4 The Five Civilized Tribes By the 1820’s most Native Americans east of the Mississippi River had given up their land and moved westThose that were left were in old northwest and south
5 The Five Civilized Tribes The Choctaw, Cherokee, Chickasaw, and Creek nations lived in parts of Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, and TennesseeThe Seminoles of Florida were a combination of Creek, Florida Native Americans, and African Americans who had escaped slaveryTogether these tribes were known as the “Five Civilized Tribes” because they had adopted much of the “white” culture
6 The Five Civilized Tribes The Cherokees has become more “white” than any other tribeThey farmed, wore “white” clothing, owned plantations with slaves, practiced Christianity, had an alphabet (Sequoyah), and a government modeled after the U.S.They claimed status as a separate nation and started their own newspaper The Phoenix
9 A Fight for LandIn 1829, gold was found in northern Georgia and whites flooded onto the landAdditional pressure came from cotton farmers who wanted to use N.A. lands for farmsIn 1825 and 1827 Georgia passed laws forcing Creeks to give up most of their landIn 1828 Georgia tried to force Cherokees of their land and refused to recognize them as a separate nation
10 A Fight for Land1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act which allowed Jackson to give N.A. lands in the west in return for their lands in the east; many northern tribes resettled peacefullyGeorgia’s actions against the Cherokees were challenged in the Supreme Court case Worchester v. Georgia (1832)
11 Worchester v. GeorgiaJohn Marshall ruled that the Cherokees had rights to the land because they had been guaranteed the land through treatiesUnder the Constitution, treaties the supreme law of the landJackson said “John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it.”
12 Jackson’s ReasoningRead the quotes from Jackson on the following slides and list the reasons he gives for wanting to move the tribesThen determine whether your group thinks he is a friend or enemy of the Natives? A frenemy?
13 Jackson’s Reasons #1My original convictions upon this subject have been confirmed by the course of events for several years, and experience is every day adding to their strength. That those tribes can not exist surrounded by our settlements and in continual contact with our citizens is certain. They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear.
14 Jackson’s Reason #2Our conduct toward these people is deeply interesting to our national character. Their present condition, contrasted with what they once were, makes a most powerful appeal to our sympathies. Our ancestors found them the uncontrolled possessors of these vast regions…Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. That this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the states does not admit of a doubt. Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert so great a calamity.
15 Jackson Reason #3Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandering habits and make them a happy, prosperous people.
16 Removal of ChoctawsChoctaws signed first treaty giving up land in 1830 and moved west to what is now OklahomaThe Federal Government did not provide enough supplies or foodAn army lieutenant wrote that one group “walked for 24 hours barefoot through the snow and ice” before reaching shelter
18 John Ross’s SpeechEver since [the whites came] we have been made to drink of the bitter cup of humiliation; treated like dogs...our country and the graves of our Fathers torn from us.... The existence of the Indian nations as distinct independent communities within the limits of the United States seems to be drawing to a close.... You are aware that our Brethren, the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Creeks of the South have severally disposed of their country to the United States and that a portion of our own Tribe have also emigrated West of the Mississippi--but that the largest portion of our Nation still remain firmly upon our ancient domain....Our position there may be compared to a solitary tree in an open space, where all the forest trees around have been prostrated by a furious tornado.
19 Trail of TearsThe Cherokees were forced to move in the winter ofGuarded by 7,000 soldiers and forced to walk hundreds of miles116 day grueling marchLittle food or shelter: out of 15,000 Cherokees, 4,000 died along the way