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1 While You’re Waiting… Which aspects of Which aspects of -human nature -psychological make-up -and/or personality separate “psychologically or socially.

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Presentation on theme: "1 While You’re Waiting… Which aspects of Which aspects of -human nature -psychological make-up -and/or personality separate “psychologically or socially."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 While You’re Waiting… Which aspects of Which aspects of -human nature -psychological make-up -and/or personality separate “psychologically or socially healthy” from “psychological or socially ill” individuals? Why do some youngsters become caring, responsible, & self-secure while others become hurtful, irresponsible, and self-sensitive? Why do some youngsters become caring, responsible, & self-secure while others become hurtful, irresponsible, and self-sensitive? Why are some of our errant young people so loyal to socially undesirable groups? Why are some of our errant young people so loyal to socially undesirable groups?

2 2 Legacy

3 3 While indicated for all kids, it is “Strong medicine” (that which gives strength) for kids who’ve had their birthright stolen through: Neglect Lack of supervision & home teaching Abuse Exposure in childhood to: –inconsistent parenting –family violence –immoral values –anti-social behavior –negative influences.

4 4 This slide show is online at: BehaviorAdvisor. com /CircleOfCourage.ppt 1.2.3.4.

5 5 The 4 Core Values or “Spirits”

6 6 Not Just on the Rez

7 7 Developmental Psychology: (e.g., Maslow’s “Growth Needs”)

8 8 Coopersmith’s Self Esteem Components Significance Competence Significance Competence Power Virtue Power Virtue

9 9 Yin & Yang CommunityExcel CommunityExcel Versus Western A spiration Versus Western A spiration Individualism) High standards Individualism) High standards Self-developmentCooperation Self-developmentCooperation Proper deportmentCamaraderie Proper deportmentCamaraderie Humility “Human- Humility “Human- Honor heartedness” Honor heartedness” Helpfulness Helpfulness Circle of Courage translation by Tom McIntyre, www.BehaviorAdvisor.com

10 10 NGUZO SABA: The 7 Principles of Kwanzaa Umoja Nia Umoja Nia Ujima Ujima Ujamaa Imani Ujamaa Imani Kujichagulia Kuumba Kujichagulia Kuumba (& Ujima) (& Ujima) Circle of Courage translation by Tom McIntyre, www.BehaviorAdvisor.com

11 11 La Raza Family Family Group B4 self Cultural informants: Group B4 self Cultural informants: Personal connection Help Tom fill Personal connection Help Tom fill in the blank. in the blank. Social harmony What is it called? Social harmony What is it called? Respect for Simpatia competent &Generoso competent &Generoso congenial authority“Mi casa, su casa” congenial authority“Mi casa, su casa” Independiente Independiente Circle of Courage translation by Tom McIntyre, www.BehaviorAdvisor.com

12 12 A by any other name… ^ Connected Competence Connected Competence Community Achievement Community Achievement Member Self-actualization Attached Knowledge acquisition Member Self-actualization Attached Knowledge acquisition Significance Life-long learning Significance Life-long learning Affiliation Spirit of inquiry Affiliation Spirit of inquiry Assertive Concern, Empathy Assertive Concern, Empathy Responsible Sharing Responsible Sharing Good judgment Giving Good judgment Giving Self-discipline Benevolence Self-discipline Benevolence Internal Locus Caring, Kindness Internal Locus Caring, Kindness Inner-control Service, Helping Inner-control Service, Helping Wisdom Purpose Wisdom Purpose Virtue Circle of Courage translation by Tom McIntyre, www.BehaviorAdvisor.com Virtue Circle of Courage translation by Tom McIntyre, www.BehaviorAdvisor.com

13 13 “I am important to somebody.”. Image from Calgary Board of Education, Ecole’ Mayland Heights School schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm

14 14 Belonging… With whom are you intricately intertwined? In which groups do you… Feel comfortable and/or positively challenged? Feel accepted & functioning member Take the conversation filter of your mouth Check their web site, e-mail, & newsletters When meet others with same interests, feel immediate connection Are your groups “good for you”? –Making you the best you can be –Sustaining & strengthening you Or are they –Keeping you from being or becoming strong & self-secure –“The best that I can do at the moment”?

15 15 Rudolph Dreikurs: (Student of Alfred Adler) Belonging (& Mistaken Goals) 1897-1972

16 16 Pain-Based Behavior: Dreikurs’ Mistaken Goals. ^ Attention. Power Seeking. Revenge. Inadequacy/withdrawal.

