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RESTORASI HUTAN. .RESTORASI HUTAN Pemahaman “struktur hutan dan fungsi hutan” sangat penting karena kerusakan hutan biasanya berkaitan dengan struktur.

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Presentation on theme: "RESTORASI HUTAN. .RESTORASI HUTAN Pemahaman “struktur hutan dan fungsi hutan” sangat penting karena kerusakan hutan biasanya berkaitan dengan struktur."— Presentation transcript:

1 RESTORASI HUTAN

2 .RESTORASI HUTAN Pemahaman “struktur hutan dan fungsi hutan” sangat penting karena kerusakan hutan biasanya berkaitan dengan struktur dan fungsi hutan. Hutan yang rusak mempunyai struktur tegakan yang berbeda dengan kondisi awalnya, sehingga fungsi hutan tersebut akan terganggu. Struktur hutan berkaitan erat dengan fungsi hutan, suatu struktur hutan akan membentuk hutan yang memiliki fungsi yang berbeda-beda, yaitu konsevasi, produksi atau lindung. Kegiatan restorasi hutan ditujukan untuk memulihkan kembali struktur tegakan seperti kondisi awalnya sehingga kawasan hutan tersebut dapat menjalankan fungsinya seperti fungsi awalnya. Parameter struktur tegakan a.l. : kekayaan jenis, kerapatan, distribusi, dominasi, asosiasi, crown density. Restorasi hutan biasanya berupa kegiatan reklamasi (melibatkan kegiatan civil engineering, berhubungan dengan pemulihan kondisi tanah) dan revegetasi (mengembalikan pohon, shrub, dll). “Restorasi” dapat didefinisikan sebagai upaya memperbaiki atau memulihkan kondisi lahan yang rusak dengan membentuk struktur dan fungsinya sesuai (mendekati) dengan kondisi awal. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

3 .PENANAMAN-HUTAN KEMBALI. Empat strategi penanaman hutan kembali tersebut adalah: Membiarkan wilayah hutan tidak terganggu agar proses regenerasi alami dapat berlangsung (untuk wilayah hutan yang memiliki keragaman hayati dan tutupan vegetasi baik). Membantu regenerasi alami (memotong jenis tumbuhan pengganggu tertentu agar jenis-jenis pohon penting dapat tumbuh). Penanaman dengan pengayaan (ketika kelompok jenis tertentu telah hilang, jenis pohon tertentu akan ditanam agar tercipta habitat yang lebih beragam). Penanaman jenis kunci (metode ini dikembangkan oleh FORRU untuk wilayah yang rusak parah dimana beberapa jenis kunci tertentu dipilih dan ditanam karena pohon-pohon ini dapat menarik berbagai jenis satwa penyebar biji-bijian. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

4 .. Pada saat ini, tim restorasi hutan telah terlibat dalam berbagai tugas meliputi: Pengembangan keterampilan dan kapasitas yang diperlukan di masa mendatang. Melaksanakan inventarisasi jenis pohon dan mencatat kelimpahannya di dalam kawasan Harapan Rainforest. Pemantauan fenologi (waktu berbunga dan berbuah) berbagai jenis pohon di wilayah hutan berbeda. Penggumpulan biji-bijian untuk diitanam di fasilitas pembibitan. Perawatan dan pemantauan biji dan benih yang ditumbuhkan di fasilitas pembibitan. Penanaman bibit dari fasilitas pembibitan pada plot tertentu dalam kawasan. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

5 .RESTORASI EKOSISTEM HUTAN Pemerintah Indonesia mencanangkan pengelolaan kawasan hutan melalui skema restorasi ekosistem hutan seluas 3,3 juta hektar. Ada empat strategi besar dalam konsep restorasi ekosistem hutan tersebut: 1.Memilih tanaman yang mudah dan cepat tumbuh pada lahan kritis, memiliki struktur tajuk yang baik sebagai penahan air hujan dan mengembalikan unsur hara tanah yang sudah ktitis. 2.Strategi ke dua, setelah terealisasi melakukan penanaman tanaman asli pada kawasan yang direstorasi. Artinya, tanaman asli pada kawasan yang direstorasi ditanam kembali dan itu akan lebih mudah sebab kondisi lahan sudah tidak kritis lagi maka tingkat keberhasilan tumbuhnya tanaman asli cenderung berhasil. 3.Strategi ke tiga, setelah tanaman asli tumbuh maka harus membiarkan wilayah restorasi ekosistem hutan tidak diganggu apa lagi ditebang agar proses regenerasi alami dapat berlangsung normal sehingga nantinya memiliki keragaman hayati dan tutupan vegetasi baik. 4.Strategi ke empat, membantu regenerasi alami tanaman asli dengan cara memotong jenis tumbuhan pengganggu tertentu agar jenis-jenis pohon penting dapat tumbuh dengan baik. Melakukan penanaman dengan pengayaan jenis tanaman tertentu yang telah hilang, jenis tanaman atau pohon tertentu yang telah hilang harus ditanam termasuk mendatangkan satwa (hewan) yang selama ini ada di kawasan yang direstorasi sehingga tercipta habitat yang lebih beragam. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

6 .HPH RESTORASI EKOSISTEM Menhut telah menerbitkan surat keputusan pencadangan hak pengusahaan hutan (HPH) restorasi ekosistem seluas 2,5 juta hektar sebagai bagian sistem inovasi kehutanan tahun HPH restorasi ekosistem DIHARAPKAN menjadi solusi penurunan emisi gas rumah kaca dari sektor kehutanan, sekaligus menciptakan lapangan kerja dan usaha. Jadi, business for environment dapat direalisasikan, untuk pangan atau energi. HPH restorasi ekosistem merupakan bentuk bisnis kehutanan yang unik karena investor tidak boleh mengambil hasil hutan kayu. Pemerintah memberi konsesi satu kawasan hutan terdegradasi kepada investor yang akan membenahi kerusakan dengan menanami tanaman asli lokal lalu mengambil keuntungan dari hasil hutan bukan kayu, seperti air, madu, dan ekowisata. Kemenhut telah menerima permohonan 40 unit HPH restorasi ekosistem seluas hektar. Sejauh ini, Kemenhut telah menerbitkan 3 unit HPH ekosistem restorasi seluas hektar yang berlokasi di Jambi ( hektar), Sumatera Selatan ( hektar), dan Kalimantan Timur ( hektar). Kemhut tengah memproses penerbitan surat keputusan untuk 4 unit lainnya seluas hektar dan telah menilai kesiapan 2 unit seluas hektar. Sebenarnya, banyak investor ingin memperoleh HPH restorasi ekosistem, tetapi pemerintah ha rus menolak permohonan 22 unit seluas hektar karena tidak memenuhi kriteria. HPH restorasi harus menjadi program unggulan Kemenhut. Program ini menunjukkan kondisi hutan alam Indonesia yang harus dipulihkan kembali. Akan tetapi, inovasi ini bukan hal mudah. Kemenhut harus memberi insentif khusus untuk mendukung kesinambungan investasi HPH restorasi. Perlu juga inovasi membangun HPH restorasi berbasis masyarakat. Diunduh dari: i.untuk.Restorasi……….. 28/12/2012

7 KONSEP RESTORASI HUTAN TERPADU Kawasan hutan yang dapat dimohon untuk areal restorasi ekosistem diutamakan pada hutan produksi yang tidak produktif dan dicadangkan atau ditunjuk oleh menteri kehutanan. Salah satu bentuk pemulihan ekosistem hutan hingga berfungsi sebagaimana mestinya di hutan alam produksi adalah melalui Izin Usaha Pemanfaatan Hasil Hutan Kayu Restorasi Ekosistem (IUPHHK-RE). IUPHHK-RE merupakan izin usaha yang diberikan untuk membangun kawasan dalam hutan alam pada hutan produksi yang memiliki ekosistem penting sehingga dapat dipertahankan fungsi dan keterwakilannya. Izin usaha restorasi ini, dilakukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi hutan sehingga terpelihara keberadaannya disamping mengoptimalkan jasa lingkungan dan jasa kawasan pada areal restorasi. Kawasan hutan yang dapat dimohon untuk areal restorasi ekosistem diutamakan pada hutan produksi yang tidak produktif dan dicadangkan atau ditunjuk oleh menteri kehutanan. Read more: IUPHHK-RE: Konsep Restorasi Hutan TerpaduIUPHHK-RE: Konsep Restorasi Hutan Terpadu Diunduh dari: restorasi-hutan-terpadu.html……….. 28/12/2012

