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The Future of Design for Construction Safety 18 th Annual Construction Safety Conference Rosemont, IL February 12, 2008 John Gambatese, PhD, PE Chair,

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Presentation on theme: "The Future of Design for Construction Safety 18 th Annual Construction Safety Conference Rosemont, IL February 12, 2008 John Gambatese, PhD, PE Chair,"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Future of Design for Construction Safety 18 th Annual Construction Safety Conference Rosemont, IL February 12, 2008 John Gambatese, PhD, PE Chair, ASCE-Construction Institute Prevention Through Design Committee Assoc. Prof., Civil & Construction Engineering, Oregon State University Mike Toole, PhD, PE Vice Chair, ASCE-Construction Institute Prevention Through Design Committee Assoc. Prof., Civil & Env. Engineering, Bucknell University Brad Giles, CSP, PE Vice President ESH&S, URS Washington Division

2 Overview Introduction to DfCS Introduction to DfCS Principles and ProcessPrinciples and Process U.S. and AbroadU.S. and Abroad Resources and examplesResources and examples Lessons from the field Lessons from the field Where DfCS is heading Where DfCS is heading 5 “trajectories”5 “trajectories” The future of DfCS is you! The future of DfCS is you!

3 What is Designing for Construction Safety (DfCS)? The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project The process of addressing construction site safety and health in the design of a project Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion and part of constructability Recognizes construction site safety as a design criterion and part of constructability Also called Prevention through Design (PtD) Also called Prevention through Design (PtD)

4 Why Perform DfCS? It is the right thing to do It is the right thing to do It is the smart thing to do It is the smart thing to do

5 U.S. Construction Accident Statistics 1 Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,200 deaths each year Nearly 200,000 serious injuries and 1,200 deaths each year 7% of workforce but 21% of fatalities 7% of workforce but 21% of fatalities Every statistic had a name….. Every statistic had a name….. 1 Bureau of Labor Statistics-2005 photo credit: New York Times

6 Accidents Linked to Design 1,2 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA 22% of 226 injuries that occurred from 2000-2002 in Oregon, WA and CA 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990- 2003 42% of 224 fatalities in US between 1990- 2003 In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted in part from decisions made before site work began In Europe, a 1991 study concluded that 60% of fatal accidents resulted in part from decisions made before site work began 1 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept”, 2005 2 European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

7 Considering Safety During Design Offers the Most Payoff 1 Conceptual Design Detailed Engineering Procurement Construction Start-up High Low Ability to Influence Safety Project Schedule 1 Szymberski 1987

8 Designing for Safety Pays Reduced workers compensation premiums Reduced workers compensation premiums Increased productivity Increased productivity Fewer delays due to accidents Fewer delays due to accidents Allows continued focus on qualityAllows continued focus on quality Proactive clients Proactive clients Starting to demand safer construction and safer designsStarting to demand safer construction and safer designs

9 Example of the Need for DfCS Design spec: Dig groundwater monitoring wells at various locations. Wells located directly under overhead power lines. Accident: Worker electrocuted when his drill rig got too close to overhead power lines. Engineer could have: specified wells be dug away from power lines; and/or better informed the contractor of hazard posed by wells’ proximity to powerlines through the plans, specifications, and bid documents.

10 Example: Parapet Walls IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high IBC paragraph 704.11.1 requires that a parapet wall be at least 30 inches high OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a OSHA 1926 Subpart M requires a 36-42 inch guardrail or other fall protection 36-42 inch guardrail or other fall protection If the design professional specifies a If the design professional specifies a 36-42 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required 36-42 inch high parapet wall, fall protection would not be required

