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A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 5 Slides may be found at

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1 A Brief History of Palestine Forged in Continuous Conflict Week 5 Slides may be found at

2 Palestine has been controlled by numerous different peoples, including the Ancient Egyptians, Canaanites, Philistines, Hyksos, Hittites,Tjekker, Ancient Israelites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, early Muslims (Umayads, Abbasids, Seljuqs, Fatimids), Crusaders, later Muslims (Ayyubids, Mameluks, Ottomans), the British, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (1948–1967, on the "West Bank") and Egyptian Republic (in Gaza), and modern Israelis and Palestinians.

3 Last Time: Judea Under Roman Rule 36 B.C. Herod appointed Client-King by Romans – Brutal madman; considered a “half-Jew”, Rebuilt the Temple. 4 B.C. Birth of Jesus 4 B.C. Herod the Great dies; Romans divide Kingdom; Archelaus became ethnarch of the tetrarchy of Judea, Herod Antipas became tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea, and Philip became tetrarch of territories east of the Jordan. 6 A.D. Judea becomes a Roman Province – Archelaus removed 16 A.D. Pontius Pilate - 5 th Prefect of Judea. 36 A.D. deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius 18 A.D. Caiaphas - appointed High Priest of the Temple. 36 A.D. deposed by Syrian Legate Lucius Vitellius 30 A.D. Death of Jesus

4 Last Time: Judeans Under Roman Rule 300 B.C. – 300 A.D. Greco-Roman period Romans keep Greek as Official language of Empire Jews allowed Religious Freedom Jews exempt from serving in, or supporting, Roman Army Judeans taxed to pay for Herod’s building projects Judeans include both Gentiles and Jews – Herod also built pagan temples Most Judeans never saw a Roman soldier in everyday life Prefect kept his personal cohort at his residence in Caesarea on the coast. Only brought troops to Jerusalem once per year, at time of Passover. Passover recalls the freeing of the Jews from foreign oppression, but also looks ahead. Prefect had only two responsibilities: Keep peace and collect taxes

5 Last Time: Jewish Revolts Judaea was the stage of three major rebellions against Roman rule: 66–70 A.D. - first rebellion, followed by the destruction of Herod's Temple and the siege of Jerusalem (Josephus) Josephus was commander of the rebels in Galilee. Vespasian crushed Josephus’ troops. 97,000 enslaved. 115–117 A.D. - second rebellion, called Kito’s War, in Egypt, Libya, Judea, Cyprus, (Lukuas or Andreas) Spread to Mesopotamia and Syria; Jews expelled from Cypus 132–135 A.D. - third rebellion, Bar Kokhba's revolt (Simon Son of a Star); When ended, 580,000 Jews were dead (Cassius Dio) “Romans killed until the blood reached the nostrils of the horses” (Talmud) Following the suppression of Bar Kokhba's revolt, the emperor Hadrian changed the name of the province to Syria Palaestina and Jerusalem became Aelia Capitolina to erase the historical ties of the Jewish people to the region. Jews forbidden to enter the city except for day of Tisha B’Av

6 Last Time: Roman Empire Divides Constantine (272 A.D. – 337 A.D.) Declared Emperor in the West 306 A.D. 311 A.D. Edict of Toleration 312 A.D. Battle of Milvian Bridge – “In this sign, conquer” 313 A.D. Edict of Milan – treat Christians benevolently. Reunites Empire by 324 A.D., after 1 st split 380 A.D. Christianity made state religion by Theodosius I – Edict of Thessalonica Divides 2 more times. 3rd time final. Empire in the West later falls under attacks by Visigoths, Huns, and Vandals Last attempt to reunite under Eastern Emperor Justinian failed.

7 Samaritan Revolts After Jewish-Roman wars, Jewish community nearly extinct in Judaea. Samaritans and Byzantine Christians filled this vacuum. 135 A.D. - 362 A.D. Golden Age. Temple at Gerizim rebuilt. Baba Rabba, a great reformer, captured when Byzantines overran Samaria. Emperor Zeno (ruled 471 A.D. -491 A.D.) persecutes the Samaritans. 484 A.D. Samaritans revolt, elect Justa and take Caesarea, burn Church of St. Procopius. Byzantines defeat Justa. Zeno builds Church of St. Mary on Mt. Gerizim. Forbids Samaritans to worship there. 495 A.D. Samaritans led by a woman again revolt. Seized Church of St. Mary. Massacred the garrison. Revolt suppressed, leaders slain. 529 A.D. Bar Sabar Revolt – Bishop of Neapolis and local priests “hacked to bits”. Emperor Justinian puts down revolt with assistance from Ghassanid Arabs. Tens of thousands of Samaritans died. (Procopia of Caesarea) 556 A.D. Christians in Caesarea killed including the Governor, churches plundered. Again, tens of thousands of Samaritans and Jews were butchered. 572 A.D. Revolt put down by Emperor Justin II. Samaritan Religion outlawed. Reduced from ~1 million to near extinction. The revolt against Heraclius was a Jewish insurrection against the Byzantine Empire, Jews aided the Sasanian Persia during the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628. in the end Persia withdraws support of the Jews. Byzantines attack and kill 20,000. In 638, The Arab Islamic Empire under Caliph Umar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of Mesopotamia, and Egypt.

