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1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661)

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Presentation on theme: "1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661)"— Presentation transcript:

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2 1700 France England Dutch Republic Austria 1650 Louis XIII dies & Mazarin’s Regency begins (1643) Mazarin dies & Louis XIV begins his active reign (1661) Glorious Revolution (1688) Eng. Civ. Wars begin (1642) Cromwell’s dictatorship ( ) Plague hits London (1665) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) James II Begins reign (1685) Louis XIV revokes Edict of Nantes (1685) Louis XIV dies (1715) 1st Anglo Dutch- Naval War (1652-4) 2nd Anglo-Dutch Naval War (1665-7) 3rd Anglo- Dutch Naval War (1672-4) Dutch War ) Fronde ( ) Stuart monarchy restored (1661) London Fire (1666) Russia Peter the Great dies (1725) War of Sp. Succession ( ) Great N.War vs. Sweden ( ) “Time of Troubles” ( ) Prussia Fred-Wm The Great Elector Starts his reign (1640) Fred-Wm the Great Elector Dies (1688) N. War b/w Sweden, Prussia & Poland ( ) Peter I’s Great Embassy (1697) Eng. Civ. Wars end (1648) War of Sp. Succession ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of League of Augsburg ( ) War of Holy League ends (1699) 30 Yrs. War ends (1648) Dutch indep. (1648) William III Marries Mary Stuart (1674) Turks besiege Vienna & start of War of Holy League vs. Turks (1683)

3 The cost of war for the Dutch ( )

4 ,000 florins

5 The cost of war for the Dutch ( ) ,000 florins million florins

6 The cost of war for the Dutch ( ) ,000 florins million florins million florins

7 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: England jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.96B) Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Decline of Dutch Rep. by 1700 from cost & strain of wars

8 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Netherlands largely below sea level How do they deal with that fact?

9 A FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Netherlands largely below sea level Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea

10 An Extensive Landscape with a Road by a Ruin by Philips Koninck (1655)

11 Road on a Dyke by Meindert Hobbema (1663)

12 “God created the world, but the Dutch created the Netherlands” Dutch polders, land reclaimed from the sea by use of windmills & drainage canals.

13 A series of windmills that gradually raises water to drainage canals

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16 The Dutch fortress s’Hertengobosch which illustrates both the boggy nature of the Dutch landscape and how effectively they utilized it for defense.

17 Dredging rivers of silt was a never-ending process necessary to keep waterways open

18 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Netherlands largely below sea level Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Q: Natural Resources? Natural resources?

19 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Location??

20 A FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea

21 View of a Beach by Simon de Vlieger

22 View of the Sea by Salomon van Ruisdael

23 Stormy Sea by Hans Goderis

24 Mouth of the Scheldt River by Allart van Everdingen

25 Ships in Distress off a Rocky Coast (1667) by Ludolf Backhuysen

26 Storm by Wilhelm Van der Velde

27 The Schreierstoren (crying tower) where wives made their tearful farewells to sailors leaving Amsterdam

28 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Impact on Dutch character?

29 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Original basis for Dutch wealth & what happened to cause it?

30 HERRING & SALT*** What % of Eur’s protein? FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

31 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein Yearly schedule? FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

32 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) # of ships & what were the big fishing boats called?

33 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

34 Dutch herring buss with fleet of returning East Indiamen in background

35 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

36 Dutch arctic whaling station

37 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers What did this generate? FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s

38 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers ? $ Dutch make profits

39 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Where did they further develop trade?

40 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers What did they need to carry on that trade? $$

41 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Called what? Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Called what?

42 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts *** Armament? FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market

43 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space Constr. tech’s?

44 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Superior bldg. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws Advantage?

45 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Superior bldg. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build Crew size & why?

46 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs

47 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Dominated?

48 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs $$$

49 Problem 1: The Dutch ships had to pay a toll to go through the Danish Sound, the narrow strait between the North and Baltic Seas. The Danes estimated cargo space by just measuring the width of the beam at the center of the ship. What could the Dutch do to cut down on tolls? Build their ships with the hull pinched in at the middle.