17 17 Another Way to Determine The Reason Another Way to Determine The Reason ^ If the youngster doesn’t respond to your assessment question, you can still identify the “Mistaken Goal" via these guidelines: If you feel: The student is probably seeking: Annoyed ? Threatened ? Hurt ? Disheartened (at inability to reach this student) ? Disheartened (at inability to reach this student) ? If a student: Then the probable goal is: If a student: Then the probable goal is: Stops a behavior, but then repeats it? Refuses to stop and increases the misbehavior? Becomes violent or hostile? Refuses to cooperate, participate, put forth effort, Refuses to cooperate, participate, put forth effort, or interact?

18 18 Intervening With Mistaken Goal Kids 1. Explain that s/he is not the 1 st kid to feel this way… Experts know about this way of feeling/acting, have studied it for generations, & know of better ways for youngsters to meet their needs. 2. Help him/her devise a plan to meet the needs in more appropriate ways. (Social skills training, anger management, DR procedures, contracts, etc.) 3. Change your actions when confronted by the various behaviors: If the mistaken goal arises again, avoid reacting in the same old way. (No scolding, nagging, yelling, punishing, withdrawing, sending to another, etc.) Draw out, & then positively recognize, the desired replacement behavior.

19 19 Belonging & Our Students Young people who are unconnected to consistently caring adults become distrustful & defiant, using –Fight –Flight –Fool strategies to outmaneuver authority. strategies to outmaneuver authority. These ingrained patterns of behavior are initially generalized to competent & compassionate folks like you until the “test” has been passed. So… How do we pass the test with “relationship resistant” kids? (next slide)

20 20 4 & 5 Precede 1, 2, & 3 Hobbs identified trust as the foundation of all effective assessment & intervention 4. Build positive interpersonal bonds. How so? (Teams) –Create an extensive history of positive interactions. –Use sandwiches when criticizing or offering suggestions. –Be alert for opportunities to “catch ‘em being good”. –State your belief in the youngster’s ability to succeed (academics & behavior). –Interact in a manner that allows the student to feel valued and respected. Speak to him/her with the same consideration given to a valued friend. 5. Create Esprit de Corp in the classroom. But how? (Teams) –Conduct interesting cooperative group activities –Allow only supportive comments in class. No put-downs –Compete against other classrooms –Implement a group reward system. For more info on Driekurs and his model, go to: http://www.behavioradvisor.com/WhyKidsMisbehave.html

21 21 “I’m able to solve problems. I can do it.” In what areas are you masterful, accomplished & competent? (or very proud of your progress/status) What are you good at? What have you achieved? In your position, how do you promote kids’ mastery in –Academics –Social interactions –Self-understanding? Image from Calgary Board of Education, Ecole’ Mayland Heights School schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm

22 22 “I am in charge of my life & make good choices.” In which situations do you pride yourself on your: –Well-directed free will –Confidence & inner strength –Self restraint, self discipline & composure –Assertiveness –Decision making What things do you do to help students develop this admirable quality? Image from Calgary Board of Education, Ecole’ Mayland Heights School schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm

23 23 “I give back. I am helpful.” In which ways do you give to others? Any generous acts in the last 48 hours? What more monumental generous act have you performed in last few months? How do you promote generosity in kids? Image from Calgary Board of Education, Ecole’Mayland Heights School schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm schools.cbe.ab.ca/b223/CircleOfCourage.htm

24 24 Building Generosity NEA video clip of cross-age tutoring by students with emotional & behavioral challenges.

25 25 My last 48 hours (while making this slide show) Directions to tourist. Holding door for mother pushing stroller. Helped up fallen elderly person with Parkinsons. Suggestions to fellow whitewater kayaker. Guidance, direct instruction, & answering questions of my kids. Giving my wife a few well-deserved breaks from the kids while I work on this danged Powerpoint slide show. Giving advise to grad students on coursework. Listening to my mom & helping her with concerns about a break in at her home (lives on other side of state). Helped neighbor construct a water fountain & lent tools Picked up friend at train station. Returned a supportive e-mail to unknown mother concerned about daughter’s behavior.

