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Dearman Engine Company – Tokyo Innovation Show Case 9 th October 2014 Dearman Engine Company For more information: www.dearmanengine.com www.liquidair.org.uk.

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Presentation on theme: "Dearman Engine Company – Tokyo Innovation Show Case 9 th October 2014 Dearman Engine Company For more information: www.dearmanengine.com www.liquidair.org.uk."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dearman Engine Company – Tokyo Innovation Show Case 9 th October 2014 Dearman Engine Company For more information:

2 Dearman Engine Company UK Based SME technology developer founded ~40 full time employees. ~70% engineering focused Developing a novel zero emissions engine technology with applications in cooling, waste heat recovery and zero emissions power. Business and carbon case for deployment. Transport refrigeration is first application. Field trials in 2015, fleet deployments from Project supported by Hubbard, MIRA and Air Products. Follow on waste heat recovery applications in development Consortium based approach to technology development >£5m in UK government and partner funded projects underway. Partners sought for feasibility studies and potential demonstration projects. Part of broader emergence of liquid air as an energy carrier. Dearman Engine Company

3 What is Liquid Air? Liquid air is made by: 1.Cleaning ambient air 2.Cooling it to ~ -196°C where it becomes a liquid. Liquid nitrogen is made by exploiting the different boiling points of oxygen, nitrogen and argon. This process is mature: More than 100 years old Present in every industrialised nation Plants only need air and electricity Plants are large scale and flexibly operated to achieve lowest electricity prices. Distribution and storage technologies and infrastructure are mature. Dearman Engine Company

4 Liquid Air Technologies Common operating principle for all technologies: Energy generation side converts heat from the environment or a co-located process into shaft power. Low starting temperature gives high yields from even low-grade waste heat. Air or nitrogen is the only exhaust. Applications in grid-scale energy storage and transport. Opportunities for big synergies with processes that have cooling requirement or spare heat Dearman Engine Company 液体 窒素 熱 空気 700 倍に膨張 高圧ガス シャフト パワー 密閉空間 膨張装置

5 Liquid Air Energy Network Liquid air as an energy vector is entering mainstream energy thinking. UK government has invested >$20m in liquid air technologies. Highview Power Storage – 5MW demonstration Dearman Engine Company – 2 engine platforms Ricardo – 1 engine platform Liquid Air Energy Network founded to explore the benefits Technology developers seeking International collaborations Dearman Engine Company

6 The Dearman Engine Dearman Engine Company Process – Operates by boiling liquid air to produce high pressure gas that can be used to do work. Power + cooling Inventive Step Heat transfer inside the cylinder through direct contact heat exchange with a heat exchange fluid – patent granted 吸入 温められた熱交換液 (水・グリコール混合 液)をシリンダーに吸入 圧縮 超低温の液体窒素をシリンダーへ 直接注入。熱交換液の熱が 液体窒素に伝達、急激な気化と 昇圧をもたらす。 膨張 気化した液体窒素が膨張、ピスト ンを押し下げる。直接接触型の熱 伝導を継続することにより、一定 温度での膨張が可能となる。 排気 混合排気をシリンダーより 排出。ガス成分は大気中に 戻り、熱交換液は再加熱の 上、再利用される。 Rapid expansion High pressurisation rates Near isothermal expansion Non combustive

7 Heat Exchange Fluid The Heat Exchange Fluid (HEF) Dearman uses is water or water mixed with glycol depending on the application (temperature that system will be at when not in use). Dearman may consider other HEFs but critical features are low cost and non-toxic. High reclaim rates are required to comply with emissions requirements and end user convenience (how big is the tank and how often must it be refilled with water?). >99% reclaim rates have been achieved on the first systems, this exceeds regulatory requirements. CFD and experimental tools are in place to increase reclaim efficiency from this point. Dearman Engine Company Dropout tank Phase Separator Coalescing filter

8 Benefits Dearman Engine Company Made from simple materials in well- established processes Can use waste heat to boost efficiency, even at low temperatures Fuel non-combustible, exhaust cool and clean Liquid air or N 2 widely produced and available Low capital cost Fits established ICE manufacturing base Potential for plastics, additive manufacture Low life cycle impacts Waste heat (i.e. inefficiency) is a problem for engines, and fuel cells Works alongside other technologies rather than seeking to replace them Synergies with cooling applications Indoor and underground use possible Low heat signature Modest infrastructure requirement Opportunity to integrate at system level with e.g. renewable energy to achieve zero CO 2 Characteristics Advantages The cheapest zero emission power system – no life-cycle surprises, useful for cooling