50 Fire pumps, a vital piece of equipment on board wooden ships, witnessed major improvement with the introduction of Van der Heyden's hosepipe that could transport the water all the way to the fire itself. Van der Heyden's apparatus incorporated a suction pump mechanism with a pressure tank to ensure a continuous jet of water that could now reach the fire's centre. It featured a leather hosepipe reinforced inside with brass rings, so that the pipe remained flexible while ensuring that suction power wouldn’t be cut. The hosepipe pump could pump five to six times as much water as the older pumps. The spouts and hose connections had standard screw attachments so that every hose would fit every machine. It remained in use until the late 1800s.

51 HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market $$$$ What domestic industries they were they developing…?

52 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market $$$$$ HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs And to handle all that money?

53 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries $$$$$

54 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper

55 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper Interest rates during war?

56 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war

57 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc

58 The Bourse where businessmen & speculators made their deals on everything from wine & copper to tulip bulbs

59 Tulipmania

60 Tulips seem to have originated in the Himalayas, where their beauty and hardiness made them a symbol of life itself.

61 They became especially popular among the Arabs who cultivated gardens of them. Their popularity spread to the Turks. Suleiman the Magnificent had a tattoo of a tulip to serve as a protective talisman.

62 The first tulip bulbs to arrive in Antwerp in 1562 were mistaken for onions, so most of them were chopped up and eaten. Slice this up & put it on my cheeseburger, my dear.

63 Although people in the 1600s did not realize it, the most beautiful and sought after designs in tulips, such as the Semper Augustus shown here, are the results of a virus. At one auction in 1637, one bulb cost 5200 guilders, at a time when a university professor’s annual salary was 1200 guilders.

64 Hans Bolliongier, Still Life with Flowers, Because of their rare beauty, tulips became the subject of a number of still-life paintings by Dutch artists.

65 Rembrandt’s The Anatomy Lecture-of Dr Nicolaes Tulp. The doctor’s original name was Claes Pieterzoon, but he had his name changed to Tulp (tulip) to show his love of the flower.

66 FC.93A “TULIPMANIA”: THE FIRST MODERN SPECULATIVE BOOM ( ) Scientific Rev. of 1600s  More interest in science (FC.97) Printing press  circulation of new scientific findings (FC.74) Trade w/Turks  Tulips reach Antwerp by 1562 (FC.93) Age of Explor.  New mkts & sources of $ (FC.81) Growing speculative market in tulips Demand increases while supply remains constant Prices paid for tulips dramatically & rapidly rise Eventually, people see tulips are extremely over- priced  Everyone wants to sell No demand  Prices rapidly drop Panic since so many borrowed to buy Sudden collapse of “tulipmania” Genes for most beautiful designs are recessive  Unlikely a bulb will produce the desired design Allure of eastern goods, scarcity of tulips, & little need for capital investment  Lucrative to grow & trade them Difficult for artisans to make profit Tulips slowly reproduce  Ltd. supply Botany & gardening fashionable among the rich Rich look for new ways to spend money Buy bulbs w/goods, land, & even a trade ship for 1 bulb Buy bulbs on basis of future profits  Danger of debt

67 A cartoon satirizing the tulip craze by portraying a tulip as a giant fool’s hat

68 The Folly of Tulip Mania by Jan Bruegel ( ). The tulip traders are portrayed as monkeys, symbols of foolishness.

69 An allegory of tulip mania by Hendrik Gerritsz Pot, circa Flora, the goddess of flowers, is blown by the wind and rides with a tippler, money changers, and a two faced woman. They are followed by dissolute Haarlem weavers, on their way to destruction in the sea.

70 Even though the speculative bubble popped, tulips still retained much of their value. In fact the craziness of Tulipmania served as good advertising for the flower and helped the industry in the long run. Louis XIV would buy 2,000,000 tulips a year from the Dutch for his palace at Versailles. They continue to be a major export for Holland (the Dutch Republic).

71 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar E. Asia for spices HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Now that they had all that $…?

72 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar E. Asia for spices HERRING & SALT - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. Cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc 1st to Italy & why?

73 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices Herring & salt - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper - Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble Even trade with?

74 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices Herring & salt - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble W. Indies for what & why?

