Presentation on theme: "Vietnam War Introduction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Vietnam War Introduction Ms. MarquardtPd. 3 - Honors
2 Think it Through! Infer & Predict: What kind of war would make a soldier feel this way?What country do you think this soldier was from?What do you think he was fighting for?Dear Mom and Dad,Today we went on a mission, and I am not very proud of myself, my friends, or my country.
3 The Vietnam War 1955 - 1975 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: Why did the US get involved in another war overseas?What were the US’ primary motives?What was the outcome?Was it a just / fair war?
4 The Vietnam War (in short) Two decades long (including the civil war, longer if you include the First Indochina War).Began with a revolutionary movement in Vietnam to fight for independence.It was a war of modern military technology (U.S.) vs. organized human beings (Vietnam).The human beings won.The Vietnam war created the biggest anti-war movement the U.S. had ever seen.
5 Vietnam Basics Location: In Southeast Asia, near Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and parts of ChinaPopulation83 Million PeopleMostly BuddhistStrong minority of CatholicsResourcesVery fertile, hot and wet climate, many resources
6 Declaring Independence WW2 Ends and September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam independent !!Ho Chi Minh reads from US Declaration of IndependenceSome see Ho Chi Minh’s Declaration of Independence as evidence of being a nationalist rather than being a communist. They refer to this example has him expressing his interest in having a relationship with the United States.BUT, the French want Indochina back, and they do not recognize Vietnamese independence. Reclaim colony.What should the US do? Support Vietnamese or help France regain its colonial empire?
7 Divided American State Department PRO - WARANTI - WAREuropean Experts in American Government support backing France.STOP spread of Communism in Asia !!Asia Experts in American Government support backing Ho Chi MinhFeel he is a NationalistSO?US Backs France. Truman Adminstration then Eisenhower Administration back France. Due to the following factors: -Korean War, Loss of China to communists, Idea of stopping communism, Cold War, Strong France helps stop communism in Western Europe, Containment, and belief that Ho Chi Minh was more of a communist than nationalist!!
8 Other interests / benefits for the US…?? A secret US govt. memo from 1952 talked about SE Asia’s valuable resources:RubberTinOilwere important to the US … if the Vietnam govt. won against France and took over they might be hostile towards the US and not trade with them.
9 First Indo-China War 1945-1954 France vs. Viet Minh French try to keep Vietnam, Viet Minh fight for Independence70% of French costs are paid by USDien Bien Phu1954Final defeat of French by Vietnamese, French Surrender1954 Geneva ConferenceEnd Hostilities between French and VietnameseTemporarily divide Vietnam at 17th parallel until French leave.Elections in 1956
10 If Vietnam turns Communist… Containment theory fails.Domino Theory, fear of monolithic (solid block) communist alliance of China, Vietnam, and USSR
11 South VietnamInstead of supporting Geneva Agreement and allowing unification elections and a Communist victory, US supports creation of a non-Communist, South Vietnam.American war in Vietnam is fought to keep South Vietnam Non-Communist!
12 JFK & Vietnam ( )Views Vietnam as important to Cold War like Truman and Eisenhower.Sends thousands of advisors, Special Forces and helicopters to South Vietnam (but not many regular troops).Begins the Strategic Hamlet Program.Overall picture unsure due to assassinationJFK believed the best way to stop communists in Vietnam was to build South Vietnam into a nation.
13 Assassination of Diem November 1963 Kennedy either knew of the plot and ignored it or supported it.South Vietnamese government would never be stable.Increased American involvement in South Vietnam’s Internal Affairs.
14 Check in # 1When Eisenhower left office, less than 1,000 US soldiers were in VietnamAt the time of Kennedy’s assassination (1963), over 16,000 soldiers were in Vietnam.By 1969, Vietnam had 543,000 US solidersMany of the soldiers under JFK were Special Forces and under Johnson, regular ground troops were introduced.