9 Applications Dearman Engine Company Cheaper and cleaner refrigerated transport or air-conditioning Saving 15-25% total diesel consumption and CO 2 Replacing high-emission auxiliary engines High efficiency waste heat recovery system Harnessing waste heat of the ICE or fuel cell radiator loop Saving up to 25% fuel consumption Zero-emission vehicle Urban vehicles in emerging markets e.g. motorised three-wheelers Off-highway markets, including industrial (e.g. fork-lift trucks), mining, marine Also suitable for static/grid-based applications – power and cooling, peak power and back-up power

10 Intellectual Property Status Dearman Engine Company Patent No.TitleScopePriority DateStatus EP JP US 6,983,598 Engines driven by liquefied or compressed gas Use of HEF with compressed or liquefied gas 22/02/00Granted PCT /GB2012 / Improved Cryogenic Engine Injector technology22/12/11National Phase PCT/ GB2013/ Improvements in Refrigeration Refrigeration Process19/11/12PCT PCT/ GB2014 / Cryogenic Engine System Waste Heat Recovery 11/01/13PCT

11 Transport Refrigeration Application Dearman Engine Company On-vehicle demonstration with MIRA, Air Products and Loughborough University, funded by UK TSB Refrigerated payload acts an a source of heat to “boil” the LiN – gets 2/3 cooled this way Dearman engine drives ancillaries (fans, defroster) and a downsized refrigerator that provides 1/3 of the cooling Can be independent of the truck engine – or can use engine coolant to boost performance UK caseVs DieselVs Evap’ Yearly OpEx-£1,200-£3,100 CO 2 now/ %/-92%-43%/-46% Dearman system has zero emissions – Diesel APU can emit 6x NOx and 29x Pm of the truck’s main engine Source: Analysis by E4tech / Dearman. Basis of 40ft frozen trailer with Euro 6 prime mover on a typical daily cycle; today’s average UK and NL grid carbon, and CCC 2030 target Quick payback, better urban air quality, great CO 2 potential

12 Current Status – Transport Refrigeration System Integration a Vehicle Demonstration in 2014 under IDP8 Cool-E with: MIRA Air Products Loughborough University Partnerships in Place to Deliver first UK Demonstration in Summer 2015: Hubbard (part of the Zannotti Group) Air Products Plc MIRA Now Planning International Development and Deployment Dearman Engine Company

13 Market Status – Transport Refrigeration Market Opportunity: The refrigerated vehicle market is worth ~£3.6bn p.a globally this is expected to grow to ~£6.8bn p.a in The market is experiencing extremely rapid growth in South and East Asia as cold chains become deployed. European Drivers for Change: F-gas legislation coming into force in January 2015 is a challenge that the industry is ill prepared to respond to. Emissions from the engines in TRUs are lightly regulated – there is an expectation within the industry that this will change shortly, but very little idea of what to do about it. In developed markets the growth in fleet monitoring and measurement is currently yielding large gains from small changes – attention is likely to shift to TRUs and their fuel consumption. 13 Copyright Dearman Engine Company Private and Confidential

14 Waste Heat Recovery Engine ICEs reject ~2/3 of the energy in their fuel, to cooling system & hot exhaust Main engine coolant acts as a source of heat to “boil” the LiN & warm the Heat Exchange Fluid Dearman engine drives into the main gearbox, allowing ICE to be down-sized and operated efficiently – like an electric hybrid Adding a chilled loop to the passenger compartment provides free air conditioning The same principle applies to a fuel cell bus – relative savings may be even better Dearman Engine Company UK caseBus no a/cWith a/c Yearly OpEx-£2,100-£2,800 Payback Time<3 years< 1.5 years Dearman WHR “Heat Hybrid” system works alongside the IC engine, using its waste heat and helping with propulsion – and chilling or air-con; much cheaper than HEV

15 Current Project – Waste Heat Recovery Technology development and demonstration (TRL advancement) on a vehicle Manufacturing Readiness Level advancement and supply chain development. “Real World” evaluation of monetary and emissions benefits. Early identification of safety and legislative issues. Voice of the customer Develop the high volume opportunity Dearman Engine Company End Users Manufacturers £3.25m 24 month UK government backed project to deliver:

16 Market Status – Waste Heat Recovery 16 Copyright Dearman Engine Company Private and Confidential Buses and delivery trucks are likely to be first markets. Potential market is more than 1m units p.a. Global market 370k units p.a growing to 875k p.a by Though best used in urban settings even intercity coaches have significant periods of urban operation so whole market could be addressed. ~1/2 of the mixed usage truck market is used in the urban delivery usage patterns likely to be suitable for this type of waste heat recovery. So about ¼ of this 3.7m units p.a market could be addressed by the technology.