75 Herring & salt - c. 40% Eur's protein - Port. & Bay of Biscay for salt (Dec.->June) (not 3k) Buses vs. small indep. ships whalers Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble -Port. cuts salt -> W. Indies for salt FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

76 Fluyts - No guns->more space - Super.constr. tech’s: Mech. cranes & wind- driven saws -> 4/7 cost to build - Simpler rigging w/winches & tackles ->10 crew vs Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

77 Cut the cane Cart it to mills Run it thru rollers to squeeze out sugar Boil it down to get crystals Steps in the processing of sugar cane

78 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Trade w/Turks Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals Then where for what? E. Asia for spices

79 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices

80 The “Triangle” trade in the Atlantic

81

82 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks Banking, stock mkt & domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals Then where?

83 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble -> Trade w/Turks - Port. cuts salt -> W. Indies for salt -> Sugar -> Africa for slaves Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices Who controlled that trade up till now? E. Asia for spices

84 FC.82 THE PORTUGUESE EMPIRE IN EAST ASIA (1498-c.1600) Portuguese reach India in 1498 & 1500 (FC.81) Decline of Portuguese Emp. B y 1600  Dutch take over Far East trade (FC.93) Long distance b/w Eur. & Asia Portugal’s ltd. pop. & resources Overpack ships with spices to make more $ Hire half-trained Native crews to replace lost Eur. sailors Cut corners by not maintaining their ships Expensive wars & hostility of Muslim Mughal Emp. in India Portugal expels Jews  No MC to handle $  Spices go to Antwerp Costly & hard to maintain Asian forts & fleet from Europe Huge drain on Portugal’s ltd. popul. & resources Reach China (1513) & act as middlemen trading Spanish-Amer. Silver for Chinese silk Seize Goa as their main base in India Seize Ormuz to cut off Persian Gulf Fail to seize Aden & cut off Red Sea Get Molucca Straits & Spice Islands Portuguese, under Alfonse De Albuquerque seize strategic points & straits to blockade Arabs & control spice trade: Portuguese return (1502) w/artillery on their big ships  Defeat two Arab fleets & force Indians to trade Hostile Arabs control mktsNo one wants Eur. goods Drastic cost-cutting measures: Portugal controls much of Asian spice & silk trade, but at huge cost: Costly shipwrecks

85 domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble -> Trade w/Turks - Port. cuts salt -> W. Indies for salt -> Sugar -> Africa for slaves Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

86 Jan van Linschoten was a Dutch merchant working for Portugal in the late 1500s. While in Goa, he had access to top secret navigational maps that he meticulously copied. When he returned to Holland, he used these maps to show the Dutch how to sail around Africa to the Spice Islands.

87 domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble -> Trade w/Turks - Port. cuts salt -> W. Indies for salt -> Sugar -> Africa for slaves Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

88 Domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

89 domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->Dutch East Indies Company (1602) FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Trade w/Turks E. Asia for spices

90 Dutch Men of War defeat Portuguese galleys at Surat (1612)

91 Dutch East Indies Company station in Bengal

92 Dutch East Indies Company Fort at Batavia

93 Heavily armed spice fleet returning to Amsterdam

94 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins -> Dutch East Indies Company (1602) They even explored?

95 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins -> Dutch East Indies Company (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific

96 Domestic industries - Child labor-> cheaper -Lowered interest 12->4% during war - Stock Mkt: tobacco, wool, etc Seek more markets - Famine (1590s) -> Italy for marble - Port. cuts salt Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins -> Dutch East Indies Company (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks

97 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) Danger of all this long-range trade & solution? Oliver van der Noort encountering natives along the coast of Chile during his circumnavigation of the globe.

98 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY

99 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks

100 The frigate (left) was much sleeker & better suited for long-range convoy duty than the bulkier man-of-war depicted on the right in The Cannon Shot by Willem van der Velde the Younger

101 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks

102 Admiral de Ruyter ( ), one of the Dutch Republic’s greatest naval commanders. Unlike their French and Spanish counterparts who were nobles that saw their positions as a birthright, Dutch officers worked their way up the chain of command, starting as ships’ boys around the age of 12. By the time they became captains, they were intimately acquainted with just about every aspect of running a ship.