11 Example: Anchorage Points

12 Examples: Prefabrication Steel stairs Concrete Wall Panels Concrete Segmented Bridge

13 DfCS Examples: Roofs Skylights Upper story windows and roof parapets

14 The Erector Friendly Column The Erector Friendly Column Include holes in columns at 21” and 42” for guardrail cables and at higher locations for fall protection tie-offsInclude holes in columns at 21” and 42” for guardrail cables and at higher locations for fall protection tie-offs Locate column splices and connections at reasonable heights above floorLocate column splices and connections at reasonable heights above floor Provide seats for beam connectionsProvide seats for beam connections

15 Avoid hanging connections Avoid hanging connections Design connections to bear on columnsDesign connections to bear on columns

16 Avoid awkward and dangerous connection locations Avoid awkward and dangerous connection locations

17 Avoid tripping hazards Avoid tripping hazards

18 Eliminate sharp corners Eliminate sharp corners

19 Provide enough space for making connections Provide enough space for making connections

20 Know approximate dimensions of necessary tools to make connections Know approximate dimensions of necessary tools to make connections

21 Other DfCS Design Examples Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technologies 1 Design underground utilities to be placed using trenchless technologies 1 Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products 2 Specify primers, sealers and other coatings that do not emit noxious fumes or contain carcinogenic products 2 Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers 3 Design cable type lifeline system for storage towers 3 1 Weinstein et al., “Can Design Improve Construction Safety” (2005) 2 Gambatese et al., “Viability of Designing for Construction Worker Safety” (2005) 3 Behm, “Linking Construction Fatalities to the Design for Construction Safety Concept” (2005)

22 DfCS Resources www.designforconstructionsafety.org www.designforconstructionsafety.org www.designforconstructionsafety.org OSHA workgroup 2-4 hour powerpoint OSHA workgroup 2-4 hour powerpoint Construction Industry Institute database Construction Industry Institute database www.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_mo re.cfmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_mo re.cfmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_mo re.cfmwww.construction- institute.org/scriptcontent/more/rr101_11_mo re.cfm CHAIR CHAIR www.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/ SafetyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htmwww.workcover.nsw.gov.au/Publications/OHS/ SafetyGuides/chairsafetyindesigntool.htm United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides United Kingdom Health & Safety Executive designer guides www.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index. htmwww.hse.gov.uk/construction/designers/index. htm

23 Example from: www.hse.go v.uk/constru ction/design ers www.hse.go v.uk/constru ction/design ers www.hse.go v.uk/constru ction/design ers

24 Barriers to DfCS Like many good ideas, DfCS faces barriers: Like many good ideas, DfCS faces barriers: Contract termsContract terms Added costsAdded costs Designers’ fear of liabilityDesigners’ fear of liability Designers’ lack of knowledgeDesigners’ lack of knowledge Potential solutions to these barriers involve long-term education and institutional changes. Potential solutions to these barriers involve long-term education and institutional changes.

25 Example Construction Site Accident #1 Fall from Elevation

26 Project: Project: McNairy Dam Fish FacilityMcNairy Dam Fish Facility Project Description: Project Description: Construction of a laboratory visitor center, a large fish collection facility, and power line from the dam to the visitor’s center.Construction of a laboratory visitor center, a large fish collection facility, and power line from the dam to the visitor’s center. Location: Location: Columbia River, OregonColumbia River, Oregon Example Construction Site Accident

27 Owner/Engineer: Owner/Engineer: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE)U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE) General Contractor: Heart Construction General Contractor: Heart Construction Electrical Subcontractor: J&J Electric Electrical Subcontractor: J&J Electric Scope of work: Install electrical lines and controls throughout the project.Scope of work: Install electrical lines and controls throughout the project. Company owners (brothers):Company owners (brothers): Frank Jones (on-site project superintendent) Frank Jones (on-site project superintendent) Jerry Jones (office manager, some work on-site) Jerry Jones (office manager, some work on-site) Example Construction Site Accident