15 Golf of Tonkin Resolution President Lyndon B. Johnson took over after Kennedy assassinated.North Vietnamese “attack” on two US ships in the Gulf of Tonkin is Johnson’s excuse to get congressional approval for major escalation in Vietnam.TERMS:Hanoi – refers to North Vietnamese governmentNVA – North Vietnamese ArmyVC/Charlie- Viet Cong: Communist rebels in South VietnamARVN – South Vietnamese ArmyPOW – Prisoner of WarMIA – Missing in Action
16 Who did America Fight in Vietnam? North Vietnamese ArmyProfessional army, using standard tactics.Viet CongIrregular troops (both professional and untrained), using guerilla tactics.Both groups were heavily supplied from USSR via China
17 Johnson & Limited WarJohnson was afraid of conflict spreading to involve USSR & China.Strict rules of engagement – limited targets for US Troops and Air StrikesAreas of North Vietnam, Cambodia, and LaosNorth Vietnamese Communists can attack, move supplies from and retreatAMERICAN TROOPS CANNOT GONorth VietnamWants a unified, Communist VietnamWants Americans OutWants One Vietnam
18 Early American Support for War in Vietnam Americans initially supported the warHit Song “The Green Berets”Public is told troops will be home soon, and the war is almost over.Vietnam is the first war that is heavily covered by television networks.American public sees daily images of casualtiesPublic begins to turn against the war.
23 LBJ Escalates ( )Johnson attempts to limit the war while at the same time constantly increasing the number of soldiers in VietnamOver 500,000 soldiers by 1969LBJ would attempt negotiations at the same time he would scale back offensive operations in VietnamNorth Vietnamese take advantage of this.
24 Tet OffensiveTet – most important holiday in Vietnam, Vietnamese New Year. It is the most popular festival in Vietnam.1968 Cease Fire1968Viet Cong attack every major US base in South VietnamNorth Vietnamese Army takes city of Hue and kills many inhabitants.US Embassy in Saigon is attacked.
25 Effects of Tet Major Military victory for the US Viet Cong is devasted American media turns against the war.American public turns against the war.Political and psychological victory for North Vietnam.American Anti-War MovementStrong anti-war movement in USWar divides American population
26 Richard Nixon (1969-74) Elected in 1968 Claims to have a “secret plan” to end war in Vietnam
27 CambodiaNeutralViet Cong & North Vietnamese use Cambodia as a sanctuaryUS troops cannot enterCambodian government is powerless from preventing Communists from enteringBad history between Vietnam & Cambodia
28 Nixon & Cambodia Public Opinion: War is illegal Supports coup that puts strong anti-Communist government in chargeExpands conflictSecretly bombs and invades CambodiaBombing & Invasion fails to make any significance in warCambodian communists go deeper into CambodiaVietnamese were using Cambodia to attack AmericansPublic Opinion:War is illegalPublic is outraged at expansion of the conflictMassive protests
29 Nixon & Ending Vietnam War Uses combination of increased bombing of North Vietnam and Secret NegotationsDiplomacy with China and USSRVietnamization – Nixon’s PlanTurn the war over to the South VietnameseTrain & equip South Vietnamese to fight the NorthUS Troops withdrawLast US troops leave by 1973South Vietnam Betrayed?South Vietnam is promised that the US would send troops, money, and supplies if North Vietnamese launched a massive attack.Nixon resigns due to WatergateCongress and American people do not support further involvement
30 1975 & Results of War s North Vietnam takes over South Vietnam US doesn’t prevent the take over.Vietnam is unified under one communist stateResults:60,000 Americans killed75,000 French killed175, ,000 Vietnamese killed (First Indochina War)415, ,000 South Vietnamese killed, 450,000-1,165,000 North Vietnamese killed (Civil War and Second Indochina War)US reluctant to use military powerAmerican public is dividedAmericans don’t trust governmentVietnam is CommunistCambodia falls to CommunistsKhmer Rouge/Cambodian Communist take powerPol Pot is leaderKilling Fields – Genocide of 1/3 of the Cambodian populationVietnam invades and occupies Cambodia to defeat Khmer Rouge
31 1979 War between Vietnam & China China supports Khmer Rouge and is upset that Vietnam defeats it.China attempts to invade Vietnam to “teach lesson”Chinese leave after 1 monthVietnamese put up much stronger fight than Chinese expectedChina improved relations with US after Nixon’s visitVietnam moved closer to USSR
32 Think it Through!Martin Luther King, Jr. was one of the most outspoken opponents of the Vietnam War. He said:“There comes a time when silence is betrayal.”1) What do you think he meant? Put this quote in your own words.2) Think of a situation, personally meaningful to you, where this quote would apply.
33 Closing Questions On a separate sheet of paper, answer the following: How was Tet a turning point in the Vietnam War?How did TV affect people’s view of the Vietnam War?What country did President Nixon expand the Vietnam War into?Which US President is associated with escalating the number of US troops in Vietnam?What year did the last US troops leave Vietnam?