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Chapter 22A Respiratory System: Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 22A Respiratory System: Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 22A Respiratory System: Slides by Barbara Heard and W. Rose. figures from Marieb & Hoehn 9 th ed. Portions copyright Pearson Education

2 Respiratory System Functions Respiration Supply O2, dispose of CO2 Four processes (next slide) Involves circulatory system Olfaction Speech

3 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary ventilation (breathing): moving air into and out of lungs External respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between lungs and blood Transport: O 2 and CO 2 in blood Internal respiration: O 2 and CO 2 exchange between systemic blood vessels and tissues Respiratory system Circulatory system Processes of Respiration

4 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory System: Functional Anatomy Major organs –Nose, nasal cavity, and paranasal sinuses –Pharynx –Larynx –Trachea –Bronchi and their branches –Lungs and alveoli

5 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal cavity Nostril Larynx Trachea Carina of trachea Right main (primary) bronchus Right lung Oral cavity Pharynx Left main (primary) bronchus Left lung Diaphragm Figure 22.1 Major respiratory organs and surrounding structures

6 Respiratory zone-site of gas exchange –Microscopic structures-respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli Conducting zone-conduits to gas exchange sites –Includes all other respiratory structures; cleanses, warms, humidifies air Diaphragm and other respiratory muscles promote ventilation © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Rotating face Functional Anatomy PLAY

7 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nose –Provides an airway for respiration –Moistens and warms entering air –Filters and cleans inspired air –Serves as resonating chamber for speech –Houses olfactory receptors

8 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.2b The external nose. Frontal bone Nasal bone Septal cartilage Maxillary bone (frontal process) Nasal cartilages Dense fibrous connective tissue Nares (nostrils) External skeletal framework

9 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal cavity Divided by midline nasal septum Opens into nasopharynx posteriorly Roof: ethmoid and sphenoid bones Lateral walls: ethmoid, inferior conchae, palatine bones Floor: hard palate (maxilla & palatine bones), soft palate (muscle) Lined with mucous membranes –Olfactory mucosa –Respiratory mucosa: ciliated; cilia sweep mucus toward pharynx

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal cavity: left lateral wall Nasal septum removed. Maxillary bone Palatine bone Sphenoid sinus Frontal sinus Superior nasal concha Middle nasal concha Ethmoid bone Inferior nasal concha Nasal bone Superior, middle, and inferior meatus

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Vomer Frontal sinus Nasal bone Septal cartilage Perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Palatine bone Maxilla Nasal cavity: midline structures Septum in place. Note ethmoid bone, vomer, septal cartilage. Hard palate

12 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.3b The upper respiratory tract. Pharyngeal tonsil Oropharynx Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Posterior nasal aperture Nasopharynx Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Uvula Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Laryngopharynx Esophagus Trachea Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior) Nasal meatuses (superior, middle, and inferior) Nasal vestibule Nostril Hard palate Soft palate Tongue Lingual tonsil Hyoid bone Larynx Epiglottis Vestibular fold Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold Cricoid cartilage Thyroid gland Illustration

13 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.3a The upper respiratory tract. Olfactory epithelium Mucosa of pharynx Tubal tonsil Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tube Nasopharynx Olfactory nerves Superior nasal concha and superior nasal meatus Middle nasal concha and middle nasal meatus Inferior nasal concha and inferior nasal meatus Hard palate Soft palate Uvula Photograph

14 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasal Cavity Nasal conchae-superior, middle, and inferior –Protrude medially from lateral walls –Increase mucosal area –Enhance air turbulence Nasal meatus –Groove inferior to each concha

15 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Functions of the Nasal Mucosa and Conchae During inhalation: filter, heat, moisten air During exhalation: reclaim heat, moisture

16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Paranasal Sinuses In frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary bones Lighten skull; secrete mucus; help to warm and moisten air

17 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Rhinitis –Inflammation of nasal mucosa –Nasal mucosa continuous with mucosa of respiratory tract  spreads from nose  throat  chest –Spreads to tear ducts and paranasal sinuses causing Blocked sinus passageways  air absorbed  vacuum  sinus headache

18 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Upper respiratory tract Nasopharynx Oropharynx Laryngopharynx Regions of the pharynx Pharynx

