Presentation on theme: "At the end of the 1 st millennium, many religions existed in Rome Cult of Isis Mithraism Roman Deities Paganism."— Presentation transcript:
At the end of the 1 st millennium, many religions existed in Rome Cult of Isis Mithraism Roman Deities Paganism
1. The One God was understood as remote from human concerns. The source of all, referred to as Zeus or Jupiter, understood as basically unknowable, may be personal or impersonal. 2. Great Gods = the Olympians: Poseidon (Neptune), Hera (Juno), Aphrodite (Venus), Artemis (Diana), Hades (Pluto), Apollo, Hermes (Mercury), Dionysius (Bacchus), Hestia (Vesta), Ares (Mars), Athena, Demeter, 3. Daimonia, etc = lesser local deities, household gods (Pantry gods=Penates; protector gods=Lares, guardian deity= genius or numen, thought to reside in the head of the household.) 4. Demigods, Immortals, etc. = mortals who had been divinized (such as emperors), offspring of mortals and gods (Heracles, Alexander the Great, miracle workers, great athletes and teachers (aka Mr. Kriegel), philosophers, etc., thought to have been or become divine)
Cult of Isis From Egyptian mythology Goddess of fertility & motherhood Popular branch of Roman religions
The image above with outstretched wings, is a representation of her role of watching over the dead.
Cult of Isis
The Invocation of Isis
Mithraism Ancient Persian god of light & wisdom Later god of the sun Similar to Christianity – Communion, baptism, holy water, etc.
Mithras holding cosmic sphere and rotating zodiac
LOOK TO THE STARS
Underground Mithraic temple in Rome
Mithraeum in Capua, Italy
Roman Deities The Romans had many gods and goddesses. Most of these were the same ones that the ancient Greeks worshipped, except that they had different names. Here are some of the main gods and goddesses in Roman mythology: Jupiter: Jupiter was the king of the gods. He threw down thunderbolts to earth when he was angry. Because of this, it's not surprising the largest planet in the solar system was named after him. Juno: Juno was the wife of Jupiter, therefore, the queen of the gods. In some Roman stories, Juno seemed unpleasant. She was often bad tempered and was jealous of the other goddesses. Mercury: Mercury was the messenger of the gods. He wore winged sandals on his feet and could fly through the air extremely fast. Venus: Venus was the goddess of beauty Apollo: Apollo was the god of the sun. He is usually pictured flying across the sky in a golden chariot drawn by white horses. Diana: Diana was the goddess of the hunt and the protector of wild animals. She always carried a bow and a quiver full of arrows. She was also the goddess of the moon. She was the twin brother of Apollo. Minerva: Minerva was the goddess of wisdom. She was also goddess of the arts and the protector of towns. Neptune: Neptune was the god of the seas. He always carried a trident with him. Vulcan: Vulcan was the god of fire. He was also the blacksmith of the gods. His forge was deep under ground. Pluto: Pluto was the ruler of the underworld. Everyone who died went to Pluto's kingdom. Vesta: Vesta was the goddess of the hearth. The hearth was a very important part of the home, therefore she was really the goddess of the home. The vestal virgins would keep fires burning as a way of worshipping Vesta. Saturn: Saturn was the god of agriculture and the harvest. Saturday was named after this god.
P AGANISM – associated w/ worship of nature Many forms Polytheism – belief in many gods Pantheism – belief that all of reality is divine Animism – belief that natural features have divine power
Basic religious beliefs Monotheism Messiah Covenant
Antiochus IV (2 nd Century B.C. ) Forced Hellenistic forms on Jews Jewish Temple overthrown Jews revolt & reclaim –Hanukkah!Hanukkah!
Antiochus IV (2 nd Century B.C. ) Forced Hellenistic forms on Jews Jewish Temple overthrown Jews revolt & reclaim –Hanukkah!Hanukkah! Kingdom lasts until 63 B.C. Diaspora
Sects of Jews Sadducees Pharisees Essenes Zealots
These are you groups if you are confused!
Christianity Overcomes Romans Adopt Christianity Persecution and Martyrs Diocletian, Nero, Trajan Ruthless attempts to put religion down
312 AD, Constantine saw a vision Issues Edict of Milan (313 AD) Religious groups free to do as they please Theodosius decrees Christianity OFFICIAL RELIGION (392 AD) Christianity Overcomes
End of Roman Empire Pax Romana Diaspora Christianity made no compromises with Paganism Martyrs For Lowly Classes Greed, Deceit, Corruption