26 26 Quadrant Quiz. Jackson tries to convince the teacher to allow him more flexibility in situation. The teacher demands immediate compliance in order to avoid a threatened penalty. The student then becomes verbally combative because which C of C growth areas was crushed? Tina stands defends the reputation of a friend that others are impugning. Which quadrant is being accessed? K.C. “disses” T.J. (actions, ethnicity, attire, belongings). T.J. withdraws due to K.C. poking at a “soft spot” in which quadrant (s) ? Wei Chu says “I can’t do this. Why do we have to know this stuff?” Which quadrant needs support? More on next slide

27 27 Quiz (continued) A teacher says “I know that you’ve been let down many times before by people in your life, and there’s no reason to trust me yet, but there will be… because I’m going to stick by you. If you ever think that I’m letting you down, you let me know. We’ll clear up things between us.” This teacher is working with a kid who has concerns located in the _____ quadrant. Despite being extremely upset initially, the student is able to restrain his/her urge to strike out. S/he is able to calm down within 10 minutes without adult intervention. Which quadrant is showing strength?

28 28 Please be “generous” & indulge me Velma studies hard to memorize the lines and actions for the school play. Which quadrant is in play? Velma studies hard to memorize the lines and actions for the school play. She does so to please the drama teacher who has mentored her. Which quadrant is in play? Hector, invited to go over to a friend’s house to play video games, decides instead to stay after school to prepare for the upcoming PSAT with his study group. He tapped into his __________ quadrant.

29 29 This isn’t a quiz! It’s an inquisition! Ali admits to having committed a classroom crime, even though he didn’t do it. He figures that he would have missed recess anyway, as the teacher was going to keep everyone inside until “ the offender confesses ”. His confession allows the rest of the class to go outside. Valin opens her brown paper bag to discover a mashed turnip sandwich. She says “ Yuck ”, and throws it back in the bag. Betty Ann, while really preferring to eat her cold pizza lunch, offers to trade with Valin.

30 30 Which Quadrant (s) ?

31 31 “Psyc h o-Teacher” Which quadrants of the Circle of Courage are involved in the following video clip? In whom? How so? (After our discussion) On the next slide, which column’s traits best describe your: –Student experiences? –Your present school setting?

32 32 From: Brendtro & duTroit (2004) Response Ability Pathways. (RAP training manual)

33 33 The Circle of Courage Applied Orchard School 2 Baldwin Avenue South Burlington, Vermont 05403 802-652-7300 802-658-9037 (fax) “Welcome to the world of nine, ten and eleven year olds. We are a group of students and adults committed to working as a family of learners. Our school lives by the tenets of the Circle of Courage: achievement, generosity, belonging and independence; so do we! ”

34 34 Orchard School Web Site: orchard.sbschools.net/users/mtate/index.htm orchard.sbschools.net/users/mtate/index.htm In 1999, we were asked as a school, "What does Orchard stand for?" As we formulated our response, we found ourselves drawn to the work of Dr. Brendtro, and his work with children at risk. We adapted the concept of the Circle of Courage… and changed the words to fit our school. …teachers begin the year by asking students what each one of the key concepts would look like and sound like in their classrooms. (Click for T chart) Click for T chartClick for T chart In all school assemblies we highlight the four qualities in songs and skits. As our staff develops policies and procedures, we use The Circle as one of our filters.

35 35 4/5 Students’ Photos of the Circle in Action Click for more pics from Orchard School Click for more pics from Orchard School

36 36 Making the Circle Strong: General Teaching & Remediation Principles ^ Belonging is fostered via opportunities to form trusting & supportive attachments to others. Mastery is developed through opportunities to solve problems & strive for goal attainment. Independence is promoted when given chances to take responsibility & self-direction. Generosity is nurtured through opportunities to help, show concern, be kind, & show selflessness.

37 37 Assessing a Student’s Circle Humans are “hard-wired” to connect, solve problems, & restore/maintain harmony. Our “at risk” kids did not get guidance in appropriately meeting their psycho-social needs. Our 1 st question: “Where is The Circle broken?” Which fundamental needs are unmet?) Remember: While we assess students, they assess us: Are we worthy of their trust & confidence?

38 38 Moving Forward Together The Developmental Audit® - utilizes strategies for conducting strength-based assessments. D.A. draws on bio-ecological research & the Circle of Courage resilience model for it’s content/format. A caring, competent adult works WITH the youth to explore problems, strengths, & the goals of behavior. Jointly, they produce a positive growth plan.

