 and A2 Categories Increase in average production cost for A1 and A2 categories of industry to attain zero discharge paradigm is in the range of %.This is on the higher side.However, in the nations’ larger interest zero discharge paradigm must be enforced to protect rivers like Ganga, and the Ganga system.At the same time these category of industry are important from several considerations including utilization of renewable agro based residues that will otherwise be burnt and create air pollution problems.Hence closure of these types of industry is not in the larger interest.
26Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Recommendations: DBO Model for ETPs The past experiences reveal that most of the ETPs perform much bellow the expected level and most of the times effluent discharge norms are violated.Number of reasons, including lack of knowledge and expertise to manage the ETPs, has been cited by the industry for poor performance.Also the regulating agencies, such as State Pollution Control Boards (SPCBs), have cited many reasons including lack of resources and man power for enforcing the regulations and taking actions for unabated pollution of rivers due to discharge of industrial effluents.In several instances, as shown in the case of pulp and paper industries, causes beyond technical and financial are responsible for unabated pollution of rivers.
27Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Recommendations: DBO Model for ETPs Experience with other industrial sectors, particularly in water scarce areas, suggests that third party involvement and ETPs producing industrial grade water have been performing well.As such it is recommended that ETPs are planned on design, build and operate (DBO) model with the involvement of a company floated by the Association of Industries.This company will be responsible for managing the effluent recycling plants through service provider using DBO model and will receive funds in the beginning of the year from each of the industry towards supply of treated water of industrial grade produced from effluents discharged by the same industry.The ETPs will be in the premises of the industry. Land for the ETP is to be provided by the industry. The service provider will get the payment based on quantity of industrial grade water produced from the effluents on monthly basis.Consent to operate the industry is to be given only upon deposition of funds in the accounts of the company floated by the Association of Industries by the member industries.
28Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Highlights Pulp and Paper Industries, both agro and RCF based, are important for growth and development.Shifting towards zero liquid discharge paradigm is feasible and must be implemented to save rivers and help maintain “Nirmal and Aviral Dhara”.Improvements in technology and following best practices can lead to substantial reduction in water consumption and lower the cost of attaining zero discharge paradigm.Black liquor from agro based pulp and paper industries must be sent to CCRP for smaller units (< 100 TPD). Larger units may be allowed to have their own CRP.
29Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Highlights ETPs must be upgraded to tertiary level treatment. Some or all, depending on requirement, tertiary treated water may have to be treated using RO.The cost of treatment up to tertiary treatment including RO treatment may increase the production cost only by 4-6 % for RCF based industries and must be enforced.The cost of treatment up to tertiary treatment including RO treatment may increase the production cost by % for agro based industries, but also must be enforced. However, some concessions may be offered to promote agro based industries.CETPs do not appear to be viable for Pulp and Paper Industries in the identified clusters in the Ganga River Basin. However, all ETPs are to be managed by a company formed by association of industries.
30Pulp and Paper Industries in Ganga Basin Highlights Consent to operate the industry is to be given only on annual advance payment to the company for producing industry grade water by operating state-of-the-art ETP in each industry.DBO model is to be applied for all ETPs. Service provider is to be selected by the company and paid on the basis of quantity of industry grade water produced from the effluents.Flow meters to be installed at the inlet and outlet of each ETP.Industries are allowed to take fresh water only to make up for the losses due to evaporation, minor leakages, etc.
31Model Project 2: Tannery Effluents and Sewage Treatment in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh
33Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study There are 418 tanneries in Jajmau, the total installed capacity is hides per day.Average capacity to process number of hides in all tanneries in Jajmau area (operational and temporarily closed) is anywhere between to hides per day with average weight of hide of about 28 kgs.About 1400 liters of water is consumed per hide in processing from raw to finish. Corresponding estimated effluent quantity would be 24 to 28 MLD.
34Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study Jajmau is mixed agglomeration of tanneries, houses, shops and other commercial establishments in a very intricate fashion.About 4-8 MLD sewage is expected to get mixed with effluent. Thus design flow for the plant is estimated to be 32 MLD.