17 Zero-emission propulsion Dearman Engine is an effective prime mover for low power or utilisation, especially where ambient is warm or cold is valued – CapEx lower than battery Dearman Engine Company India caseVs PetrolVs Battery Yearly OpEx+£70+£75** 10yr TCO+£2,300*-£1,100 A/C & Refrigeration Free without adding to fuel consumption Free without depleting range Ambient heat exchanger used to harvest heat - ~2.5x engine power required – Size ~4x that of equivalent ICE radiator – large (~500x500mm) but feasible – Provides “free” air conditioning; payload refrigeration function can also be provided Access to city centres with air quality restrictions enabled Fast refill compared to battery recharge Compared to fuel cell or battery EV, offers lower CapEx & whole-life costs, more familiar manufacture & maintenance Source: E4tech/Dearman. Based on 8kW 3- wheel rickshaw using Indian fuel, electricity and LiN costs. NO assumption for changes to diesel/petrol subsidies *Dearman system made in high-niche volumes >10,000/yr vs >100k/yr ICE **Battery replacement 10yrs, annualised in OpEx & TCO

18 Built environment applications The Dearman Engine offers three potential sources of benefit: i)Shaft power that can be used to support local demand or be exported ii)Cooling (because of the low start temperature of the working fluid) iii)Conversion of waste heat into additional shaft power Achieving the maximum benefit from these services will require energy system analysis and optimisation for the end user’s site. There are also opportunities to explore interaction with the fleet applications. Dearman Engine Company HVAC/ Refrigeration Low Grade Heat Onsite Generation Higher Grade Heat Cooling Support Electricity

19 Timeline – Initial focus on Cooling and WHR Dearman Engine Company Key Technical Activities Late 2011 Dearman Engine Company Formed – Ricardo Leads Due Diligence. 2012Subsystems development with Ricardo 2013Single Cylinder Engine Build led by Dearman. H1, 2014 Integration with refrigeration cycle and hand over for vehicle demonstration. H2, 2014 Refrigeration: efficiency and power density enhancements, preparations for field trials. Waste heat recovery: multi-cylinder project starts. 2015Field Trials of refrigeration application. Multi-cylinder engine on to test bed. 2016Short run production for fleet trial units (50 off at a time) commences. Waste heat recovery into application

20 Japanese Market Opportunities Dearman Engine Company Applications Exploration Working with partners to identify and assess existing and new applications in this market. Developing demonstration or field trial opportunities. Technical Collaboration Japan has world class capabilities in technology development and industrialisation of cryogenic systems and engines. Japanese companies and research organisations have done work on liquid air energy storage concepts.

21 Japanese Refrigeration Opportunity Dearman’s most mature product is a transport refrigeration device, Japan could be a good Asian launch market for this product because: Japan has a mature and sophisticated cold chain Market participants like Denso, Hino Motors and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries are already producing energy innovations in the sector. End users have experience of trialling new technologies Japanese world class expertise in cryogenic systems and processes could support technology development as well as first field trials. Japanese market could provide a launch pad for other Asian territories. Refrigerated van and truck sales are about 20k units p.a in this market Dearman is seeking technology development, host and finance partners for this application. Dearman Engine Company

22 UK Based SME technology developer founded ~40 full time employees. ~70% engineering focused Developing a novel zero emissions engine technology with applications in cooling, waste heat recovery and zero emissions power Business and carbon case for deployment. Transport refrigeration is first application. Field trials in 2015, fleet deployments from Project supported by Hubbard, MIRA and Air Products. Follow on waste heat recovery applications in development Consortium based approach to technology development >£5m in UK government and partner funded projects underway. Partners sought for feasibility studies that are being developed for additional applications. Part of broader emergence of liquid air as an energy carrier. For more information, please contact Michael Ayres – (+44) Dearman Engine Company


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