Essential Question: What forces brought about the collapse of European imperialism in post-WWII?
Decolonization Why decolonize –European nations weakened after WWII –European nations could no longer afford to govern colonies, especially if colonies were resistant Algerian War –Bloody 8 year war –Algerian people fought French to gain independence
Renaming of Independent Countries Why rename after independence –New name was way reclaim/regain cultures –Way reclaim/regain piece of past lost during imperialism –Way to announce their determination to be free of European domination Rhodesia –Country which was ruled by white-minority government until 1980 –Renamed Zimbabwe after independence Named after “Great Zimbabwe” civilization
Key People in African Independence Nelson Mandela –South African jailed for almost 30 years Jailed for fighting against white minority rule and apartheid –Apartheid: separateness by race –Elected as South Africa’s first black President in 1994
Key People in African Independence-cont. Kwame Nkrumah –Led Ghana to independence in 1957 Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf –Africa’s first elected female head of state –Elected president of Nigeria in 2005
Economic Growth After Independence Europeans left behind foundations of modern economies –Opened mines and equipped them with machinery –Installed docks and cargo handling equipment in seaports –Built highways, railways, and airports –Improved agricultural practices which increased crop yields –Opened hospitals and schools
Economic Growth After Independence-cont. Economic independence –Ability to provide ways for people of a country to earn money Free trade –Nations place few or no taxes on imported goods Encourages growth of trade
Hard Road to Democracy Lack of education of people –Made it difficult to fill government positions Building new schools one of first actions taken of newly independent countries Authoritarian government –Government in which people have little voice in governmental affairs
Hard Road to Democracy-cont. Corrupt –When government officials use public property or betray the public’s trust to benefit themselves or their families –Cold War caused instability in Africa U.S. and former Soviet Union looked for support and often backed corrupt governments in exchange for the support
Vocabulary Global economy –Economies of nations throughout the world are affected by each others economies Diversified economy –Economy that has multiple ways of making money De-colonization –Giving up power and control of another country
Discussion Question # 1 How do African nations fight for independence compare with the American colonies’ desire to gain independence?
Discussion Question # 2 Who do you think taught in the new schools that were built after Africans gained their independence?
Discussion Question # 3 How do you think the citizens of the U.S. would respond to an authoritarian ruler?