28 Project background: Project background: Fish containment area consists of an upper working level and a lower fish collection level.Fish containment area consists of an upper working level and a lower fish collection level. Upper level constructed of steel framing supporting galvanized metal removable grating. (3 feet wide x 4 feet long sections)Upper level constructed of steel framing supporting galvanized metal removable grating. (3 feet wide x 4 feet long sections) Mechanical and electrical equipment is located on the upper level.Mechanical and electrical equipment is located on the upper level. Example Construction Site Accident

29 Project background: Project background: Elevation of lower level is 30 feet below the upper level, except for a concrete ledge along one wall which is 3 feet below the upper level.Elevation of lower level is 30 feet below the upper level, except for a concrete ledge along one wall which is 3 feet below the upper level. No permanent access (stairway, ladder, etc.) is available between the upper and lower levels.No permanent access (stairway, ladder, etc.) is available between the upper and lower levels. Lower level is under water during normal operation.Lower level is under water during normal operation. Example Construction Site Accident

30 April 23: April 23: Fish containment area construction complete.Fish containment area construction complete. Electrical system testing under way.Electrical system testing under way. Frank, Jerry, and several Heart employees enter the upper level of the fish containment area to prepare a test of the equipment controls before opening the facility.Frank, Jerry, and several Heart employees enter the upper level of the fish containment area to prepare a test of the equipment controls before opening the facility. Example Construction Site Accident

31 April 23: April 23: Frank and Jerry work on the first control panel.Frank and Jerry work on the first control panel. After the first control panel is completed, Jerry proceeds south to the second control panel and begins to work.After the first control panel is completed, Jerry proceeds south to the second control panel and begins to work. Frank remains at the first control panel talking to the Heart employees.Frank remains at the first control panel talking to the Heart employees. Example Construction Site Accident

32 April 23: April 23: Heart employee, George, sees an obstruction on the ledge 3 feet below.Heart employee, George, sees an obstruction on the ledge 3 feet below. George walks over next to Jerry and removes a section of metal grating to go down to the lower level. The section of grating was not secured with fasteners.George walks over next to Jerry and removes a section of metal grating to go down to the lower level. The section of grating was not secured with fasteners. George jumps down to the ledge (3 feet below) and replaces the grating above him, but does not correctly place the grating over the bolts.George jumps down to the ledge (3 feet below) and replaces the grating above him, but does not correctly place the grating over the bolts. Example Construction Site Accident

33 April 23: April 23: While sliding the grating back into place, George says to Jerry that he didn’t want anyone to step in the opening.While sliding the grating back into place, George says to Jerry that he didn’t want anyone to step in the opening. Jerry hears George say something, but does not understand because of the high noise level.Jerry hears George say something, but does not understand because of the high noise level. After a few minutes of working on the second control panel, Jerry calls to Frank to bring him a wrench.After a few minutes of working on the second control panel, Jerry calls to Frank to bring him a wrench. Example Construction Site Accident

34 April 23: April 23: Frank walks over to hand Jerry the wrench.Frank walks over to hand Jerry the wrench. Frank steps on the grating that George replaced and falls through to the lower level 30 feet below.Frank steps on the grating that George replaced and falls through to the lower level 30 feet below. Frank sustains head, back, and neck injuries.Frank sustains head, back, and neck injuries. Frank now performs only minor office work, rather than on-site work.Frank now performs only minor office work, rather than on-site work. J&J profits are less since the accident.J&J profits are less since the accident. Example Construction Site Accident

35 Additional information: Additional information: The grating fastener system was not part of the original design. The fastener system was proposed by Heart Construction as a change, and accepted by the Engineer.The grating fastener system was not part of the original design. The fastener system was proposed by Heart Construction as a change, and accepted by the Engineer. Special wrenches are required to install and remove the grating fasteners. Two wrenches, owned by Heart, were available on the jobsite. The wrenches were sometimes lost or misplaced and not available.Special wrenches are required to install and remove the grating fasteners. Two wrenches, owned by Heart, were available on the jobsite. The wrenches were sometimes lost or misplaced and not available. Example Construction Site Accident