8 . Restorasi ekosistem adalah upaya untuk mengembalikan unsur hayati (flora dan fauna) serta unsur non hayati (tanah dan air) pada suatu kawasan dengan jenis asli, sehingga tercapai keseimbangan hayati dan ekosistemnya.. IUPHHK restorasi ekosistem dalam hutan alam adalah izin usaha yang diberikan untuk membangun kawasan dalam hutan alam pada hutan produksi yang memiliki ekosistem penting sehingga dapat dipertahankan fungsi dan keterwakilannya melalui kegiatan pemeliharaan, perlindungan dan pemulihan ekosistem hutan termasuk penanaman, pengayaan, penjarangan, penangkaran satwa, pelepasliaran flora dan fauna untuk mengembalikan unsur hayati (flora dan fauna) serta unsur non hayati (tanah, iklim dan topografi) pada suatu kawasan kepada jenis yang asli, sehingga tercapai keseimbangan hayati dan ekosistemnya. Sistem silvikultur adalah sistem budidaya hutan atau sistem teknik bercocok tanaman hutan mulai dari memilih benih atau bibit, menyemai, menanam, memelihara tanaman dan memanen. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

9 . Restorasi hutan merupakan proses pengkondisian ekosistem (tanah, vegetasi, dan kehidupan liar) untuk mencapai pola dan profil yang serupa dengan kondisi pada saat sebelum terganggu komposisi, struktur, dan fungsinya. Restorasi dilakukan sebagai upaya untuk memaksimalkan konservasi karagaman hayati dan fungsi ekosistem. Pohon yang sesuai harus memiliki beberapa kriteria yang sesuai, yaitu semai dapat beradaptasi dengan mudah di tempat terbuka, merupakan spesies yang dapat tumbuh dengan cepat, serta spesies yang dapat berkompetisi dengan rumput liar dan jenis-jenis gulma lainnya. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

10 .. Hutan Harapan, Pionir Restorasi Hutan Di Dunia Hutan Harapan merupakan hutan restorasi pertama di Indonesia dan juga pionir restorasi hutan di dunia. Restorasi merupakan upaya untuk mengembalikan kondisi hutan yang sudah rusak menjadi hutan lebat seperti sedia kala. Hal ini membutuhkan waktu sedikitnya 30 sampai 60 tahun. Selama periode tersebut tidak dilakukan penebangan pohon. Setelah melalui survey dan proses yang panjang selama 10 tahun, akhirnya PT Restorasi Ekosistem Indonesia (PT REKI) mendapatkan hak konsesi penuh untuk mengelola Hutan Harapan seluas sekitar hektar (ha). “Untuk melakukan restorasi ekosistem hutan memang tidak gampang, sampai saat ini usaha restorasi belum bisa menghasilkan keuntungan, di sisi lain banyak kendala besar yang menghadang di depan mata, seperti para perambah hutan, illegal logging, kondisi hutan dan lahan kritis yang rusak parah, dan diperlukan biaya operasional yang sangat besar serta komitmen yang tinggi,” papar Doktor Biologi lulusan Jerman ini. Menteri kehutanan, Zulkifli Hasan, menyatakan bahwa pihaknya telah menargetkan ha untuk izin restorasi hutan produksi dan tak produktif tahun 2010 ini. Target itu, kata dia, menjadi bagian dari Rencana Strategis Kementerian Kehutanan yang ditargetkan 2,5 juta ha. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

11 Forest restoration. Forest restoration is defined as “actions to re-instate ecological processes, which accelerate recovery of forest structure, ecological functioning and biodiversity levels towards those typical of climax forest” [1] i.e. the end-stage of natural forest succession. Climax forests are relatively stable ecosystems that have developed the maximum biomass, structural complexity and species diversity that are possible within the limits imposed by climate and soil and without continued disturbance from humans (more explanation here). Climax forest is therefore the target ecosystem, which defines the ultimate aim of forest restoration. Since climate is a major factor that determines climax forest composition, global climate change may result in changing restoration aims. [2]climax forest [1] succession(more explanation here) [2] Forest restoration is a specialized form of reforestation, but it differs from conventional tree plantations in that its primary goals are biodiversity recovery and environmental protectionreforestationbiodiversity Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

12 .. Scope Forest restoration may include simply protecting remnant vegetation (fire prevention, cattle exclusion etc.) or more active interventions to accelerate natural regeneration, [5] as well as tree planting and/or sowing seeds (direct seeding) of species characteristic of the target ecosystem. Tree species planted (or encouraged to establish) are those that are typical of, or provide a critical ecological function in, the target ecosystem. However, wherever people live in or near restoration sites, restoration projects often include economic species amongst the planted trees, to yield subsistence or cash-generating products. [5] tree plantingdirect seeding Forest restoration is an inclusive process, which depends on collaboration among a wide range of stakeholders including local communities, government officials, non-government organizations, scientists and funding agencies. Its ecological success is measured in terms of increased biological diversity, biomass, primary productivity, soil organic matter and water- holding capacity, as well as the return of rare and keystone species, characteristic of the target ecosystem. Economic indices of success include the value of forest products and ecological services generated (e.g. watershed protection, carbon storage etc.), which ultimately contribute towards poverty reduction. Payments for such ecological services (PES) and forest products can provide strong incentives for local people to implement restoration projects.primary productivitykeystone species Payments for such ecological services (PES) Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

13 . Where is forest restoration appropriate? Forest restoration is appropriate wherever biodiversity recovery is one of the main goals of reforestation, such as for wildlife conservation, environmental protection, eco-tourism or to supply a wide variety of forest products to local communities. Forests can be restored in a wide range of circumstances, but degraded sites within protected areas are a high priority, especially where some climax forest remains as a seed source within the landscape. Even in protected areas, there are often large deforested sites: logged over areas or sites formerly cleared for agriculture. If protected areas are to act as Earth’s last wildlife refuges, restoration of such areas will be needed. [6][7] [6][7] Many restoration projects are now being implemented under the umbrella of “forest landscape restoration” (FLR), [8] defined as a “planned process to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well-being in deforested or degraded landscapes”. FLR recognizes that forest restoration has social and economic functions. It aims to achieve the best possible compromise between meeting both conservation goals and the needs of rural communities. [9] As human pressure on landscapes increases, forest restoration will most commonly be practiced within a mosaic of other forms of forest management, to meet the economic needs of local people.forest landscape restoration [8] [9] 8.Mansourian, S., D. Vallauri, and N. Dudley (eds.) (in co-operation with WWF International), Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees. Springer, New York 9.Reitbergen-McCraken, J., S. Maginnis A. Sarre, The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook. Earthscan, London, 175 pp. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

14 . Is tree planting essential to restore forest ecosystems? Not always. A lot can be achieved by studying how forests regenerate naturally, identifying the factors that limit regeneration and devising methods to overcome them. These can include weeding and adding fertilizer around natural tree seedlings, preventing fire, removing cattle and so on. This is "accelerated" or "assisted" natural regeneration. [10] It is simple and cost-effective, but it can only operate on trees that are already present, mostly light-loving pioneer species. Such tree species are not usually those that comprise climax forests, but they can foster recolonization of the site by shade-tolerant climax forest tree species, via natural seed dispersal from remnant forest. Because this is a slow process, biodiversity recovery can usually be accelerated by planting some climax forest tree species, especially large-seeded, poorly dispersed species. It is not feasible to plant all the tree species that may have formerly grown in the original primary forest and it is usually unnecessary to do so, if the framework species method [11][12] can be used.natural regeneration [10]pioneer speciesframework species method [11][12] 10.Shono, K., E. A. Cadaweng and P. B. Durst, Application of Assisted Natural Regeneration to Restore Degraded Tropical Forestlands. Restoration Ecology, 15(4): 620– Elliott S, Navakitbumrung P, Kuarak C, Zankum S, Anusarnsunthorn V, Blakesley D, Selecting framework tree species for restoring seasonally dry tropical forests in northern Thailand based on field performance. For Ecol Manage 184: Goosem, S. and N. I. J. Tucker, Repairing the Rainforest. Wet Tropics Management Authority, Cairns, Australia. Pp 72. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

