Presentation on theme: "The Urinary System. By the end of this class you should understand: The major functions of the urinary system The major parts of the nephron and the function."— Presentation transcript:
By the end of this class you should understand: The major functions of the urinary system The major parts of the nephron and the function of each The purpose of reabsorption and what materials are always or sometimes reabsorbed The major components of urine and how this reflects the state of the body How major defects of the urinary system put the body at risk
The Urinary System Also known as the renal system and excretory system Consists primarily of the kidneys which remove waste from the blood The waste becomes urine which collects in the bladder and is excreted by urination (peeing)
Three Components of Urine Water – If the body is dehydrated, a minimal amount of water is still excreted Excess salts and any nutrients that are way above normal levels – Diabetes was originally diagnosed by testing urine for sweetness Anything in the blood that the body does not recognize as useful (including drug metabolites)
Urine Drug Test Why must we pee in a cup for a job? Drugs are not recognized by the body as being nutrients and so are not reabsorbed back into the blood when they are filtered The urine essentially reflects the state of the blood, including drugs and metabolites (broken- down drugs after processing by the liver)
Kidneys The kidneys are wrapped in layers of connective tissue – Up to a quarter of all blood flow can pass through kidneys, so bruising and laceration can be lethal The outer layer is the cortex The inner core is the medulla – The medulla is very salty
Kidneys The kidneys produce filtrate when they filter blood plasma The filtrate is then processed – The end result is urine A huge amount of blood flows through the kidneys every day (up to ¼ of all blood flow) – The kidneys can excrete excess water at an impressive rate if hyperhydrated
Nephron The kidney is composed mostly of a set of tubules, called a nephron – The kidney may have up to a million nephrons The nephron is mostly a tube of epithelial tissue called a tubule – The tubule contains filtrate, which becomes urine
Filtration Blood enters a special leaky artery called the glomerulus – Plasma leaks out of the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule (AKA Bowman’s capsule) RBCs and proteins are too large to enter the capsule Plasma, including salts, nutrients, and wastes, pass through the glomerulus – Referred to as glomerular filtration
Renal Circulation The blood flow through the kidneys is called renal circulation After blood enters the renal artery, it becomes tiny afferent arterioles These become the glomeruli (leaky arteries), which then become efferent arterioles The efferent arterioles branch to become the capillaries
Tubule Function The tubule’s primary function is to reabsorb nutrients – Primarily glucose, amino acids and vitamins This is performed by active transport and can only be performed at a certain rate – The concentration of nutrients also pulls water out via osmosis – Excess nutrients will end up in the urine The nutrients are put back into the peritubular capillaries that follow the nephron
Additional Reabsorption In addition to reabsorbing nutrients and salts, certain nutrients are reabsorbed only if they are in demand Primary example is calcium – Reabsorbed from the kidney only when PTH is in the blood, which is the signal for low calcium – What gland releases PTH? Additional example is sodium – Reabsorbed more strongly when aldosterone is in the blood, which is the signal for low sodium – What gland releases aldosterone?
Tubular Secretion Some waste products and drugs are also actively transported into filtrate by tubular secretion – Also requires active transport Creatinine (waste product from anaerobic cell activity) is reliably filtered and secreted by the kidney – Blood tests in the hospital for creatinine levels test kidney function
Loop of Henle The loop of Henle is the middle part of the tubule – The loop of Henle takes advantage of the medulla’s saltiness The descending limb allows water to leave the tubule through osmosis The ascending limb is impermeable to water but has ion channels so that salts diffuse out of the tubule
Loop of Henle function The Loop of Henle is designed to reclaim almost all the water and salt from the filtrate The capillaries of the medulla are called vasa recta, which reclaim water and salt for the blood – If the Loop of Henle did not reclaim the water and salt, we would pee as fast as we filtered – Instead, we can concentrate our urine, allowing us to not pee all day
Collecting Duct The tubules begin fusing to become collecting ducts – The collecting duct still contains dilute urine (with a lot of water) There are pores that allow water to leave the collecting ducts and enter the medulla These pores are only opened by the action of a hormone called ADH, to conserve water – Where is ADH secreted from?
Release of Urine When filtrate leaves the collecting duct, it goes through the ureter to the bladder, where it is now officially urine The release of urine (urination, or micturition) is under parasympathetic control – Which is why for some people it’s hard to go when you’re being watched – There are sympathetic nerve fibers in the smooth muscle of the bladder, which is why panic can cause some to wet themselves
Urination The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body – In men the urethra meets with the vas deferens, so urine exits the same opening of the penis that semen exits – In women the urethra has a separate opening from the vagina The urethra has sphincter muscles that can hold it closed, but the brain must be trained to control them (hence diapers for babies)
Kidney Homeostasis Kidney function is vital to life – Many nitrogenous wastes that are eliminated by the kidney are toxic to our cells – The body can survive with one kidney, but that kidney can become overworked and fail Kidney injuries are very hard to survive – So much blood flow through the kidney that being stabbed in the kidney can result in death from loss of blood in seconds, similar to the heart
Dialysis If both kidneys fail through nonviolent means, the patient may require dialysis, which is essentially artificial kidney function – There are several options, all of which are inferior to having actual working kidneys but all of which are superior to death – The most effective is hemodialysis, where blood is pumped through a dialysis machine that cleanses the blood
Other Kidney Problems Kidney Stones – Crystals form in the kidney or bladder, caused by a combination of factors including high calcium, alkaline blood, and not drinking enough water Urinary Tract Infection – Bacteria can invade the urethra and potentially damage the body – Infected bladder is worse, infected kidney can be fatal
That’s the end of class! For those of you disappointed in the lack of naughty bits, Wednesday’s lesson is all about naughty bits! For those of you who thought this was too much naughty bits already, you may want to reconsider coming on Wednesday…
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