103 The crew and chain of command on company ships. In theory, the senior merchant held supreme power on ship, but in reality the shipmaster took over when trade was no longer taking place. The chain of command under him along with their duties went as follows: The chief boatswain (hogbootsman), roughly equivalent to a petty officer, supervised whole crew. The boatswain was responsible for running and standing the rigging, especially for the main mast. The rigger watched the foremast sails. The helmsman also supervised stowage of goods and ship maintenance. The steward distributed weekly rations of food and drink for all on board and also supplied the cook with victuals. The marshal was in charge of order and discipline.

104 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominated?

105 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks

106 The Dutch help the Danes defeat the Swedes at the Battle of the Sound (1658)

107 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV City that especially benefited & how?

108 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s

109 A Shipping Scene (with a Dutch Yacht Firing Salute) in Amsterdam Harbor by Jan van de Cappelle (1650)

110 Gerrit Berckheyde ( ) Kloveniersburgwal in Amsterdam

111 Berckheyde, View of Amsterdam City Hall & canal

112 View of Amsterdam by Jan van Heyden

113 The Hague, capital of the Dutch Republic, although Amsterdam was its real economic & cultural center

114 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors  Golden age?

115 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s

116 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s

117 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s

118 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes Who esp. hated Dutch?

119 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: England jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.96B) Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes Who else was jealous?

120 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: England jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.96B) Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s

121 The English badly defeat the Dutch Fleet at Gabbard Shoal (1653)

122 A Dutch fire-ship fails to destroy the English flagship at Scheveningen (1653). Superior English firepower forced the Dutch to rely on fire-ships at this time.

123 Dutch victory over the British in the Four Days Battle (1664)

124 Dutch flagship explodes during the English defeat of the Dutch at Lowestoft (1665)

125 A Dutch raid up the Medway surprised the English & destroyed many of their ships in harbor (1667)

126 Dutch victory over the English at Texel (1673)

127 FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: England jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.96B) Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Decline of Dutch Rep. by 1700 from cost & strain of wars Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes Impact on Dutch & why?

128 Sugar refining - Cut cane -> cart it to mills -> run thru rollers -> boil to get crystals E. Asia for spices ->Seek NE & SW pass ->Jan van Linschuten circum. Afr. (1597) -> 2nd voyage -> 600K lbs. pepper & 250K lbs cloves -> 1.6m florins ->D.E.Ind.Co. (1602) -> Explore S. Pacific -> Oliver van der Noort circumn. globe ( ) LONG RANGE NAVY - Frigate: long range, shallow draught, 40 guns - Exc. sailors & capt's: - Tromp & de Ruyter - Bld. Ships for both Den. & Sw. (1644) & 4 for Louis XIV Cultural Golden Age Factors: widespread $ ->Big mkt->small ptg's - Freed.-> immigrants ->Spinoza & Descartes FC.93 THE DUTCH REPUBLIC IN THE 1600S Louis XIV jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.95) Further develop domestic econ:Further develop foreign trade: England jealous of Dutch wealth  Wars (FC.96B) Expand scope of trade in late 1500s: Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Dutch win indep. from Spain in 1648 (FC.87) Invest profits in new ventures Dutch make profits Build excellent long-range navy to protect trade  Also dominate naval ship bldg industry Few natural resources Netherlands largely below sea level By the sea & trade routes Dutch are resourceful engineers, merchants & artisans Need dikes, polders, windmills, & drainage systems to reclaim land from the sea Base their trade on salted herring after herring shoals shift to N. Sea in 1400s Trade in Baltic  Russian furs, Scandin. timber, & Polish grain Efficient & cheap cargo ship  Domin. carrying trade & ship bldg. ind. Textile, tobacco curing, munitions, soap, & sugar refining industries Finance institutions: Bank of Amsterdam (1609) & stock market Italy to sell Polish Grain E. Asia for spices W. Indies for salt  Sugar Africa to get slaves Explore S. Pacific Trade w/Turks Amsterdam the center of world trade & a cultural golden age in 1600s Decline of Dutch Rep. by 1700 from cost & strain of wars


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