15 Reforestation Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands that have been depleted, usually through deforestation. [1] Reforestation can be used to improve the quality of human life by soaking up pollution and dust from the air, rebuild natural habitats and ecosystems, mitigate global warming since forests facilitate biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and harvest for resources, particularly timber. forestswoodlands deforestation [1]pollutionhabitatsecosystemsglobal warmingbiosequestration carbon dioxidetimber The term reforestation is similar to afforestation, the process of restoring and recreating areas of woodlands or forests that may have existed long ago but were deforested or otherwise removed at some point in the past. Sometimes the term re- afforestation is used to distinguish between the original forest cover and the later re-growth of forest to an area. Special tools, e.g. tree planting bar, are used to make planting of trees easier and faster.afforestationdeforestedtree planting bar Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

16 . Tree planting is the process of transplanting tree seedlings, generally for forestry, land reclamation, or landscaping purposes. It differs from the transplantation of larger trees in arboriculture, and from the lower cost but slower and less reliable distribution of tree seeds.transplantingseedlings generallyforestryland reclamationlandscapingtrees arboricultureseeds In silviculture the activity is known as reforestation, or afforestation, depending on whether the area being planted has or has not recently been forested. It involves planting seedlings over an area of land where the forest has been harvested or damaged by fire or disease or insects. Tree planting is carried out in many different parts of the world, and strategies may differ widely across nations and regions and among individual reforestation companies. Tree planting is grounded in forest science, and if performed properly can result in the successful regeneration of a deforested area. Reforestation is the commercial logging industry's answer to the large-scale destruction of old growth forests, but a planted forest rarely replicates the biodiversity and complexity of a natural forest. [citation needed]silviculturereforestationforest scienceloggingold growth forestsbiodiversitycitation needed Because trees remove carbon dioxide from the air as they grow, tree planting can be used as a geoengineering technique to remove CO 2 from the atmosphere.carbon dioxidegeoengineeringCO 2atmosphere Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

17 . Primary production is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide. It may occur through the process of photosynthesis, using light as a source of energy, or chemosynthesis, using the oxidation or reduction of chemical compounds as a source of energy. Almost all life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. In terrestrial ecoregions, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecoregions algae are primarily responsible. Primary production is distinguished as either net or gross, the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration, the latter not.organic compoundscarbon dioxidephotosynthesischemosynthesisautotrophsfood chainterrestrial ecoregionsplants aquatic ecoregionsalgaecellular respiration Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

18 .. Primary production is the production of chemical energy in organic compounds by living organisms. The main source of this energy is sunlight but a minute fraction of primary production is driven by lithotrophic organisms using the chemical energy of inorganic molecules.chemical energyorganismssunlightlithotrophic inorganic Regardless of its source, this energy is used to synthesize complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water (H 2 O). The following two equations are simplified representations of photosynthesis (top) and (one form of) chemosynthesis (bottom):organic moleculescarbon dioxidewaterchemosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O + light CH 2 O + O 2 CO 2 + O H 2 S CH 2 O + 4 S + 3 H 2 O In both cases, the end point is reduced carbohydrate (CH 2 O), typically molecules such as glucose or other sugars. These relatively simple molecules may be then used to further synthesise more complicated molecules, including proteins, complex carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, or be respired to perform work. Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms, such as animals, then transfers these organic molecules (and the energy stored within them) up the food web, fueling all of the Earth's living systems.reducedcarbohydrateglucosesugarsproteins complex carbohydrateslipidsnucleic acidsrespiredwork heterotrophicanimals food webEarth Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

19 .. GPP and NPP Gross primary production (GPP) is the rate at which an ecosystem's producers capture and store a given amount of chemical energy as biomass in a given length of time. Some fraction of this fixed energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration and maintenance of existing tissues (i.e., "growth respiration" and "maintenance respiration"). [1] The remaining fixed energy (i.e., mass of photosynthate) is referred to as net primary production (NPP).biomass cellular respirationmaintenance respiration [1] NPP = GPP - respiration [by plants] Net primary production is the rate at which all the plants in an ecosystem produce net useful chemical energy; it is equal to the difference between the rate at which the plants in an ecosystem produce useful chemical energy (GPP) and the rate at which they use some of that energy during respiration. Some net primary production goes toward growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some is consumed by herbivores. Both gross and net primary production are in units of mass / area / time. In terrestrial ecosystems, mass of carbon per unit area per year (g C/m 2 /yr) is most often used as the unit of measurement. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

20 .terrestrial production. On the land, almost all primary production is now performed by vascular plants, with a small fraction coming from algae and non-vascular plants such as mosses and liverworts. Before the evolution of vascular plants, non-vascular plants likely played a more significant role. Primary production on land is a function of many factors, but principally local hydrology and temperature (the latter covaries to an extent with light, the source of energy for photosynthesis). While plants cover much of the Earth's surface, they are strongly curtailed wherever temperatures are too extreme or where necessary plant resources (principally water and light) are limiting, such as deserts or polar regions.vascular plants non-vascular plantsmossesliverworts evolutionfunctionhydrologytemperaturedesertspolar regions Water is "consumed" in plants by the processes of photosynthesis (see above) and transpiration. The latter process (which is responsible for about 90% of water use) is driven by the evaporation of water from the leaves of plants. Transpiration allows plants to transport water and mineral nutrients from the soil to growth regions, and also cools the plant. Diffusion of water out of a leaf, the force that drives transpiration, is regulated by structures known as stomata. These also regulate the diffusion of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the leaf, such that decreasing water loss (by partially closing stomata) also decreases carbon dioxide gain. Certain plants use alternative forms of photosynthesis, called Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C4. These employ physiological and anatomical adaptations to increase water-use efficiency and allow increased primary production to take place under conditions that would normally limit carbon fixation by C3 plants (the majority of plant species).transpirationevaporationleavesmineralnutrients soilstomataCrassulacean acid metabolismC4physiological anatomicalC3 Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

21 keystone species. A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance. [1] Such species play a critical role in maintaining the structure of an ecological community, affecting many other organisms in an ecosystem and helping to determine the types and numbers of various other species in the community.speciesenvironment [1] ecological communityorganisms ecosystem The role that a keystone species plays in its ecosystem is analogous to the role of a keystone in an arch. While the keystone is under the least pressure of any of the stones in an arch, the arch still collapses without it. Similarly, an ecosystem may experience a dramatic shift if a keystone species is removed, even though that species was a small part of the ecosystem by measures of biomass or productivity. It has become a very popular concept in conservation biology.keystonearchbiomassproductivityconservation biology A classic keystone species is a small predator that prevents a particular herbivorous species from eliminating dominant plant species. Since the prey numbers are low, the keystone predator numbers can be even lower and still be effective. Yet without the predators, the herbivorous prey would explode in numbers, wipe out the dominant plants, and dramatically alter the character of the ecosystem. The exact scenario changes in each example, but the central idea remains that through a chain of interactions, a non-abundant species has an out-sized impact on ecosystem functions.predatorherbivorousplant Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