19 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Nasopharynx Air passageway posterior to nasal cavity Lining - pseudostratified columnar epithelium Soft palate and uvula close nasopharynx during swallowing Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids) on posterior wall Pharyngotympanic (auditory) tubes drain and equalize pressure in middle ear; open into lateral walls

20 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Oropharynx Passageway for food and air from level of soft palate to epiglottis Lining of stratified squamous epithelium Palatine tonsils-in lateral walls of fauces Lingual tonsil-on posterior surface of tongue

21 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Laryngopharynx Passageway for food and air Posterior to upright epiglottis Extends to larynx, where continuous with esophagus Lined with stratified squamous epithelium

22 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.3b The upper respiratory tract. Pharyngeal tonsil Oropharynx Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone Sphenoid sinus Posterior nasal aperture Nasopharynx Opening of pharyngotympanic tube Uvula Palatine tonsil Isthmus of the fauces Laryngopharynx Esophagus Trachea Frontal sinus Nasal cavity Nasal conchae (superior, middle and inferior) Nasal meatuses (superior, middle, and inferior) Nasal vestibule Nostril Hard palate Soft palate Tongue Lingual tonsil Hyoid bone Larynx Epiglottis Vestibular fold Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold Cricoid cartilage Thyroid gland Illustration

23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Larynx Structures through which air passes, between laryngopharynx and trachea Provides patent airway Routes air and food into proper channels Voice production

24 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Larynx Thyroid cartilage (laryngeal prominence = Adam's apple) Cricoid cartilage ring-shaped Other cartilages Epiglottis (elastic cartilage); covers laryngeal inlet during swallowing to prevent food/water from entering larynx

25 Hyoid bone Thyroid cartilage Laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple) Epiglottis Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilages Anterior superficial view Larynx

26 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Larynx Epiglottis Cricoid cartilage Tracheal cartilages Hyoid bone Vestibular fold (false vocal cord) Thyroid cartilage Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Sagittal view; anterior surface to the right

27 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Larynx Vocal ligaments –Contain elastic fibers –Form core of vocal folds (true vocal cords) Glottis-opening between vocal folds Folds vibrate to produce sound as air rushes up from lungs Vestibular folds (false vocal cords) –Superior to vocal folds –No part in sound production –Help to close glottis during swallowing

28 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Vocal fold movements. Vestibular fold (false vocal cord) Base of tongue Epiglottis Vocal fold (true vocal cord) Glottis Lumen of trachea Vocal folds in closed position; closed glottis Vocal folds in open position; open glottis

29 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Voice Production Intermittent release of expired air while opening and closing glottis Pitch determined by length and tension of vocal cords Loudness depends upon force of air Chambers of pharynx, oral, nasal, and sinus cavities amplify and enhance sound quality Sound is "shaped" into language by muscles of pharynx, tongue, soft palate, lips

30 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Larynx Vocal folds can act as sphincter to prevent air passage Example: Valsalva's maneuver –Glottis closes to prevent exhalation –Abdominal muscles contract –Intra-abdominal pressure rises –Helps to stabilizes trunk during heavy lifting; helps to empty bladder or bowel

31 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Trachea Air passageway from larynx into mediastinum; “windpipe” Wall composed of three layers –Mucosa-ciliated pseudostratified epithelium with goblet cells –Submucosa –Adventitia-outermost layer made of connective tissue; encases C-shaped rings of hyaline cartilage Carina –where trachea branches into two main bronchi

32 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Esophagus Trachealis muscle Lumen of trachea Posterior Mucosa Submucosa Hyaline cartilage Adventitia Seromucous gland in submucosa Anterior Cross section of trachea and esophagus Trachea

33 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bronchi and Subdivisions Bronchial (respiratory) tree: Air passages undergo ~23 orders of branching Conducting zone Respiratory zone

34 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Conducting Zone Structures Trachea Right and left main bronchi –Each main bronchus enters hilum of one lung –Right main bronchus wider, shorter, more vertical than left Lobar bronchi –One to each lobe of each lung: 3 right, 2 left Segmental bronchi Smaller and smaller branches –Bronchioles < 1 mm in diameter –Terminal bronchioles < 0.5 mm diameter

35 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.7 Conducting zone passages. Superior lobe of right lung Middle lobe of right lung Inferior lobe of right lung Trachea Superior lobe of left lung Left main (primary) bronchus Lobar (secondary) bronchus Segmental (tertiary) bronchus Inferior lobe of left lung