36 Additional information: Additional information: Heart Construction held weekly project safety meetings. Jerry attended only one meeting.Heart Construction held weekly project safety meetings. Jerry attended only one meeting. During previous safety meetings, concerns were brought up about lack of support for the grating sections at locations where portions of the sections were modified. Occasionally wood was placed across the grating to provide additional support.During previous safety meetings, concerns were brought up about lack of support for the grating sections at locations where portions of the sections were modified. Occasionally wood was placed across the grating to provide additional support. Example Construction Site Accident

37 Additional information: Additional information: A temporary ladder between the upper and lower levels which was located several yards from the accident site was removed before the accident.A temporary ladder between the upper and lower levels which was located several yards from the accident site was removed before the accident. Example Construction Site Accident

38 Questions… Questions… How could the accident have been prevented?How could the accident have been prevented? What could have been done in the design and/or the design phase to prevent the accident?What could have been done in the design and/or the design phase to prevent the accident?

39 Example Construction Site Accident #2 Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals

40 Fan #2 Fan #1 Roof 2nd Floor 1st Floor Testing Lab Offices Example Construction Site Accident

41  Scheduled completion date: July 15  July 15: Conduct punchlist inspection Punchlist includes window cleaning, replace cracked cover plates, touch-up paint, door alignment, replace scratched millwork, correct noise from Fan #2, etc. Punchlist includes window cleaning, replace cracked cover plates, touch-up paint, door alignment, replace scratched millwork, correct noise from Fan #2, etc.  July 15: Project is defined as substantially complete.  July 16: Owner occupies a portion of the facility.  July 17: Testing lab begins to function. Example Construction Site Accident

42  July 19: Electrician’s employee shuts off power to Fan #2 to trouble shoot the problem. Electrician’s employee shuts off power to Fan #2 to trouble shoot the problem. Lab technician conducts chemical analysis at the same time. Lab technician conducts chemical analysis at the same time. Electrician’s employee determines belt alignment is the problem. It is corrected. Electrician’s employee determines belt alignment is the problem. It is corrected. Power is restored; employee forgets to replace fan belt guard. Power is restored; employee forgets to replace fan belt guard. Lab technician complains of headache. Lab technician complains of headache. Example Construction Site Accident

43 Fan #2 Fan #1 Roof 2nd Floor 1st Floor Testing Lab Offices Fan is turned off Duct line has positive pressure What happens when fan #2 is turned off?

44  July 20: Contractor is informed by owner of lab technician’s headache and its cause. Contractor is informed by owner of lab technician’s headache and its cause. Contractor instructs all sub’s to turn in their building keys. Contractor instructs all sub’s to turn in their building keys. Sub’s are instructed to gain access only by owner or contractor personnel. Sub’s are instructed to gain access only by owner or contractor personnel. Contractor does not explain the reason for the new policy. Contractor does not explain the reason for the new policy. Example Construction Site Accident

45  July 28: Electrician’s employee shuts off power to Fan #2 to replace the fan belt guard. Electrician’s employee shuts off power to Fan #2 to replace the fan belt guard. Lab technician conducts chemical analysis as the guard is replaced. Lab technician conducts chemical analysis as the guard is replaced. Guard is replaced in 10 minutes. Guard is replaced in 10 minutes. Power to Fan #2 is restored. Power to Fan #2 is restored. Lab technician dies at the work station from exposure to deadly chemicals. Lab technician dies at the work station from exposure to deadly chemicals. Example Construction Site Accident

46 Questions… Questions… How could the accident have been prevented?How could the accident have been prevented? What could have been done in the design and/or the design phase to prevent the accident?What could have been done in the design and/or the design phase to prevent the accident?