22 .. Payments for ecosystem services (PES),. Payments for ecosystem services (PES), also known as payments for environmental services (or benefits), is the practice of offering incentives to farmers or landowners in exchange for managing their land to provide some sort of ecological service. They have been defined as "a transparent system for the additional provision of environmental services through conditional payments to voluntary providers." [1] These programmes promote the conservation of natural resources in the marketplace. [1]natural resourcesmarketplace Ecosystem servicesEcosystem services have no standardized definition but might broadly be called “the benefits of nature to households, communities, and economies” [2] or, more simply, “the good things nature does." [3] Twenty-four specific ecosystem services were identified and assessed by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, a 2005 UN-sponsored report designed to assess the state of the world's ecosystems. The report defined the broad categories of ecosystem services as food production (in the form of crops, livestock, capture fisheries, aquaculture, and wild foods), fiber (in the form of timber, cotton, hemp, and silk), genetic resources (biochemicals, natural medicines, and pharmaceuticals), fresh water, air quality regulation, climate regulation, water regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination, natural hazard regulation, and cultural services (including spiritual, religious, and aesthetic values, recreation and ecotourism). [4] Notably, however, there is a “big three” among these 24 services which are currently receiving the most money and interest worldwide. These are climate change mitigation, watershed services and biodiversity conservation, and demand for these services in particular is predicted to continue to grow as time goes on. [5] One seminal 1997 Nature magazine article estimated the annual value of global ecological benefits at $33 trillion, a number nearly twice the then global gross product. [2] [3]Millennium Ecosystem Assessmentcropslivestockfisheriesaquaculturewildfibertimbercottonhempsilk geneticresourcesbiochemicalsnaturalmedicines pharmaceuticalswaterair qualityregulationclimate regulationwaterregulationerosionregulationwater purificationwaste treatmentdiseaseregulationpest regulationpollinationnatural hazardregulationculturalspiritualreligiousaestheticvalues recreationecotourism [4] [5] Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

23 Forest landscape restoration Forest landscape restoration or FLR is defined as “a planned process to regain ecological integrity and enhance human well- being in deforested or degraded landscapes”. [1] It comprises tools and procedures to integrate site-level forest restoration actions with desirable landscape-level objectives, which are decided upon via various participatory mechanisms among stakeholders. The concept has grown out of collaboration among some of the world's major international conservation organizations including the International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN), the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO). [1]forest restorationInternational Union for Conservation of NatureWorld Wide Fund for NatureInternational Tropical Timber Organization The concept of FLR was conceived to bring about compromises between meeting the needs of both humans and wildlife, by restoring a range of forest functions at the landscape level. It includes actions to strengthen the resilience and ecological integrity of landscapes and thereby keep future management options open. The participation of local communities is central to the concept, because they play a critical role in shaping the landscape and gain significant benefits from restored forest resources. Therefore, FLR activities are inclusive and participatory. 1.Reitbergen-McCraken, J., S. Maginnis A. Sarre, The Forest Landscape Restoration Handbook. Earthscan, London, 175 pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

24 .. Desirable outcomes of FLR The desirable outcomes of an FLR program usually comprise a combination of the following, depending on local needs and aspirations: identification of the root causes of forest degradation and prevention of further deforestation, positive engagement of people in the planning of forest restoration, resolution of land-use conflicts and agreement on benefit-sharing systems, compromises over land-use trade-offs that are acceptable to the majority of stakeholders, a repository of biological diversity of both local and global value, delivery of a range of utilitarian benefits to local communities including: a reliable supply of clean water, environmental protection particularly watershed services (e.g. reduced soil erosion, lower landslide risk, flood/drought mitigation etc.), a sustainable supply of a diverse range of forest products including foods, medicines, firewood etc., monetary income from various sources e.g. ecotourism, carbon trading via the REDD+ mechanism and from payments for other environmental services (PES) [1]ecotourismcarbon tradingREDD+ 1.Mansourian, S., D. Vallauri, and N., Dudley (eds.) (in co-operation with WWF International), Forest Restoration in Landscapes: Beyond Planting Trees. Springer, New York. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

25 FLR actions FLR combines several existing principles and techniques of development, conservation and natural resource management, such as landscape character assessment, participatory rural appraisal, adaptive management etc. within a clear and consistent evaluation and learning framework. An FLR program may comprise various forestry practices on different sites within the landscape, depending on local environmental and socioeconomic factors. These may include protection and management of secondary and degraded primary forests, standard forest restoration techniques such as "assisted" or "accelerated" natural regeneration (ANR) and the planting of framework tree species to restore degraded areas, as well as conventional tree plantations and agroforestry systems to meet more immediate monetary needs [1]participatory rural appraisaladaptive managementforest restorationnatural regeneration framework tree speciesagroforestry 1.Elliott, S., D. Blakesley and K. Hardwick, in press. Restoring Tropical Forests: a Practical Guide. Kew Publications, London Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

26 . Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

27 WHAT IS ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION? ?? Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

28 What is Ecological Restoration? The Society of Ecological Restoration (SER) defines ecological restoration in its mission statement as “the process of assisting the recovery and management of ecological integrity. Ecological integrity includes a critical range of variability in biodiversity, ecological processes and structures, regional and historical context, and sustainable cultural practices” (Society for Ecological Restoration 1996). Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

29 Need to identify ecological restoration goal, identify the restoration potential of a site, how to conduct the restoration, and how to evaluate the success of restoration. * REFERENCE CONDITIONS Ecological Restoration Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

30 The range of historical or natural variability in ecological structures and processes that reflect evolutionary history, disturbance regimes, and abiotic and biotic conditions (Covington et al. 1997). Reference Conditions Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

31 HOW DO YOU DETERMINE REFERENCE CONDITIONS?? ? Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

32 PONDEROSA PINE Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) trees grow in every state found west of the Great Plains In Colorado, ponderosa pine trees are commonly found on mesas to the montane from 5, ft In the San Juan Mountains, pure stands of ponderosa pine can be found on sandstone substrates from 6,500-8,000 ft Drawing by Robert Petty in “Graced by Pines” 1994 Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

33 WRITTEN RECORDS Lt. Edward Beale, 1857 (northern Arizona) “A vast forest of gigantic pines, intersected frequently with open glades, sprinkled all over with mountains, meadows, and wide savannas, and covered with the richest grasses, was traversed by our party for many days.” C. DuBois, 1903 (San Juan Mountains) “Throughout the [“bull” or ponderosa pine] type there is good cattle range, consisting of blue-stem grass beneath the trees and bunch grass in the parks. The underbrush is very heavy, chiefly oak brush, choke-cherry, scarlett thorn, and wild rose. Reproduction of bull pine is poor.” Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

34 OTHER CONTEMPORARY DATA *SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE *SOIL SEED BANK *BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC SOIL CHARACTERISTICS *DEAD/DOWN WOODY MATERIALS *TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

35 REFERENCE CONDITIONS SOUTHWESTERN PONDEROSA PINE Fire - Key disturbance that regulates ponderosa pine forests *Low intensity fires (2-20 year interval) *Large diameter trees interspersed with grassy meadows *Diverse, productive herbaceous understory Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

36

37

38

39 WHO USES THIS INFORMATION? Governmental Agencies-National Park Service, Forest Service, BLM State and Local Government- e.g., Montezuma County (Ponderosa Pines Project), Boulder Mountain Parks Conservation Organizations-The Nature Conservancy, Grand Canyon Forest Trust General Public-e.g., where to build a house (fire-prone environment, floodplain, etc.), where to recreate, forming opinions on public land management actions Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

40 GOALS FOR LECTURE 1.You will be able to define ecological restoration. 2.You will be able to define reference conditions and how reference conditions are determined. 3.You will be able to discuss reference conditions in the context of southwestern ponderosa pine forests. Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

41 Tree Canopy Data for the Gus Pearson Natural Area, Arizona for 1876 and 1990 Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

42 Four Main Components: 1) Cultural * Native Americans played an important role in the evolutionary history of many ecosystems through their interactions with the natural world. * Native Americans used fire as a tool for hunting, promoting/discouraging specific plant species which differs from lightning fires in seasonality, frequency, and intensity. Components of Ecological Restoration Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

43 Four Main Components: 2) Economical * How much will the restoration project cost to plan, implement, and monitor? * What are the economical benefits from restoration (immediate and long-term)? Components of Ecological Restoration Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

44 Four Main Components: 3) Social * Need to look at restoration as an outcome of complex interactions between nature and society and divergent social and political views within society. * Need to develop common ground among all participants when identifying and planning restoration projects. Components of Ecological Restoration Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