36 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Conducting Zone Structures From bronchi through bronchioles, structural changes occur –Cartilage rings gradually disappear –Elastic fibers replace cartilage in bronchioles –Epithelium changes from pseudostratified columnar to cuboidal –Cilia, goblet cells become sparse –Relative amount of smooth muscle increases Allows constriction

37 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Zone Where gas exchange takes place Begins at ends of terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveolar ducts Alveolar sacs –Alveolar sacs contain clusters of alveoli –~300 million alveoli make up most of lung volume –Sites of gas exchange

38 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.8a Respiratory zone structures. Alveolar duct Respiratory bronchioles Terminal bronchiole Alveoli Alveolar duct Alveolar sac

39 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.8b Respiratory zone structures. Respiratory bronchiole Alveolar duct Alveoli Alveolar sac Alveolar pores

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Respiratory Membrane Alveolar and capillary walls and their fused basement membranes –~0.5-µm-thick; gas exchange across membrane by simple diffusion Alveolar walls –Single layer of squamous epithelium (type I alveolar cells) Scattered cuboidal type II alveolar cells secrete surfactant and antimicrobial proteins

41 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Terminal bronchiole Respiratory bronchiole Smooth muscle Elastic fibers Alveolus Capillaries Diagrammatic view of capillary-alveoli relationships Figure 22.9a Alveoli and the respiratory membrane.

42 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveoli Surrounded by fine elastic fibers and pulmonary capillaries Alveolar pores connect adjacent alveoli Equalize air pressure throughout lung Alveolar macrophages keep alveolar surfaces “clean” –2 million dead macrophages/hour carried by cilia  throat  swallowed

43 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.9c Alveoli and the respiratory membrane. Red blood cell in capillary Alveoli (gas-filled air spaces) Type II alveolar cell Type I alveolar cell Capillary Macrophage Endothelial cell nucleus Respiratory membrane Alveolar epithelium Fused basement membranes of alveolar epithelium and capillary endothelium Capillary endothelium Capillary Alveolus Nucleus of type I alveolar cell Alveolar pores Red blood cell Alveolus Detailed anatomy of the respiratory membrane

44 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lungs Composed primarily of alveoli Elastic connective tissue Apex (superior), base (rests on diaphragm) Root (hilum): site of entry/exit of blood vessels, bronchi, lymphatics, nerves Left lung smaller than right –Cardiac notch-concavity for heart –Superior, inferior lobes Right lung –Superior, middle, inferior lobes

45 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.10c Anatomical relationships of organs in the thoracic cavity. Transverse section through the thorax, viewed from above. Lungs, pleural membranes, and major organs in the mediastinum are shown. Posterior Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Pericardial membranes Sternum Vertebra Esophagus (in mediastinum) Root of lung at hilum Left main bronchus Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary vein Thoracic wall Heart (in mediastinum) Anterior mediastinum Anterior Left lung Pulmonary trunk Right lung

46 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Trachea Thymus Apex of lung Right inferior lobe Horizontal fissure Right superior lobe Oblique fissure Right middle lobe Heart (in mediastinum) Diaphragm Base of lung Intercostal muscle Rib Parietal pleura Pleural cavity Visceral pleura Left superior lobe Oblique fissure Left inferior lobe Cardiac notch Anterior view. The lungs flank mediastinal structures laterally. Lung Figure 22.10a. Organs in the thoracic cavity.

47 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 22.10b Anatomical relationships of organs in the thoracic cavity. Apex of lung Pulmonary artery Left main bronchus Pulmonary vein Cardiac impression Oblique fissure Lobules Photograph of medial view of the left lung. Left superior lobe Oblique fissure Left inferior lobe Hilum of lung Aortic impression

48 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure A cast of the bronchial tree. Right lungLeft lung Left superior lobe (4 segments) Left inferior lobe (5 segments) Right inferior lobe (5 segments) Right middle lobe (2 segments) Right superior lobe (3 segments)

49 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary circulation Low pressure, low resistance Pulmonary arteries deliver systemic venous blood to lungs for oxygenation Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from respiratory zones to heart Pulmonary capillary endothelium contains angiotensin-converting enzyme –Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. (Renin converts angiotensinogen to Ang I.)

