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Pathogen Removal or Inactivation Technical Advisory Panel Reclaimed Water Rule Jim McCauley (360) 407-7468

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Presentation on theme: "Pathogen Removal or Inactivation Technical Advisory Panel Reclaimed Water Rule Jim McCauley (360) 407-7468"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pathogen Removal or Inactivation Technical Advisory Panel Reclaimed Water Rule Jim McCauley (360)

2 Pathogen Removal/Inactivation  Bacteria –Total coliform –Fecal coliform –E. coli –Enterococci  Protozoans –Giardia lamblia –Cryptosporidium  Viruses –F-specific bacteriophage MS2 –Polio –Other resistant strains

3 WA Class A or equivalent (unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses) Indicator organism Washington 1 (current or default values) California 2 Oregon Idaho 3 Totalcoliform 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 2.2/100 ml Avg 7 days 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 23/100 ml max Max 30 days 23/100 ml max max 1 A higher standard is applied to direct aquifer recharge 2 New rule proposed for groundwater recharge for the purpose of drinking water 3 Both Idaho Class A and B have the same total coliform standard

4 WA Class A or equivalent (unrestricted human contact or agricultural uses) Indicator organism NorthwestStandardFloridaArizonaTexasColoradoVirginia ColiformTotalFecalFecalFecalN/AFecal 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 75% < detection None 4 of 7 samples 20/100 ml Avg 30 days N/A ≤ 14/100 ml geo mean 23/100 ml max 25/100 ml max 23/100 ml max 75/100 ml maxN/A 49/100 ml Corrective action E. Coli or Enterococci N/AN/AN/AN/A E. Coli 75% < detection 126/100 ml max or, E. coli, or Enterococci < 11/100 ml; E. Coli CA ≤ 35 Enter ≤ 24 Giardia and Cryptosporidium N/A No limit < 1 mgd 1/ 5 years ≥ 1 mgd 1/ 2 years N/AN/AN/AN/A

5 WA Class B or equivalent 1 (restricted uses) Indicator organism Washington (current or default values) CaliforniaOregonIdaho Totalcoliform 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 2.2/100 ml Avg 7 days 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 2.2/100 ml 7 day median 23/100 ml max Max 30 days 23/100 ml max max 1 Several states do not use a four class system, but may have 2-3 classes

6 WA Class C or equivalent (restricted human & limited agricultural uses) Indicator organism Washington (current or default values) CaliforniaOregonIdaho Total coliform 23/100 ml 7 day median 23/100 ml Avg 7 days 23/100 ml 7 day median 23/100 ml 7 day median 240/100 ml max Max 30 days 240/100 ml 2 consecutive samples 230/100 ml max

7 WA Class C or equivalent (restricted human & limited agricultural uses) Indicator organism NorthwestStandardFloridaArizonaTexasColoradoVirginia ColiformTotalFecalFecalFecalN/AFecal 23/100 ml 7 day median 75% < detection 200/100 ml 4 of 7 samples 200/100 ml AvgN/A ≤ 200/100 ml geo mean 240/100 ml max 25/100 ml max 800/100 ml max N/A 800/100 ml Corrective action E. Coli or Enterococci N/AN/AN/AN/A 126/100 ml geometric mean & maximum & maximum or, E. coli, ≤ 126/100 ml; E. Coli CA> 235 Or Entero ≤ 35 CA > 104 Giardia and Cryptosporidium N/A No limit ≥ 1 mgd 1/ 2 years < 1 mgd 1/ 5 years N/AN/AN/AN/A

8 WA Class D or equivalent (sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops) Indicator organism Washington (current or default values) CaliforniaOregonIdaho Totalcoliform 240/100 ml 7 day median 240/100 ml Avg 7 days none 230/100 ml 7 day median mean No max none 2300/100 ml

9 WA Class D or equivalent (sewer flushing, nonfood crops, treated food crops) Indicator organism WashingtonFloridaArizonaTexasColoradoVirginia ColiformTotalFecalFecalFecalN/AFecal 240/100 ml 7 day median 200/100 ml <1000/100 ml 4 of 7 samples 200/100 ml AvgN/A ≤ 200/100 ml geo mean No max 800/100 ml max 4000/100 ml max 800/100 ml max N/A 800/100 ml Corrective action E. Coli or Enterococci N/AN/AN/AN/A 126/100 ml geometric mean & maximum & maximum or, E. coli, ≤ 126/100 ml; E. Coli CA> 235 Or Entero ≤ 35 CA > 104 Giardia and Cryptosporidium N/A No limit ≥ 1 mgd 1/ 2 years < 1 mgd 1/ 5 years N/AN/AN/AN/A