47 “Safety Considerations in Design” Implementing DfCS in Practice

48 How it Started Content started in “Constructability” reviews by Project Management Teams working with engineering.

49 Educational Limitations Limited amount of safety training required in engineering educational activities.

50 Presented to: Engineers Engineers Designers Designers Estimators Estimators Contract Administrators Contract Administrators Procurement Professionals Procurement Professionals Over 2,000 Over the Last Year

51 Awareness Involvement in Design Build Activities with our own employees increased the awareness.

52 Safety Qualified Supervisor Two Day Training 10-Hour OSHA Construction Safety 10-Hour OSHA Construction Safety Economics of Safety Economics of Safety Supervisor Responsibilities and Accountability Supervisor Responsibilities and Accountability Work Planning/Job Hazard Analysis Work Planning/Job Hazard Analysis Control of Energy Control of Energy “Safety Consideration in Design” “Safety Consideration in Design” STS Safety Trained Supervisor Certification

53 Reference Materials Construction Safety Management and Engineering – ASSE Construction Safety Management and Engineering – ASSE Construction Safety Engineering Principles – David MacCollum Construction Safety Engineering Principles – David MacCollum Safety and Health Engineering – Roger Brauer Safety and Health Engineering – Roger Brauer

54 Relevant Data Utilization of Company specific examples and applications.

55 Client/Regulator Interest OSHA OSHA NIOSH NIOSH Corps of Engineers Corps of Engineers Navy Navy Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board

56 Example in Case Study – OSHA Website “Washington Group International Designs and Builds a Waste Treatment Facility.” http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/success_stories/alliances/washington /washington_group_case_study.html#Sidebar3

57 Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Facility (AMWTF) http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/success_stories/alliances/washington/washington_ group_case_study.htm#3Sidebar3

58 Objectives Prevent injuries and accidents: Develop and/or expand engineering principles of Inherently Safer Design for Construction. Develop and/or expand engineering principles of Inherently Safer Design for Construction. Implement/educate engineering and design staff in hazard identification and legal responsibilities. Implement/educate engineering and design staff in hazard identification and legal responsibilities. Implement specific aims and goals for Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction. Implement specific aims and goals for Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction.

59 Training Discusses Why designers should care about designing for construction worker safety. Why designers should care about designing for construction worker safety. Opportunities for designing for construction worker safety. Opportunities for designing for construction worker safety. Barrier for designing for construction worker safety. Barrier for designing for construction worker safety.

60 Five Principles of Inherently Safer Design Principles for Construction Definition of a Hazard Definition of a Hazard Establish a Standard of Safe Design Establish a Standard of Safe Design Categorize the Hazard Categorize the Hazard Establish Safe Design Hierarchy Establish Safe Design Hierarchy Control the Hazard with Appropriate Design Control the Hazard with Appropriate Design

61 Order of Precedence for Addressing Safety Hazards 1.Design to eliminate or avoid the hazard 2.Design to reduce the hazard 3.Incorporate safety devices after the fact 4.Provide warning devices 5.Institute training and operating procedures

62 Hazard Identification Matrix Eliminate the Hazard Guard the Hazard Provide a Safety Factor Provide Redundancy Provide Reliability HazardSafetyHazardSafetyHazardSafetyHazardSafety Natural Structural/ Mechanical Electrical Chemical Radiant Energy Biological Artificial Intelligence

63 Safety in Design for Material Handling and Storage Facilities Number One Concern is the Machinery, Material and Human Interface. Number One Concern is the Machinery, Material and Human Interface. Categorize the Hazards Using the Seven Hazard Sources for Material Handling and Storage Facilities. Categorize the Hazards Using the Seven Hazard Sources for Material Handling and Storage Facilities. Use the Safe Design Hierarchy to Physically eliminate the hazards identified for Material Handling and Storage facilities. Use the Safe Design Hierarchy to Physically eliminate the hazards identified for Material Handling and Storage facilities. Develop a Hazard Identification Matrix to document your findings and design the hazards from the Material Handling and Storage Facilities. Develop a Hazard Identification Matrix to document your findings and design the hazards from the Material Handling and Storage Facilities.