45 Four Main Components: 4) Ecological * Need to identify ecological restoration goal, identify the restoration potential of a site, how to conduct the restoration, and how to evaluate the success of restoration. * Need to identify a spatial and temporal context for ecological restoration. * REFERENCE CONDITIONS Components of Ecological Restoration Diunduh dari: faculty.fortlewis.edu/korb_j/.../ecological%20restoration% PP... ……….. 28/12/2012

46 . Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

47 Restoration Ecology Due to the severe impact humans have already inflicted on the landscape and the expensive cost of real estate, restoring a landscape may be more feasible than other options This is a relatively new field and many advances have been made However, we rarely restore something to its former glory and functionality Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

48 Restoration Ecology May be able to trace restoration back to Aldo Leopold in the 1930’s at the UW arboretum (120 ha forest) RE draws upon many disciplines and subdisciplines of the natural sciences including landscape ecology, hydrology, geomorphology, soil science, geochemistry, animal behavior, pop biology, theoretical biology, invasion ecology and evolutionary ecol Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

49 Restoration Ecology Specifically, RE is “the process of intentionally altering a site to establish a defined, indigenous, historic ecosystem” The goal is to emulate the structure, function, diversity and dynamics of the specific ecosystem Or…moving a degraded system back towards one of greater structural and functional diversity Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

50 Restoration Ecology It is an iterative process: – 1) examines preexisting, historic, and current reference conditions prior to designing the plan – 2) developing a restoration plan – 3) obtain permits, do the work – 4) implementing plan, although complex (e.g. hydrology, soil, plant & animal responses) – 5) monitoring the site Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

51 Restoration Ecology Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

52 Restoration Ecology RE may take many forms: restoration, enhancement, reclamation, re-creation, rehabilitation, augmentation, and translocation Rehabilitation is simply improving degraded habitat, maybe not restoring it Reclamation may be stabilization of the land and/or minimizing further degradation Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

53 Restoration Ecology Re-creation is an attempt to return to historic condition, accuracy… Replacement may recreate a site, which may not be historically accurate Enhancement or augmentation are attempting to add to the degraded condition, but not fully functional Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

54 Restoration Ecology The majority of restoration activities target the plant community…why? When might animals be involved? Full restoration at all levels has never been attempted, although it is the goal Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

55 Restoration Ecology & Conservation RE is a relatively young science and as such, has both advocates and critics Some argue it is important and a good compromise while others suggest it is wasteful and expensive There are some legal underpinning such as the Clean Water Act which requires restoration Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

56 Restoration Ecology & Conservation A potential benefit of RE is the opportunity to conduct ecological studies, especially in community ecology, invasive biology, succession biology A potential negative is that many systems are now viewed as ‘expendable’ or ‘replaceable’ on another site Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

57 Restoration Ecology & Conservation Steps in designing and implementing ecological restorations Goals and design should be reviewed and revised as data on site conditions are collected, community concerns addressed, and as the constructed restoration evolves Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

58 Restoration Ecology & Conservation Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

59 Restoration Ecology Site assessment is the first step, usually in the form of surveys and then exploring the literature (published papers, maps, reports) Legalities must be determined Assess environmental history of site If not available, contemporary comparisons maybe appropriate Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

60 Restoration Ecology RE is an inherently subjective process and determining ‘success’ may require the establishment of goals Goals will depend upon local constraints, objectives, and context of participants – Restored wetland…farmer vs. duck hunter Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

61 Restoration Ecology Restoration design requires multidisciplinary approach (genes to ecosystem, as well as natural sciences) Plans should dictate the physical transformation proposed for the site and the desired outcome (target species) Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

62 Restoration Ecology There are many ways to implement a design, depending on time, money, labor, practicality Getting as many people involved in the implementation will get locals to buy into the restoration effort Proper documentation and design can subsequently serve as an experiment Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

63 Restoration Ecology ER are long-term propositions and proper monitoring becomes less-likely For adaptive management, it is necessary Frequently disturbing site will release or open community to ‘weedy’ species Compliance vs. scientific Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

64 Restoration Ecology Restoration challenges are numerous as we are generally dealing with dynamic, complex, and unique systems Furthermore, the site may have many limitations (landscape context, size, heterogeneity, plus more…) Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

65 Restoration Ecology It may be difficult to properly address restoration because we lack knowledge B&M have relatively good databases, but most other groups lack good information Even when we know the organisms (e.g. clapper rail) we can screw up (CS 15.1); Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

66 Restoration Ecology When we identif y knowle dge gaps, we may be able to then fill them Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

67 Restoration Ecology For example, what if herbivory was limiting reestablishment of native sp in a grassland? What measures could we take? What about if N is limiting? Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

68 Restoration Ecology Restoration is frequently restricted to the plant community However, even if animals are the focus of the conservation effort, restoring habitat may be the best action (but see CS 15.4 & 15.5) Furthermore, a ‘functioning’ ecosystem should ‘trickle-up’ and eventually affect the entire community Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

69 Restoration Ecology Population genetics can play an important role in RE. How? Does this change with a relatively large disturbance and large distribution project? Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

70 Restoration Ecology Restoration effects that focus on a small scale may succeed in the short term, but fail in the longer because the larger ecological context required to allow these restoration efforts to be self-sustaining is either not present, too degraded, operating at too small a scale Some times, some things may not even be able to be addressed (e.g. hydrology) Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

71 Restoration Ecology Many local restoration projects cannot draw on larger or regional populations to recruit from and consequently, may not reflect historical conditions It may be necessary to restore them to a stable, but less diverse current state Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

72 Restoration Ecology While RE claims to be interdisciplinary, in reality it may focus on a single sp or single environmental factor Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

73 Restoration Ecology Most animal restoration attempt to bring individuals back to a site rather than foster or enhance a preexisting pop(n) Most animal reintroductions have been charismatic megafauna (e.g. wolf, CA condor, buffalo, beaver) The Reintroduction Specialist Group of the World Conservation Union’s (IUCN) created guidelines for reintroductions Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

74 Restoration Ecology Step 1: conduct a feasibility study (autecology, availability of stockers, fulfilling same functional role) Step 2: select sites w/in historic range, but habitat not vulnerable to same threats, and is protected Step 3: ID and evaluate stock (genetics) Step 4: evaluate social, political, and economic conditions for long-term survival Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

75 Restoration Ecology Step 5: involve all stakeholders and get proper financing; design as experiment to judge success Step 6: post-release monitoring should be done using an adaptive model Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

76 Restoration Ecology Some of the common problems associated with reintroductions include: high juvenile mortality, loss of rare alleles and genetic diversity, reproductive dysfunction, and other problems associated with inbreeding of small populations Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

77 Environmental Regulations and Restoration Restoration can be expensive (e.g. $3ft 2 or $130K/acre) and many potential pitfalls exist Regulation in the US – Inspired by the ‘dust bowl’, the Natural Resources Conservation Service develops and disseminates comprehensive info on management techniques for soil and water Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

78 Environmental Regulations and Restoration In 1969, NEPA was passed and proactively established environmental standards Nixon created the EPA to coordinate and oversee NEPA Wetland restoration is in large part a result of the Clean Water Act (’72) which dictated “no net loss of areas and/or function” Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

79 Environmental Regulations and Restoration Other significant laws: ESA (’73) – “to provide a means whereby the ecosystems upon which endangered ad threatened species depend may be conserved and to provide a program for the conservation of such endangered and threatened species” Unfortunately, the ESA allows the taking of plants, but not animals (unless endangered animal present)…but there are some state laws protecting end plants Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

80 Environmental Regulations and Restoration For those projects that are expected to impact endangered species, mitigation of impacted habitat may be required Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

81 Environmental Regulations and Restoration Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act (1977) attempt to protect the adverse impact of environmental surface mining (particularly coal) In theory, mines must commit to returning the land to pre-mine conditions Unfortunately, this does not apply to any pre-1977 site, as well as many other types of minerals (e.g. gold, silver, lead) Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