50 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Bronchial circulation Oxygenated blood for lung tissue Only circulatory pathway that goes from systemic arteries to pulmonary veins

51 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pleurae Thin, double-layered serosa Parietal pleura on thoracic wall, superior face of diaphragm, around heart, between lungs Visceral pleura on external lung surface Pleural fluid fills thin pleural cavity –Provides lubrication and surface tension  assists in expansion and recoil

52 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Transverse section through the thorax, viewed from above. Lungs, pleural membranes, and major organs in the mediastinum are shown. Posterior Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Pericardial membranes Sternum Vertebra Esophagus (in mediastinum) Root of lung at hilum Left main bronchus Left pulmonary artery Left pulmonary vein Thoracic wall Heart (in mediastinum) Anterior mediastinum Anterior Left lung Pulmonary trunk Right lung Figure 22.10c Organs in the thoracic cavity

53 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Mechanics of Breathing Pulmonary ventilation consists of two phases –Inspiration-gases flow into lungs –Expiration-gases exit lungs

54 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pressure Relationships in the Thoracic Cavity Atmospheric pressure (P atm ) –Pressure exerted by air surrounding body –760 mm Hg at sea level = 1 atmosphere Respiratory pressures described relative to P atm –Negative respiratory pressure-less than P atm –Positive respiratory pressure-greater than P atm –Zero respiratory pressure = P atm

55 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapulmonary Pressure Intrapulmonary (intra-alveolar) pressure (P pul ) –Pressure in alveoli –Fluctuates with breathing –Always eventually equalizes with P atm

56 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapleural Pressure Intrapleural pressure (P ip ) –Pressure in pleural cavity –Fluctuates with breathing –Always a negative pressure (


57 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Intrapleural Pressure Negative P ip caused by opposing forces –Two inward forces promote lung collapse Elastic recoil of lungs decreases lung size Surface tension of alveolar fluid reduces alveolar size –One outward force tends to enlarge lungs Elasticity of chest wall pulls thorax outward

58 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pressure Relationships If P ip = P pul or P atm  lungs collapse (P pul – P ip ) = transpulmonary pressure –Keeps airways open –Greater transpulmonary pressure  larger lungs

59 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressure relationships. Atmospheric pressure (P atm ) 0 mm Hg (760 mm Hg) Thoracic wall Parietal pleura Visceral pleura Pleural cavity Transpulmonary pressure 4 mm Hg (the difference between 0 mm Hg and −4 mm Hg) Intrapleural pressure (P ip ) −4 mm Hg (756 mm Hg) Intrapulmonary pressure (P pul ) 0 mm Hg (760 mm Hg) Diaphragm Lung 0 – 4

60 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance Atelectasis (lung collapse) due to –Plugged bronchioles  collapse of alveoli –Pneumothorax-air in pleural cavity From either wound in parietal or rupture of visceral pleura Treated by removing air with chest tubes; pleurae heal  lung reinflates

61 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Pulmonary Ventilation Inspiration and expiration Mechanical processes that depend on volume changes in thoracic cavity –Volume changes  pressure changes –Pressure changes  gases flow to equalize pressure

62 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Boyle's Law Relationship between pressure and volume of a gas –Gases fill container; if container size reduced  increased pressure Pressure (P) varies inversely with volume (V): – P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

63 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Inspiration Active process –Inspiratory muscles (diaphragm and external intercostals) contract –Thoracic volume increases  intrapulmonary pressure drops (to  1 mm Hg) –Lungs stretched and intrapulmonary volume increases –Air flows into lungs, down its pressure gradient, until P pul = P atm

64 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Forced Inspiration Vigorous exercise, COPD  accessory muscles (scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis minor)  further increase in thoracic cage size

65 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Changes in thoracic volume and sequence of events during inspiration and expiration. (1 of 2) Slide 1 Inspiratory muscles contract (diaphragm descends; rib cage rises). Thoracic cavity volume increases. Lungs are stretched; intrapulmonary volume increases. Intrapulmonary pressure drops (to –1 mm Hg). Air (gases) flows into lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0 (equal to atmospheric pressure). Inspiration Sequence of events Changes in anterior-posterior and superior-inferior dimensions Changes in lateral dimensions (superior view) Diaphragm moves inferiorly during contraction. Ribs are elevated and sternum flares as external intercostals contract. External intercostals contract.