8 Early Islam 570 A.D. Muhammad born in Mecca after father died. Mother and Grandfather died when he was a child 595 A.D. Hired by Khadija, as a merchant, later married her 610 A.D. first hears voice (Gabriel) “You are the messenger of God”. Continues to receive messages for his whole life 612 A.D. begins public ministry Resentment grows against him 622 A.D. Hijra (lat. Hejira) the journey to Medina. By 630, Islam was firmly rooted as a religion. By 632, when he died, he was in control of Arabia 4 major Caliphs (Rashidun) after Muhammad (Sunni), Shi’a recognize only the last one. 1 st Civil War. 661 A.D. – 750 A.D. Umayyad Caliphate 680 A.D. 2 nd Civil War definitive break between Sunni and Shi’a.

9 Differences Between Sunni and Shi’a SectBelieved Successor to Muhammad Basis for successionMadhi SunniAbu BakrdemocracySoon to come Shi’aAliHereditarySoon to return Madhi – Rightfully Guided one – Global Caliph of all Islam

10 Palestine under Islamic Rule 691 A.D. Dome of the Rock completed Non-Muslim Monothesists classified as Dhimmis (protected people) For Centuries Christians were allowed to visit the Temple Mount unimpeded, until the reign of Al- Hakim bi-Amr Allah (996 - 1021 CA.D.)

11 Fall of the Umayyads 750 A.D. Umayyads limited to Spain and Portugal only by Abbasid Revolution, 3 rd Major Caliphate Abbasids had Shi’a support but once in power disavowed all support of Shi’a beliefs Internal administrative instability and conflict with Byzantines led to decline. Led to rise of Fatimids (Shi’as claimed through one of Muhammad’s daughters) and Seljuqs (Sunnis that gradually adopted Persian culture).

12 The Crusades 1095 A.D. Pope Urban II declares 1 st Crusade (Deus Vult) ended 1100 A.D. Crusaders were a mob, not an army. Pillaged countries along the way. Four massacres of Jews before leaving Germany. Captures Jerusalem. 2 nd Crusade 1147 A.D.-1149 A.D. Failed to reclaim lands lost to Kingdom of Jerusalem, but did have gains in Hispania. More slaughter of German Jews. 3 rd Crusade 1187 A.D.-1192 A.D. Saladin - Sultan in Shi’a Caliphate although a Sunni, seizes Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VIII declares Crusade. Philip and Richard the Lion-hearted leave for Holy Land Philip dies on the way. Richard negotiates peace treaty (supply problems). 4th Crusade never reached the Holy Land. 5 th Crusade 1217 A.D.-1221 A.D. took city in Egypt forced to return it. 6 th Crusade 1228 A.D.-1229 A.D. Frederick II of the Holy Roman Empire excommunicated for not leading a crusade. Goes to Holy Land and negotiates a treaty. 7 th Crusade 1248 A.D. – 1254 A.D. Muslim took Jerusalem. Louis IX was captured, ransomed - 10- year truce. 8 th and 9 th Crusades 1270 A.D.-1272 A.D. Hottest time of year. Louis IX dies. Prince Edward I of England arrived with too little, too late. Returns to England in 1274 as King.

13 Ottoman s 1258 A.D.-1326 A.D. Osmon I threatens Byzantine Empire 1453 A.D. Constantinople falls 1492 Moors expelled from Spain (Ferdinand and Isabella). 16 th Century Palestine was prosperous 17 th Century economic ad political decline 18 th Century Ottoman control was indirect. 1799 A.D. Napoleon defeated trying to take Acre. 1831 Muhammad Ali (Egyptian) took Palestine. Allowed Western influnces, Christian schools. 1840 A.D. British, Austrians, and Russians aided Ottomans to expel Egyptians 1882 A.D. 1 st Russian Jewish settlement Zionist colonies funded by French rose from 19 in 1900 to 47 in 1918. During WWI Ottomans sided with Germany. Afterward British took control of Palestine. 535,000 Muslims, 70,000 Christians, and 85,000 Jews

14 Next Time: Modern Israel and Palestine

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