39 39 The “Developmental Audit” & “Strength-Based Assessment” ^ View the young person as the primary source of data (although typical assessment procedures are also implemented). Scan the student’s ecology via available records & resources to tap the perspectives of other significant persons. I Scan the student’s ecology via available records & resources to tap the perspectives of other significant persons. Identify: – –Sources of stress & negative influence – –Sources of support & positive influence – –Significant life events – –Student’s “private logic” (Alfred Adler): How s/he perceives events, people, places, & the reasoning behind his/her actions). (Like Ts who feel the student did it “to me” “on purpose”) Identify how the youth copes with challenges & stress in both resilient & self-defeating ways. Determine: –How did this young person come to this point in life? –goals to set & –Which goals to set & specific restorative practices to prescribe that foster personal growth & responsibility.

40 40 Our Challenge: Conduct a Developmental Audit with Scott Locate the listing of traits for each quadrant of the Circle of Courage on pages ** to ** of your packet. Apply the criteria to “Scott” as we peek inside his “lifespace” & “private logic”. Which of his basic psycho-social growth needs could use some bolstering? How might we intervene to help him change for the better? Go now to next slide

41 41 Video Vignette: Scott. Which areas of the Circle of Courage are: –Distorted? –Absent? Which “mistaken goal” (Dreikurs) applies to Scott? When overwhelmed by anxiety or a stressful situation, what is his coping mechanism?? Did you discern any significant life events? What strengths does Scott possess? (even if presently distorted & in need of restructuring) What positive supports already exist in his school & home environments? What other supports would we seek for him?

42 42 Your Challenge: Think of a student (or past pupil, former peer, person you know) whose behavior and/or psyche was “troubled” or “troubling”. 1. Use the Circle of Courage listing of behaviors to determine the areas that are: -strong-distorted-weak-absent. 2. Use Dreikurs’ model to determine the person’s “mistaken goal”. 3. UP NEXT (about 10 minutes) : Be ready to discuss your individual & his/her profile.

43 43 Which findings and/or impressions emerged from your analysis of behaviors? ^ Intervention: “ You’ve been making some big blunders due to : –ignorance –poor judgment –lack of self-discipline. To be successful and happy in life, it’s important to make better choices. You’ve got the potential. I see it when you…. ( identify positive actions). I’m here to help you become what you can be. I know that a lot of people have let you down, and we don’t know each other well enough yet for you to really trust me, but that time will come. I plan on sticking with you. If you think that I’m letting you down at any point, tell me so. We’ll work to clear things up between us. Anyway, let’s get to work together now on a plan that’ll get you to a better place in life.”

44 44 Your Challenge: Based on your person’s errant focus, strengths, & weaknesses, devise a possible plan to help “reclaim” that person. What interventions would you suggest? What resources would you try to acquire to support the reclaiming efforts? Where is our school or program strong in providing for the basic needs? Where do we fall short & how do we correct the shortfalls? Other thoughts & ideas?

45 45 Final item to consider… Are you (becoming) a significant adult who is making ( or will make) the optimal positive impact in a youngster’s life? Being here today indicates that you’re the person to take on such an endeavor.

46 46 Your Thoughts? How do you respond to the information presented today? I can’t wait to try out these ideas. Balderdash!! Balderdash!!Enlightening. Behavioral pablum. Hmm…. It’s the educational version of being soft on crime. My approach has been validated!

47 47 End The slides that follow this one were not included in the workshop, but they might be of interest as you delve further into becoming knowledgeable and skilled in “The Circle of Courage”

48 48 Your Challenge: With others from your school (or by yourself if attending alone) list the ways in which you or your school promote the “4 Spirits” in your junior citizens A sense of belonging Feelings of mastery An independent ability A generous nature (nurture?) How can your classroom & facility/school improve in its reclaiming capacity? Take a few minutes & prepare to bring your examples back to the larger group.

49 49 Hanging Out with the Wrong Crowd Youth who are unconnected to caring adults become distrustful & defiant, using fight/flight/fool strategies to outmaneuver authority. This ingrained action is initially generalized to caring folks (like you) until “the test” has been passed (initially & in retests). They often attempt to meet their psychological need to belong via immersion into negative youth subcultures. How can we reach out rather than strike out? How can we build positive peer cultures?