82 Environmental Regulations and Restoration There is a great deal of variation from one country to another regarding the regulations of mining The United Nations Conference on Human Environment (1972) attempted to stop the impact of mining In the Rio de Janeiro (’92) summit they specifically addressed reclamation of degraded habitats Diunduh dari: blue.utb.edu/elinder/CB_chap15.ppt ……….. 28/12/2012

83 . Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

84 Conceptual issues After manipulation of a natural system, have three choices: Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

85

86 Ecosystem Restoration Restoration – bring back to pre-disturbance condition Rehabilitation – partial replacement of original ecosystem Enhancement – alternative ecosystem Note: to understand above scenarios of recovery have to consider two biological factors of colonization and succession Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

87 Colonization and Succession - Both are ecosystem changes with time 1.Colonization – arrival of new species in an empty patch Colonization of “bare” areas based on MacArthur and Wilson theory of island biogeography  CONSIDER DENUDED PATCHES AS ISLANDS Ex. Clear-cuts, strip mine are islands in a “sea” of mixed deciduous forest Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

88 Time (t) Species (s) Seq G = ____ = colonization rate ∆S ∆t S = Seq (1-e -Gt ) 1.Number of species depends on colonization rate (G) 2.G starts out high, gets smaller and smaller 3.Colonization rate based on two relationships Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

89 inhospitable terrain “islands” (clear-cut, toxic waste site, strip mine) Species source (mainland, deciduous forest) ▲ Longer distance from source (mainland) = lower # of species Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

90 inhospitable terrain Larger patches = higher probability of being “hit” by propagules ▲ Increased size/area = increased # of species on islands Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

91

92 Seq Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

93 Factors Affecting Colonization Rates Proximity to source Kind of organism (vagility) Reproductive rate (r- vs K-selection) Air, water currents (rafting) Residual disturbance, toxics Competition Habitat diversity and quality Generalist/Specialist Immigration Extinction Note: once reach equilibrium  dynamics become interactive = succession Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

94 Time (t) Species (s) Seq Non-interactive Interactive = succession Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

95 Succession Orderly change in community composition over time Usually follows colonization  especially studied in plant communities Two models –r–relay floristics –i–initial floristics Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

96 Relay floristics Crop Weeds | Grassland | Shrubland | Forest Abandonment Years Species Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

97 Initial floristics Crop Weeds | Grassland | Shrubland | Forest Abandonment Years Species Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

98 Implications for Reserve Design better worse A B C D E F Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

99 Significance to restoration of altered ecosystems Relay floristics – ongoing process based on external input Initial floristics – happens all at once based on internal input ▲ Might have to manage system to help recovery - stock fish - soil stabilization with annual plants - etc. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

100 . Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

101 Fig Restoration Ecology- human involvement in recovering from a disturbance. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

102 Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp – 1124 Looked at the results of 89 different ecological restorations. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

103 Tbl 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp Types of Disturbances: Cessation of prescribed burning; Cultivation and cropping; Disturbance, excavation, or burial of Substrate; Eutrophication; Hydrological disruption; Invasion by non- native species; Logging of trees; Over- grazing; Removal of carnivores or herbivores; Soil contamination Restoration action: Cessation of degrading action only (passive restoration); Extirpation of damaging species (including non-natives); Nutrient removal; Planting of forbs or grasses; Planting of trees; Reinstatement of burning; Reintroduction of herbivores or carnivores; Remodeling of topography; Soil amendments Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

104 Restoring ecosystems can also be seen as directly benefiting people, “Restoration Marketplace ” Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

105 “Restoration Marketplace ” Might lead to sub- standard restoration Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

106 What limits the success of restoration? One problem... Invasive Species Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

107 What limits the success of restoration? One problem... Invasive Species...biotic thresholds resulting from species invasions are likely to be difficult to reverse and have long- term consequences for restoration projects. Species Invasions and the Limits to Restoration: Learning from the New Zealand Experience David A. Norton Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

108 CB 55.6 Invasive species can disrupt an ecosystem Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

109 The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) Its native in Australia and was introduced to Guam accidentally in the 1950’s Overall responsible for the extinction of 3 out of 4 seabirds; 9 out of 13 forest birds; 3-5 out 12 reptile species on the Island of Guam. This snake caused the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species on the main island of Guam. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

110 Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) Introduced to Lake Victoria in 1954 to increase fish yield Caused extinction of 200+ endemic fish species through predation, and competition Fish caused indirect increased erosion on land, causing higher nutrient levels in the lake. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

111 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Introduced as ornamental plant around the world Now in 50 countries on 5 continents including US In California it replaced the native pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) which occupies a similar habitat, leading to a marked decrease in invertebrate communities Limits water transport, reduces oxygen and light levels in the water Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

112 Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Spread from its native range in the Baltic Sea via ballast water Spreads in Europe and North America Kills native molluscs, changes ecosystems, and damages infrastructure Estimated annual damage in US $3 billion Napela T.F., Schloesser, D.W., 1992 Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

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114 How Many Invasive Species Are There in Texas?  67 terrestrial plants  12 aquatic/wetland plants  10 mammals  4 birds  7 fishes  11 insects  11 mollusks and crustaceans Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

115 Hydrilla verticillata Aquatic invader covering nearly 100,000 surface acres of water in Texas. Spreads rapidly, in one Texas lake it covered 23 acres in 1999 but over 200 in Depletes water of oxygen and blocks sunlight killing off many native plants and animal species. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

116 Ecological Restoration benefits on a large scale Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

117 Storm surge, damage, and deaths were less where coastal wetlands are intact Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

118 Future storm damage could be reduced by reestablishing coastal wetlands. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

119 Future storm damage could be reduced by reestablishing coastal wetlands, cost $5-$17 billion Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

120 Next: How many animals do you want/need to save? Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

121 . Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

122 Botkin & Keller Chapter 9: Succession and Restoration Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

123 Homework Assignment Create two flowcharts. One illustrating the steps of primary succession, one illustrating the steps of secondary succession. You may use either pictures or words. Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

124 Restoration Ecology New field of restoration ecology developed w/in the science of ecology. – Goal = return damaged ecosystems to some set of conditions considered functional, sustainable and “natural”. Restore to what?

125 Balance of Nature Predominant belief that left undisturbed an ecosystem would achieve a single condition that would persist indefinitely. Major tenets of this belief – 1. Nature undisturbed achieves a permanency of form and structure that persists indefinitely – 2. If it is disturbed and the disturbing force removed, nature returns to exactly the same permanent state. – 3. In this permanent state of nature, there is a “great chain of being” with a place for each creature.

126 Balance of Nature Twentieth century ecologist formalized the belief in the balance of nature – Climate state – steady-state stage that would persist indefinitely Maximum biological diversity Maximum storage of chemical element Maximum biological diversity

127 Balance of Nature Since the second half of the 20 th century ecologist have learned that nature is not constant. – All ecosystems undergo change – Species adapted to and need change Dealing with change poses questions of human value – Controlling and managing fire

128 Goals of Restoration Frequently accepted that restoration means restoring an ecosystem to its historical range of variation and to an ability to sustain itself and its crucial functions – Cycling of chemical elements – The flow of energy – Maintenance of biological diversity

129 Goals of Restoration Science tells us what nature has been and what it could be. Our values determine what we want nature to be. – There is no single perfect condition.

130

131 What Needs to be Restored? Ecosystems of all types have undergone degradation and need restoration. Once again discussions about restoration involves values.