64 List all the hazards involved with material handling and storage facilities. Natural Hazards: Natural Hazards: A.Gravity 1.Falls same level 1.Fall from elevation 1.Falling objects 1.Impact 1.Acceleration B. Slopes 1. Upset 1.Rollover 1.Sliding 4.Unstable surfaces A.Limitations on Human Performance Natural Hazards: Natural Hazards: Slip, tripsSlip, trips Improperly secured materials on trucks, structures, cranes and on the ground.Improperly secured materials on trucks, structures, cranes and on the ground. Traffic and personnelTraffic and personnel Drainage ditchesDrainage ditches Weather roadway and walkway maintenanceWeather roadway and walkway maintenance Potential for unstable surfacesPotential for unstable surfaces

65 Designing for Safety Pays Reduced workers compensation premiums Reduced workers compensation premiums Increased productivity Increased productivity Fewer delays due to accidents during construction allow continued focus on quality Fewer delays due to accidents during construction allow continued focus on quality Proactive clients are starting to demand safer construction and safety designs. Proactive clients are starting to demand safer construction and safety designs.

66 Case Study #1 Circulator Pumps

67 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps

68 Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder. Replacing circulator pumps requires a ladder. Pumps are located in a tight space.Pumps are located in a tight space. Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping. Maintenance worker could fall off ladder, drop pump, or suffer hand injury from hitting adjacent piping.

69 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps Design review questions- Is there enough room to replace the pumps? Is there enough room to replace the pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps? How high off the ground are the pumps? What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve in an emergency? What if a maintenance worker has to shut off a valve in an emergency?

70 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps Identify Hazard – Fall and mechanical Fall and mechanical

71 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps Assess Risk – Severity- slight (knuckles) to serious Severity- slight (knuckles) to serious (head injury) (head injury) Probability- medium (likely) Probability- medium (likely) Risk- low to medium Risk- low to medium Additional consideration – Solution is simple and inexpensive

72 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps DfCS solutions: DfCS solutions: design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is not required;design pumps close to ground level so that a ladder is not required; provide adequate space around pumps;provide adequate space around pumps; provide a metal identification tag for each valve; andprovide a metal identification tag for each valve; and provide a permanent identification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and it’s purpose.provide a permanent identification board in the mechanical room that identifies each valve and it’s purpose.

73 Case Study #1 - Circulator Pumps

74 Case Study #2 Installation\Maintenance of HVAC System in Attic

75 Case Study #2 - Install\Maint. of HVAC System in Attic HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building HVAC System installed in the attic of a commercial office building No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed No floor or platform/walkways were designed or installed HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses HVAC technicians had to walk on joists/trusses

76 Case Study #2 - Install\Maint. of HVAC System in Attic

77 Design review questions: Design review questions: What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? What will workers stand on when installing HVAC system? Will regular maintenance be required? Will regular maintenance be required? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What will the maintenance workers stand on? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations? What are the pertinent OSHA regulations?

78 Case Study #2 - Install\Maint. of HVAC System in Attic Identify hazard – FALL FALL

79 Case Study #2 - Install\Maint. of HVAC System in Attic Assess Risk – Severity- serious (knee) to severe Severity- serious (knee) to severe (death) (death) Probability- medium (likely) Probability- medium (likely) Risk- medium to high Risk- medium to high

80 Case Study #2 - Install\Maint. of HVAC System in Attic DfCS solution: DfCS solution: design permanent work platforms and walkways with guardrailsdesign permanent work platforms and walkways with guardrails

81 Case Study #3 Raw Coal Reclaim Facility

82 Case Study #3 - Raw Coal Reclaim Facility Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area. Plant utility worker was fatally injured while performing clean-up duties at a raw coal reclaim area. Victim either fell through a 56” x 80” opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening. Victim either fell through a 56” x 80” opening in a platform or entered through a coal feeder opening. 1 Case study courtesy of Washington Group International

83 Case Study #3 - Raw Coal Reclaim Facility Design review questions: Design review questions: Will workers need to have access to conveyors? Will workers need to have access to conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrails provided for all openings near or over conveyors? Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked? Are covers and/or guardrail gates interlocked?