10 Pathogen Reduction via Treatment Technique  Prescriptive treatment methods –Oxidation –Coagulation –Filtration  Conventional media  Membrane  Alternative, i.e. fabric –Disinfection  “higher level”  Standard

11 Treatment Technique Comparison WashingtonCaliforniaOregonIdaho Class A Unrestricted access Level 4 Class A OxidizedCoagulatedFilteredDisinfected(HL)Tertiary Coagulated (if necessary) Disinfected(HL)BiologicalCoagulated(IF)ClarifiedFilteredDisinfected(HL)OxidizedCoagulatedClariifiedFilteredDisinfected(HL) Class B No edible-contact food crop Level 3 Class B OxidizedDisinfected(HL)Secondary-2.2(oxidized)Disinfected(HL)BiologicalDisinfected(HL)OxidizedCoagulatedClariified Filtered Disinfected(HL) Class C Restricted access Level 2 Class C OxidizedDisinfectedSecondary-23(oxidized)DisinfectedBiologicalDisinfectedOxidizedDisinfected Class D Limited ag irrig. Level 1 Class D 1 OxidizedDisinfectedSecondary Not disinfected Biological OxidizedDisinfected 1 Idaho also has a Class E, primary effluent for forest irrigation only

12 Treatment Technique Comparison Washington (current or default values) FloridaArizonaTexasVirginiaColorado Class A Unrestricted access Class A & A+ Type 1 Level 1 Category 3 OxidizedCoagulatedFilteredDisinfected(HL)SecondaryFiltered HL Disinfected Secondary Coagulated (if necessary) FilteredDisinfected(HL)N/ASecondaryFiltered HL Disinfected Secondary Filtered Disinfected Class B N/AN/AN/AN/AN/A OxidizedDisinfected(HL) Class C Restricted access Class B & B+ Type 2 Level 2 Category 2 OxidizedDisinfectedSecondary Basic disinfect Secondary Disinfected (std) N/ASecondary Std Disinfected SecondaryFilteredDisinfected Class D N/A Class C N/AN/A Category 1 OxidizedDisinfectedSecondaryDisinfectedSecondaryDisinfected

13 Wastewater Discharge Standards  Fecal coliform –Monthly geometric mean ≤ 200/100ml –Weekly geometric mean ≤ 400/100 ml  AKART

14 AKART AKART is the requirement for “all known, available and reasonable methods of prevention, control and treatment” All waste discharges must be provided with AKART prior to entry into the state’s waters, regardless of the quality of the receiving water

15 Water Quality Standards for Surface Waters WAC A  Extraordinary primary contact: –protection against waterborne disease –shellfish harvesting areas  Primary contact recreation –direct contact with water  Secondary contact recreation –water contact would be limited (e.g., wading or fishing)

16 WA Freshwater Standards Fecal Coliform Contact Category Fecal geometric mean Maximum Extraordinary primary 50/100ml ≤ 10 % ≤100/100ml (1) Primary100/100ml ≤ 10 % ≤200/100ml (1) Secondary200/100ml ≤ 10 % ≤ 10 % ≤400/100ml (1) (1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.

17 WA Marine Water Standards Fecal Coliform & Enterococci Contact Category Geometric mean Maximum Primary Fecal coliform 14/100ml ≤ 10 % ≤43/100ml (1) SecondaryEnterococci70/100ml ≤ 10 % ≤ 10 % ≤208/100ml (1) (1) If less than 10 sample points, this value is a maximum.

18 WA Groundwater Standards Purpose: establish maximum contaminant levels  Drinking water = highest quality ?  Environmental systems may require higher standard –Special protection areas WAC –Close to natural ground water quality WAC  Antidegradation  Only 1 pathogen is listed: total coliform – 1/100ml

19 Antidegradation Antidegradation policy: Background water quality must be protected Cannot harm a beneficial use Cannot violate Ground Water Quality Standards AKART must be provided


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