66 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Expiration Quiet expiration normally passive process –Inspiratory muscles relax –Thoracic cavity volume decreases –Elastic lungs recoil and intrapulmonary volume decreases  pressure increases (P pul rises to +1 mm Hg)  –Air flows out of lungs down its pressure gradient until P pul = 0 Note: forced expiration-active process; uses abdominal (oblique and transverse) and internal intercostal muscles

67 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Changes in thoracic volume and sequence of events during inspiration and expiration. (2 of 2) Slide 1 1 Expiration Sequence of events Changes in anterior-posterior and superior-inferior dimensions Changes in lateral dimensions (superior view) Diaphragm moves superiorly as it relaxes. Ribs and sternum are depressed as external intercostals relax. External intercostals relax. Inspiratory muscles relax (diaphragm rises; rib cage descends due to recoil of costal cartilages). Thoracic cavity volume decreases. Elastic lungs recoil passively; intrapulmonary Volume decreases. Intrapulmonary pressure rises (to +1 mm Hg). Air (gases) flows out of lungs down its pressure gradient until intrapulmonary pressure is 0.

68 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Changes in intrapulmonary and intrapleural pressures during inspiration and expiration. Intrapulmonary pressure. Pressure inside lung decreases as lung volume increases during inspiration; pressure increases during expiration. Intrapleural pressure. Pleural cavity pressure becomes more negative as chest wall expands during inspiration. Returns to initial value as chest wall recoils. Volume of breath. During each breath, the pressure gradients move 0.5 liter of air into and out of the lungs. Pressure relative to atmospheric pressure (mm Hg) Volume (L) InspirationExpiration Intrapulmonary pressure Trans- pulmonary pressure Intrapleural pressure Volume of breath 5 seconds elapsed +2 0 –2 –4 –6 –

69 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Physical Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation Three physical factors influence the ease of air passage and the amount of energy required for ventilation. –Airway resistance –Alveolar surface tension –Lung compliance

70 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Airway Resistance Friction-major nonelastic source of resistance to gas flow; occurs in airways Relationship between flow (F), pressure (P), and resistance (R) is: –∆P - pressure gradient between atmosphere and alveoli (2 mm Hg or less during normal quiet breathing) –Gas flow changes inversely with resistance

71 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Airway Resistance Resistance usually insignificant –Large airway diameters in first part of conducting zone –Progressive branching of airways as get smaller, increasing total cross-sectional area –Resistance greatest in medium-sized bronchi Resistance disappears at terminal bronchioles where diffusion drives gas movement

72 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Conducting zone Respiratory zone Medium-sized bronchi Resistance Terminal bronchioles Airway generation (stage of branching) Figure Resistance in respiratory passageways.

73 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Homeostatic Imbalance As airway resistance rises, breathing movements become more strenuous Severe constriction or obstruction of bronchioles –Can prevent life-sustaining ventilation –Can occur during acute asthma attacks; stops ventilation Epinephrine dilates bronchioles, reduces air resistance

74 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveolar Surface Tension Surface tension –Attraction of liquid molecules for one another at gas-liquid interface –Resists any force that tends to increase surface area of liquid –Water has high surface tension –Water layer on alveolar walls generates a “shrinking” (closing) force

75 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Alveolar Surface Tension Surfactant –Anything that reduces surface tension –Type II alveolar cells make surfactant (lipd/protein mix) –Reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid and discourages alveolar collapse –Insufficient quantity in premature infants causes infant respiratory distress syndrome

76 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Compliance Compliance = ΔV / ΔP ΔV = change in lung volume ΔP = change in transpulmonary pressure

77 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Compliance High lung compliance  easy to expand lungs Normally high, due to –Lung tissue that is easy to distend (stretch) –Surfactant, which decreases alveolar surface tension Diminished by –Scar tissue (which is inelastic) replacing lung tissue (fibrosis) –Reduced production of surfactant –Decreased flexibility of thoracic cage

78 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Lung Compliance Lung compliance is also influenced by compliance of the thoracic wall, which is decreased by: –Deformities of thorax –Ossification of costal cartilage –Paralysis of intercostal muscles


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