50 50 For Discussion Is it possible for our programs to offer a sense of belonging that rivals negative youth subcultures? (gangs, outsiders, bullies) Are there general cultural differences in the degree to which each quadrant is important to that group? Do cultures differ on the emphasis given each quadrant, or does the same level of emphasis evidence itself in different ways?

51 51 Enlighten me please How does punishment build a sense of belonging? How do models based on rewards for obedience build inner discipline? How does exclusion from gen ed classes or school build a sense of belonging? How does placing a student with social problems with other kids with social problems help them learn to make better choices?

52 52 How Strong Are Our Qualities? Do you feel angry or hurt if students question or reject your advice or offering of knowledge? If so, which quadrants might be involved? Do you fear a breakdown in your authority if students start exercising autonomy and asking for changes in certain situations? If so, which quadrants might be involved?

53 53 How do you respond to the following premises? “The Circle” addresses 4 universal human needs. The chances that a young person will behave and positively contribute in your classroom are enhanced by his/her belief that you truly care about him/her. Staff members who become embroiled in heated arguments with certain young people have a part of their “Circle” threatened during those episodes. We suspend kids for misbehavior, but not for reading deficiencies because a quadrant of the system’s “Circle” is threatened.

54 54 Complete the T-Chart for Each of the Four Positive Personal Qualities Back to Orchard School slide Back to Orchard School slide By Laura Candler at http://home.att.net/~clnetwork/socialsk.htm Back to Orchard School slide

55 55 R.A.P Response Ability Pathways (Brendtro & duToit, 2005) Places the Circle of Courage into practice “…so that young persons can take pathways to responsibility”. Based on: –Resilience research –Emerging brain research –Research & practice in positive psychology It provides RAP certification involves a 3-day course in essential skills for strength-based work with challenging children & youth. It provides practical strategies for connecting with youth, clarifying problems, & offering support. Another 2 day training session is necessary to become an instructor in the RAP model.

56 56 Resources ^ Reclaiming Youth at Risk: Our Hope for the Future. (2002). Brendtro, Brokenleg, & VanBockern, National Educational Services, Amazon, or ReclaimingBooks.com For an audio version of the "Reclaiming" book http://www.solution- tree.com/Public/Media.aspx?mode=&parent=&ShowDetail=true &ProductID=AUF001 http://www.solution- tree.com/Public/Media.aspx?mode=&parent=&ShowDetail=true &ProductID=AUF001 http://www.solution- tree.com/Public/Media.aspx?mode=&parent=&ShowDetail=true &ProductID=AUF001 Positive Peer Culture (Modern Applications of Social Work) (2 nd ed). Brendtro & Vorrath. ReclaimingBooks.com www.Reclaiming.com www.BehaviorAdvisor.com/CircleOfCourage.html www.PsychoEd.net

57 57Mastery We all have an inborn drive to become competent. With (partial & full) success in meeting challenges, the desire to achieve is strengthened. Strives for personal reasons, not to “beat” others. Views more successful people as role models to be emulated and sought out for teaching, not rivals. Acknowledges the achievements of others. Strives for mastery for personal growth, but not to be superior to someone else.

58 58 Independence Build it by giving only the help necessary. Be patient and supportive as you allow the student to solve a problem or accomplish a goal. In native/first peoples cultures, from earliest childhood, children were given abundant opportunities to make choices, solve problems, & demonstrate personal responsibility. Adults modeled expected behavior, nurtured it in their young, taught values, & provided feedback.

59 59 Generosity Unselfish. In helping others, youth create their own proof of worthiness: they make a positive contribution to another human life. Unselfish. In helping others, youth create their own proof of worthiness: they make a positive contribution to another human life.

60 60 “Rules” for Building the Circle From obedience to a moral code: –SAFETY: Are my actions safe for myself and others? –RESPECT: Do my actions show consideration for myself and others? –HONESTY: Do my words and actions meet the expectation to take care of myself and be a dependable member of the group? –COURAGE: Am I resisting peer pressure or directions that might hurt others? Am I doing the right thing? –COURTESY: Do my actions help to make this place a positive learning climate where people feel welcomed and accepted. Do my actions allow others to do their work without interruption?

61 61 This slide show was developed by: Tom McIntyre Coordinator of the graduate program in behavior disorders Department of Special Education Hunter College New York, NY 1021 Thomas.mcintyre@hunter.cuny.edu www.BehaviorAdvisor.com


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