132 Wetland, Rivers, and Streams Estimated that CA has lost 90% of its wetlands. – The US about 50% Kissimmee River in Florida – Channelized to provide ship passage – Now under going restoration at cost of several hundred million dollars

133

134 Prairie Restoration Prairie once occupied more land in US than any other kind of ecosystem. – Only a few remnants remain – Land converted to agriculture Two kinds of restoration – Intact prairie (never been plowed) – Previously plowed land more complicated to restore

135 Prairie Restoration Area along road ways not plowed – Narrow strips of native prairie remain – In Iowa 242,000 hectares of prairie along roadways – Reservoir for native plants – Used as send sources for other restoration projects

136 The Process of Ecological Succession Recovery of disturbed ecosystems can occur naturally, through a process of ecological succession. Primary succession – The initial establishment and development of an ecosystem where one did not exist previously Secondary succession – Reestablishment of an ecosystem following disturbance

137 Examples of primary succession after a lava flow and at the edge of a receding glacier.

138 Primary Succession

139 Secondary succession- from abandoned field to mature forest

140 Secondary Succession

141 Patterns of Succession When succession occurs it follows certain general patterns. – Three examples include dunes, bog and abandoned farm field

142 Dune Succession Sand dunes continually formed along sandy shores. – Then breached and destroyed by storms After dune forms – First to be established are grasses – Grass runners stabilize dunes – Other species seeds may germinate and become established

143 Dune Succession Plants of early succession tend to be – Small, grow well in bright light, and withstand harshness of environment Over time larger plants can become established – Eastern red cedar, eastern white pine – Beech and maple later

144 Bog Succession A bog is an open body of water with surface inlets but no surface outlets. Succession begins with – Sedge puts out floating runners – Wind blows particles into the mat of runners – Seeds that land on top don’t sink in the water and can germinate – Mat becomes thicker and shrubs and trees can grow

145

146 Bog Succession The bog also fills in from the bottom – The shoreward end floating mat and sediment will meet, forming a solid surface. – Farther from shore all the vegetation is still floating

147 Old-Field Succession A great deal of land cleared for farming in the 18 th and 19 th centuries – That land now allowed to go back to forest Succession – The first plants to enter the farm land are small plants adapted to harsh and variable conditions. – After they are established larger plants move in.

148 Old-Field Succession

149 General Patterns of Succession

150 Common element include the following – 1. An initial kind of vegetation specially adapted to the unstable conditions. Typically small Help stabilize physical environment – 2. A second stage with plants still of small statute, rapidly growing, with seeds that spread rapidly.

151 General Patterns of Succession – 3. A third stage in which larger plants, including trees, enter and begin to dominate the site. – 4. A forth stage in which mature forest develops.

152 General Patterns of Succession Successional stages – Early (1 and 2), middle, and late Similar patterns seen with animals and other life-forms at each stage. – Species characteristic of early stage are called pioneers – Late-successional species tend to be slower- growing and longer-lived

153 General Patterns of Succession In early stages of succession – Biomass and biological diversity increase In middle stages – Gross production increase and net production decrease – Organic material in soil increases, as does chemical element storage

154

155 Succession and Chemical Cycling Storage of chemical elements generally increases during progression from early to middle for two reasons. – 1.Organic matter stores chemical elements As one increases the other will increase Nitrogen fixation – 2. Presence of live and dead matter helps stop erosion.

156 Succession and Chemical Cycling As general rule, the greater the volume of soil and the greater the % of organic matter in the soil, the more chemical elements will be retained. – Varies with average size of soil particles

157 Succession and Chemical Cycling The chemical storage capacity of soils varies w/ average size of the soil particle. – Large coarse particles, like sand, have a smaller total surface area and can store a smaller quantity of chemical elements. – Smaller particles, like clay, store greater quantity of chemical elements. Soils store large quantities of c.e. but not as readily available as those in living organisms.

158 Succession and Chemical Cycling The increase in chemical element does not continue indefinitely. With no disturbance ecosystem will have a slow loss of stored chemical elements – Becoming depauperate

159

160 Species Change in Succession Earlier and later species in succession may interact in three ways – Facilitation – Interference – Life history differences If they don’t interact the result is chronic patchiness

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162 Facilitation In the dune and bog the facilitators are the dune grass and floating sedge, respectively. – They prepare the way for other species Knowing the role of facilitation helps w/ restoration – These plants can be planted first

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164 Interference Certain early species interfere w/ the entrance of other species. – Grasses may form dense mats blocking other seeds from germinating. – Breaks in the mat allow other to be established

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166 Life History Differences An example of life history differences is seed dispersal. – Early-successsional species are readily transported by wind or animals. Reach clearing sooner – Late-successional species seeds take longer to travel and seedlings can tolerate shade.

167 Applying Ecological Knowledge Undo mining damage in Great Britain – To remove toxic pollutants – Restore biological production – Restore attractiveness of landscape Agricultural approach failed – Grasses soon died and land was barren again Ecological approach has been successful – Planting early successional species

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169 . Diunduh dari: ……….. 28/12/2012

170 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle I: Clearly defined ecological goals and objectives must be the first priority of restoration efforts. Part of the confusion and conflict surrounding many approaches to forestry revolves around the ambiguity of objectives and priorities. "Sustainable Forestry" for example can variously refer to either restoration oriented forest management that emphasizes ecological objectives, or sustained production forestry which attempts to accommodate ecological concerns while maintaining economic benefits. We believe restoration must clearly place ecological goals and objectives as the first priority of restoration efforts. We recognize that economic opportunities may be created as by-products of these restoration activities, and that often such opportunities will be an important factor in determining the feasibility of particular strategies for restoration. However, ecological objectives must clearly drive and determine restoration strategies. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

171 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle II: Start small, increase scale in measured incremental steps. Restoration as a scientific discipline is relatively young. Restoration as a set of concepts and practices has a longer history but is often more of an aggregation of local knowledge, institutional culture and custom, and practitioner perceptions. Given these conditions, it would be unwise to assume we can accurately predict all consequences of restoration actions. Consequently, restoration initiatives should start at scales compatible with the knowledge and experience available in each area. Restoration efforts must have a solid scientific foundation and include extensive and ongoing monitoring and evaluation which informs any subsequent activity. Implementation should proceed in incremental steps e.g. small test plots preceding larger treatment blocks; treatment blocks preceding landscape scale implementation. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

172 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle III: Locate projects in areas with substantial agreement on restoration goals. Despite the substantial risks for large scale disturbances in many areas of our public lands, certain restoration treatments in these areas may also create impacts which could jeopardize the very values we hope to protect. Consequently, restoration experiments should begin in areas where there exists substantial agreement on the need for treatments. Examples might include urban-wildland interfaces with high wildfire risks; critical spawning habitat being damaged by sedimentation; or areas in which critical habitats are being lost due to exotic species invasions or increasing tree densities. Attempting to initiate relatively untested restoration strategies in controversial areas such as National Parks, Wilderness Areas, or roadless areas will only perpetuate conflict and substantially delay support for responsible restoration initiatives. Conversely, there are areas in which risks to human life and values have already targeted an area for treatment. Such areas make logical test sites since treatment would likely occur irrespective of restoration priorities. Much of the current resistance towards implementing restoration programs is based on the fear that such treatments will soon be widely applied across broad areas without adequate knowledge and experience of the potential negative impacts. Taken together, principles one, two, and three provide the basis for developing a program of experimentation and an associated map of suitable sites with which a bounded, incremental process of learning and experimentation can be initiated. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

173 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle IV: Effective restoration will require substantial reinvestment. Restoration should not be expected to pay for itself. Decades of extractive activities and other management practices such as fire exclusion have substantially depleted the ecological "capital" of many ecosystems. As a result, the ecological surplus, the "interest" produced by this ecological capital, has been substantially depleted. As a result, in many places we have been living off the principal of our lands, not simply its surplus or interest. Before the land is capable of providing a long-term flow of "interest" in the form of goods and services (whether it be forest products or recreation opportunities) we must rebuilt the ecological capital through substantial reinvestment in the land. These investments will create economic opportunities and goods and service byproducts. However, it is essential that these economic and social benefits are the by-products of restoration, not the primary objectives. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

