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The Rebellion of 1857 Dawn of New Imperial Era. Origins of the Rebellion Military Causes: Military Causes: Grievances over pay and Promotion among Sepoys.

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Presentation on theme: "The Rebellion of 1857 Dawn of New Imperial Era. Origins of the Rebellion Military Causes: Military Causes: Grievances over pay and Promotion among Sepoys."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Rebellion of 1857 Dawn of New Imperial Era

2 Origins of the Rebellion Military Causes: Military Causes: Grievances over pay and Promotion among Sepoys Grievances over pay and Promotion among Sepoys Special Allowance and Overseas Duties Special Allowance and Overseas Duties Enfield Rifle and Concern over the Cartridge Enfield Rifle and Concern over the Cartridge Concerns of Civilian Population Concerns of Civilian Population Theory of Doctrine of Lapse Theory of Doctrine of Lapse Unemployed Artisans and Court Employees Unemployed Artisans and Court Employees Occupation of Avadh: Local Patriotism Occupation of Avadh: Local Patriotism Land Tax Policies Land Tax Policies Progressive Imperialism and Concern over Religious Identities Progressive Imperialism and Concern over Religious Identities

3 Time Line of 1857 Rebellion On February 26, 1857 Disconent among the 19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment. On February 26, 1857 Disconent among the 19th Bengal Native Infantry (BNI) regiment.February February At Barrackpur near Calcutta, on March 29, 1857, Mangal Pandey of the 34th BNI attacked and injured his British sergeant on the parade ground. At Barrackpur near Calcutta, on March 29, 1857, Mangal Pandey of the 34th BNI attacked and injured his British sergeant on the parade ground.BarrackpurCalcuttaMarch Mangal PandeyBritishsergeantBarrackpurCalcuttaMarch Mangal PandeyBritishsergeant On 9 May, 85 troopers of the 3rd Light Cavalry at Meerut refused to use their cartridges. They were imprisoned, sentenced to ten years of hard labour, and stripped of their uniforms in public. On 9 May, 85 troopers of the 3rd Light Cavalry at Meerut refused to use their cartridges. They were imprisoned, sentenced to ten years of hard labour, and stripped of their uniforms in public.9 May9 May On 11 May the rebels reached Delhi, where they were joined by other Indians from the local bazaar, and attacked and captured the Red Fort (Lal Qila), killing five British, including a British officer and two women. Lal Qila was the residence of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II and the sepoys demanded that he reclaim his throne. At first he was reluctant, but eventually he agreed to the demands and became the leader of the rebellion. On 11 May the rebels reached Delhi, where they were joined by other Indians from the local bazaar, and attacked and captured the Red Fort (Lal Qila), killing five British, including a British officer and two women. Lal Qila was the residence of the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar II and the sepoys demanded that he reclaim his throne. At first he was reluctant, but eventually he agreed to the demands and became the leader of the rebellion.11 MayDelhibazaarLal QilaMughal EmperorBahadur Shah Zafar II11 MayDelhibazaarLal QilaMughal EmperorBahadur Shah Zafar II Rebellion erupted in the state of Awadh (also known as Oudh, in modern-day Uttar Pradesh) very soon after the events in Meerut. The British commander of Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify his position inside the Residency compound. British forces numbered some 1700 men, including loyal sepoys. Rebellion erupted in the state of Awadh (also known as Oudh, in modern-day Uttar Pradesh) very soon after the events in Meerut. The British commander of Lucknow, Henry Lawrence, had enough time to fortify his position inside the Residency compound. British forces numbered some 1700 men, including loyal sepoys.AwadhUttar PradeshLucknowHenry LawrenceAwadhUttar PradeshLucknowHenry Lawrence Rebellion in Kanpur in June 1857 Rebellion in Kanpur in June 1857

4 Suppression of Rebellion Absence of Military Leadership Absence of Military Leadership Lack of Co-ordination Lack of Co-ordination Limited Area of the Rebellion Limited Area of the Rebellion Conflicting Aims and Confusing Mobilization Conflicting Aims and Confusing Mobilization Sikhs, Gurkhas and Loyal Punjabi Troops Sikhs, Gurkhas and Loyal Punjabi Troops Bengali Elites, Bombay Businessmen and Tamil Educated Elites supported British Rule Bengali Elites, Bombay Businessmen and Tamil Educated Elites supported British Rule Failure to Dismantle British Line of Information Failure to Dismantle British Line of Information Massive Repression Massive Repression

5 Interpretations of Rebellion Sepoy Mutiny Sepoy Mutiny War of National Independence War of National Independence Restorative Rebellion Restorative Rebellion Subaltern Rebellion Subaltern Rebellion Rebels without Causes Rebels without Causes

6 Restorative Rebellion: Leadership of Rebellion Bahadur Shah Jafar (( ) Bahadur Shah Jafar (( ) Nana Saheb (1824-) Nana Saheb (1824-) Tantia Tope Tantia Tope Rani Lachmibai ( ) Rani Lachmibai ( ) Kunwar Singh Kunwar Singh

7 Rebellion of Subaltern: Sepoys, Peasants and Artisans Bakth Khan Bakth Khan Moulavi Imdiadullah Moulavi Imdiadullah Nature of Peasant Rebellion Nature of Peasant Rebellion Rebellion of Artisans Rebellion of Artisans

8 Administrative Changes The Transfer of Power The Transfer of Power Declaration of Queen Victoria Declaration of Queen Victoria No rise in Land Revenue No rise in Land Revenue Decline of Muslim Aristocracy in Indo-Gangetic Plains Decline of Muslim Aristocracy in Indo-Gangetic Plains Military Changes and the Idea of Martial Race Military Changes and the Idea of Martial Race Indian Army for Imperial Cause Indian Army for Imperial Cause Arms Act and Vernacular Press Act of 1878 Arms Act and Vernacular Press Act of 1878 Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 Criminal Tribes Act of 1871 Technocratic State Technocratic State Alliance with conservative forces Alliance with conservative forces Racial Tensions Racial Tensions New Empire New Empire


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