35Costs Involved in the Tanning Process BuffaloCowGoatCost of Raw HideMarket Price for Raw Hide, Rs.60-120Surface Area, sq.ft34-4032-364-5Price per sq ft.17 – 3020-5012 – 30Cost of Tanning, Rs /sq. ft1. Raw Hide to Wet Blue6.5 – 7.05.0 – 6.03.0 – 4.02. Wet Blue to Crust Felt (Chroming / Oiling)8.0 – 9.04.0 – 5.03. Crust Felt to Finished Leather3.0 – 3.52.5 – 3.0Total CostProduction Cost, Rs. / sq. ft50 – 55Domestic Selling Price, Rs. / sq. ftExport Price, Rs. / sq. ft4-5 % higher than domestic selling priceProduction Cost Price per Hide, Rs.
36Suggested Design Value after Pre- settling and Equalization Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS StudyCharacteristics of Tannery Effluents to be Received at CETP in Jajmau, KanpurParametersSuggested Design Value after Pre- settling and EqualizationpHTotal solidsTSSTDSCODBODN-NH4ClSulfidesSO4Total Chrome40-80All values in mg/l except pH
37Different aspects of Upgradation of Tanneries CETP @ Jajmau, Kanpur – IL&FS Study Industries agree to constitute a special purpose vehicle (SPV) for implementing the project.SPV will be responsible for operating and maintaining all components of the up-graded CETP and to meet the discharge norms stipulated from time to time.
38Tannery Wastewater Treatment: Desired Features The desired features in any renovated tannery wastewater facility proposed for the Jajmau area in future are the following:The portion of wastewater from tanneries containing high concentrations of chromium should be conveyed to a chrome recovery plant. The recovered chrome and other solid residues from the chrome recovery plant must be reused or disposed in a hazardous waste landfill. Effluent from the chrome recovery plant to be sent to the CETP for further treatment.The remaining tannery wastewater must be screened for removal of large objects at the tannery premises itself, before discharge into the tannery wastewater conveyance system.
39Tannery Wastewater Treatment: Desired Features Treated tannery wastewater to be reused / recycled in the tanneries, such that the freshwater requirement in tanneries is reduced.No direct use of treated tannery effluent for sewage farming. Direct discharge of treated tannery wastewater into the river Ganga is not allowed.Tannery wastewater in the conveyance system must be screened again before being pumped through rising mains to the CETP.CETP to be designed for the treatment of tannery wastewater to tertiary levels.The tertiary treated wastewater may be diluted with treated domestic sewage for reduction of TDS, and/or other advanced processes (e.g., RO with suitable reject management) must be incorporated for reduction in TDS concentration.
40Comprehensive Cost of Wastewater Treatment per Buffalo Hide as per ZLD Concept Production Cost, Rs. / HideCost of Wastewater Treatment (without RO), Rs./ Hide75 – 90(4.1 – 6.5 % of Production Cost)Cost of Wastewater Treatment (with RO), Rs./Hide225 – 300(12.5 – 21.5 % of Production Cost)Cost of Wastewater Treatment Currently Paid by the tanneries in Jajmau to UPJN, Rs. / Hide4(0.22 – 0.28 % of Production Cost)
41Sewage Treatment in Kanpur, UP ParametersName of Sewage Treatment Plant5 MLD Plant at Jajmau130 MLD Plant at Jajmau36 MLD CETP at JajmauYear of Construction19991994Installed Capacity (MLD)513036Current Utilized Capacity (MLD)46022-26Adopted TechnologyUp-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB)Activated Sludge Process (ASP)Capital Cost (Rs. in Millions)9.5310235O&M Cost/Year (Rs. in Millions)11356.7Mode of DisposalTo Irrigation channel or in the Ganga RiverRemarks-The plant is under loaded due to inadequate sewage conveyance and pumping infrastructure
42Sewage Treatment in Patna, Bihar Model Project 3:Sewage Treatment in Patna, Bihar
43Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment Plants in Patna, Bihar ParametersSewage Treatment PlantSaidpurBeurPahariKarmali ChakYear of Construction19361969-Under constructionInstalled Capacity (MLD)4535254Current Utilized Capacity (MLD)3316Not in operationAdopted TechnologyActivated Sludge Process (ASP)Aerated Lagoon(AL)Oxidation Pond (OP)Total WW Generation: 143 MLD Total STP Capacity (installed): 110 MLDUtilized Capacity : 49 MLD
44Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment Plants in Patna, Bihar ParametersSewage Treatment PlantSaidpurBeurPahariKarmali ChakO&M Cost(Rs. in millions)FundRequirement7.9612.57.815Under constructionFund Allocation0.7081.1044.33Mode of DisposalFor Irrigation & Ganga RiverFor Irrigation & Punpun RiverFor IrrigationRemarksThe STP is under-utilized due to insufficientpumping by the intermediate pumping stationsThe plant is not working continuouslydue frequent power failuresThe plant is not in operationdue mechanical and electrical failuresIn complete construction due to the problem of acquisition of land
46Model Project 4: Sewage Treatment in Kolkata, West Bengal
47Summary of Information on Sewage Treatment Plants in Kolkata City, West Bengal ParametersSewage Treatment PlantGarden ReachBangurSouth Suburban(East)BhagaJatinYear of Construction199619972002-Installed Capacity (MLD)47.545305Current Utilized Capacity (MLD)20-25Adopted TechnologyActivated Sludge Process (ASP)Oxidation Pond (OP)Aerated Lagoon(AL)Capital Cost (Rs. in millions)774.4114Mode of DisposalRiver Ganga through canalTotal WW Generation: 618 MLD Total STP Capacity (installed): MLDUtilized Capacity : MLD
48Model Project 5: Distillery Industries in Ganga Basin
49Number of Distilleries Estimated Pollution Load from Distilleries in the States of Gangetic PlanesStateNumber of DistilleriesInstalled Capacity(million liters/year)Effluent GeneratedBOD load (tonnes/ year)Bihar1388132310584Haryana5416154920Madhya Pradesh21469703658288Rajasthan7142021616Uttar Pradesh43617925274016West Bengal6243712968
50Spatial Distribution of Sugar and Distillery Industries in the Ganga Basin
51Distillery Industries in Ganga Basin The problem posed by distillery effluents runs, literally, pretty deep- run-off effluents percolate into surrounding fields, thereby polluting soil and damaging its structure.The task at hand is twofold: to dispose of effluents in an environment-friendly manner, and to reclaim the effluent-loaded sites that have turned into wastelands.The CPCB has been advocating Zero Liquid Discharge (ZLD) for distilleries. However, the situation on ground is that almost all industries do not even meet the specified effluent discharge standards. It is necessary to adopt the concept of ZLD through state- of-the-art technological solutions and introduce third party (other than industry and regulating agency) through appropriate DBFO models.
52EpilogueProspects of generating resources through sale of treated water, energy from waste, and sludge or sludge derived products.Changes and/or introduction of new policies/legislations/regulations at the central, state and local government level to facilitate establishing market for or generating resources from sale of treated water, energy and sludge or sludge derived products.Performance assurance to be obtained from private party and required payment guarantee for successful implementation of the proposed or any other DBFO or equivalent models.Prospects of finding private entities interested in technology transfer and investments in recycle and reuse of sewage and industrial effluents.
53EpilogueFramework for concession agreements or contract documents amongst urban local bodies (ULBs), state governments, central government and private entities for sewage treatment and reuse/recycle.Framework for concession agreements or contract documents amongst industries, industry associations, state and central government and private entities for treatment and reuse/recycle of industrial effluents.Road map for working on technology transfer and developing PPP models for management of both sewage and industrial effluents.Road map for building on model projects through bilateral and/or other funding agreements for achieving the target of Clean Ganga Mission of the Government of India by 2020.