174 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle V: Utilize an inclusive, open and comprehensive process for identifying and designing restoration projects. There are three important elements in developing an effective restoration strategy. First, all interested stakeholders should be given the chance for substantive involvement. Repeated experience throughout the country has demonstrated that land management and restoration is not simply a scientific or technical process, it is also fundamentally a social one. This implies that we need to be aware of the range of groups, including communities of place and interest, who feel they have a stake in the outcome of a restoration program, and clearly understand their issues. In some cases, we may also need to make special provisions to enable the involvement of such groups or individuals. At the same time, effective involvement requires a commitment by all parties to engage in constructive dialogue and participation. All parties should be held to the same standards of honesty, consistency, and respect. Second, new approaches to disseminating information will be needed which recognize the different levels of understanding and experience present in each major stakeholder group. Our larger success in reorienting human values and behavior towards a culture and practice of restoration will require the support, participation and long-term commitment of a broad- base of the public. For example, restoration will inherently involve making choices between different potential outcomes of restoration treatments. One approach to restoration might, for example, favor a certain species or forest type over another. If the public is not well informed about these choices, it is subject to easy capture by those with a narrow self interest and the ability to promote this self-interest. In a similar vein, if the public is not committed to the purposes of restoration, it will be unwilling to make the personal tradeoffs and sacrifices that effective restoration efforts will inevitably necessitate. Accessible, unbiased, and understandable information is an essential foundation for public evaluation and commitment to restoration objectives. Third, the scope of restoration must include the full range of activities necessary to truly restore ecological functions, not simply those that are most popular or profitable. To this end, the development of a forest ecosystem restoration strategy needs to consider impacts on a range of ecological characteristics and processes such as stand modification, hydrological function, riparian system improvements, natural disturbances (fire, insects disease etc.), and soil conditions. Focusing exclusively on one component of a restoration process such as stand modification through tree harvest will inevitably compromise the credibility of the larger effort. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

175 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VI: Build a thorough and well-balanced research program to evaluate effectiveness. We need to acknowledge at the outset of our restoration efforts that there are substantial areas of uncertainty which surround restoration theory and practice. This uncertainty not only affects the effectiveness of practices, it has a dramatic impact on public understanding and acceptance in a restoration program. At the same time, it is essential that restoration practices have a rigorous scientific foundation which distinguishes between values, perceptions and replicable phenomena. Thus, an essential first step in a responsible restoration process, particularly those with potential impacts on larger landscapes, is the development of a comprehensive research agenda associated with the project. This research agenda should carefully document the questions which give rise to uncertainty. This includes not only the academic community, but also local communities, interest groups and other stakeholders. This set of questions then forms the basis of a research program which can begin to inform both the theory and ongoing practices of restoration. It also provides the framework for an ongoing dialogue and education of the broad set of constituencies who are concerned about the effectiveness of restoration practices. Research should include the range of knowledge available from scientific, practitioner, and indigenous sources. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

176 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VII: Create an all-party monitoring process to assure credible implementation. One of the core components of an effective research program is the formulation of a comprehensive monitoring program. We must have ways to evaluate the impacts and responses to restoration treatments. This feedback must then be incorporated as modifications in subsequent restoration activities enabling an adaptive, responsive management approach. Monitoring is also an essential tool in building trust and support for responsible restoration practices. To do so, however, the monitoring program must include a broad set of stakeholders in refining the questions to be answered; developing acceptable protocol for monitoring; collecting monitoring data; and collectively interpreting results. Recognizing that monitoring is frequently not adequately funded, provisions must be built into restoration programs at the outset to insure adequate resources for comprehensive, inclusive monitoring. The final step in the monitoring process is the development of an effective educational program that can bring the results of both research and monitoring to the broader public in forms that are both comprehensible and useful. In this way we may finally begin to provide society with timely feedback on the consequences, not only of restoration activities, but also the larger sphere of human actions and behavior which are effecting the ecological integrity of living systems. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

177 A DECLARATION OF CIVIC PRINCIPLES FOR RESPONSIBLE FOREST RESTORATION June 1999 Principle VIII: Strive to distribute the costs and benefits of restoration equitably. We must recognize from the outset that restoration is not value neutral. Designing and implementing restoration programs will involve assigning priorities that affect how costs and benefits are distributed, both among humans and in the larger living systems. Designing restoration treatments for one species may lead to declines in another. Providing protection for one area or value may increase the risks to another. A core principle of responsible restoration is the sincere effort to distribute these costs and benefits as equitably and justly as possible. In order to do so, we must explicitly discuss the range of trade-offs that are created as we favor certain values or features over others. This also implies that we attempt to insure that all parties affected by these choices, both human and non- human, are adequately represented in this process. In doing so, restoration provides the opportunity to demonstrate the interconnectedness of human and non-human communities. In this regard, local communities have a special role and responsibility, both in limiting negative impacts of human presence, and as a substantial part of the workforce involved in restoration activities. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

178 .. Ecological Restoration Principles for Fuel Reduction W.W. Covington, Northern Arizona University Ecological Restoration Institute Ten years ago, Carl Walters and Crawford S. Holling (ref to 1990 Ecology paper) memorably recommended "large-scale management experiments and learning by doing". We have been pursuing this approach in what has been called "the Flagstaff Plan". In collaboration with partners in the environmental community, conservation practitioners and interested parties from government and a range of organizations, my colleagues and I at the Ecological Restoration Institute at Northern Arizona University have developed a community-based general framework for the development of ecologically based restoration treatments. Scientific framework. Ecological restoration is the restoration of natural ecosystem structures and processes. Ecological restoration treatments are based on reference conditions (the evolutionary environment context), a framework that considers evolutionary biology, conservation biology and ecosystem ecology principles. Social and political framework. In an ecosystem ecology approach, social and political concerns play a major part in defining treatments. Therefore, it is imperative to engage stakeholders, especially community-based partnerships linked to regional and national agencies and interest groups, with policy- makers, natural resource specialists, and resource managers. Operational framework. Financial and personnel constraints place geographical limits on treatments. Therefore, emphasis is placed on strategically located restoration fuel breaks that are anchor points for large, landscape-scale treatments. These fuel breaks can be established to protect key landscape ecosystem components such as human communities, critical habitat for threatened or endangered species, and core areas of greater ecosystems such as wilderness areas and national parks. Ecosystem Management Framework. Restoration and fuel reduction goals should be integrated with overall ecosystem conservation and management goals; reference conditions serve as a starting point to the goal of scientifically based land management objectives. Economic framework. Economic analyses should consider all costs and savings. Restoration-based fuel treatments save money by avoiding fire fighting and rehabilitation costs, and compensation for property damage. They also represent an investment in protecting firefighter and civilian lives. They present new opportunities for rural economic development through restoration-related jobs and products. Ecological economic analysis suggests that benefits greatly outweigh costs. Ethical framework. We have a responsibility to future generations to solve ecosystem health problems. Ecological restoration speaks to land ethic--the human need and responsibility to be good stewards and demonstrate a caring concern for nature. Diunduh dari: 28/12/2012

179 SEMINAR HASIL PENELITIAN TESIS & DISERTASI PPSUB-2013 PERIODE PELAKSANAAN SEMINAR: 1.Periode I : Maret Periode II: September 2013 PERIODE PENYERAHAN MAKALAH SEMINAR: 1.Periode I : Februari Periode II: Agustus 2013 Ketentuan Makalah Seminar: 1.Format makalah: 1.1. Format Artikel jurnal nasional (bahasa Indonesia) atau 1.2. Format artikel jurnal Internasional (bahasa Inggris) 2.Makalah seminar dikirim kepada Direktur PPSUB oleh Promotor / Dosen Pembimbing (Ketua) 3.Makalah akan dinilai oleh tim reviewer PPSUB dengan menggunakan Borang penilaian artikel jurnal dari PPIKID UB 4.Makalah yang nilainya lebih dari 60 dapat diajukan dalam forum seminar; sedangkan makalah yang nilainya kurang dari 60 harus diperbaiki lebih dahulu dan diajukan dalam periode seminar berikutnya. 5.Setiap mahasiswa dapat mengajukan lebih dari satu makalah hasil penelitian tesis / disertasi. Peserta Seminar: Semua Mahasiswa PMKW, PMWasantannas, PSL dan PDKLP PPSUB, serta dosen-dosen pembimbing Penilaian seminar: 1. Semua peserta seminar dapat melakukan penilaian seminar dengan menggunakan format yang disediakan 2.Dalam setiap sesi penyajian makalah, maksimum 5 orang peserta seminar yang mengajukan pembahasannya.


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