84 Case Study #3 - Raw Coal Reclaim Facility

85 Identify hazard: Mechanical Mechanical

86 Case Study #3 - Raw Coal Reclaim Facility Assess Risk – Severity- severe (death) Severity- severe (death) Probability- medium to high Probability- medium to high Risk- high Risk- high

87 Case Study #3 - Raw Coal Reclaim Facility DfCS solution: DfCS solution: Design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts.Design covers and/or guardrails over conveyor belts and opening to conveyor belts. Design interlocks for covers and gates.Design interlocks for covers and gates.

88 Case Study #4 Blind Penetration into Concrete

89 Case Study #4 - Blind Penetration into Concrete 1 A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete beam to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface. A construction worker penetrated an embedded electrical conduit containing an energized 120-volt line while hand drilling into a concrete beam to install pipe hanger inserts. The conduit was 1 inch from the surface. 1 Dept. of Energy Blind Penetration Incidents

90 Case Study #4 - Blind Penetration into Concrete Design review questions: How will the worker install the pipe hangers? Are there any electrical lines in the concrete beam? Are there any pipe hangers that will be near an electrical line?

91 Case Study #4 - Blind Penetration into Concrete Assess Risk- Severity- severe (death) Severity- severe (death) Probability- moderate to medium Probability- moderate to medium Risk- medium to high Risk- medium to high

92 Case Study #4 - Blind Penetration into Concrete DfCS Solutions: DfCS Solutions: Design embedded electrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts.Design embedded electrical lines deeper than the maximum depth of the pipe hanger bolts. Clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawings.Clearly mark locations of electrical lines on contract drawings.

93 National Initiatives OSHA Construction Alliance Roundtable DfCS Workgroup OSHA Construction Alliance Roundtable DfCS Workgroup NIOSH NORA Construction Sector Council CHPtD Workgroup and Prevention Through Design National Workshop (July 2007) NIOSH NORA Construction Sector Council CHPtD Workgroup and Prevention Through Design National Workshop (July 2007) ASCE-CI PtD Committee ASCE-CI PtD Committee

94 OSHA Construction Alliance DfCS Workgroup Members Amer. Society of Civil Engineers-Construction Institute Amer. Society of Civil Engineers-Construction Institute American Society of Safety Engineers American Society of Safety Engineers Independent Electrical Contractors Independent Electrical Contractors ADSC: International Association of Foundation Drilling ADSC: International Association of Foundation Drilling Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America Laborers Health and Safety Fund of North America Mason Contractors Association of America Mason Contractors Association of America National Fire Protection Association National Fire Protection Association National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health National Institute for Occupational Safety & Health Sealant, Waterproofing and Restoration Institute Sealant, Waterproofing and Restoration Institute Washington Group International Washington Group International

95 Five DfCS Trajectories 1. Increased prefabrication 2. Increased use of less hazardous materials and systems 3. Increased application of construction engineering 4. Increased spatial investigation and consideration 5. Increased collaboration and integration

96 Increased Prefabrication Shift site work to safer work site environment Shift site work to safer work site environment elevation to groundelevation to ground underground to gradeunderground to grade confined space to open spaceconfined space to open space Shift site work to factory Shift site work to factory Allows use of safer, automated equipmentAllows use of safer, automated equipment Provides safer, engineered environmentProvides safer, engineered environment

97 Increased Use of Less Hazardous Materials and Systems Coatings, sealants, cleaners Coatings, sealants, cleaners Building systems Building systems Steel, concrete, masonry, woodSteel, concrete, masonry, wood

98 Increased Construction Engineering Examples of construction engineering Examples of construction engineering Soil retention systemsSoil retention systems Crane liftsCrane lifts Temporary loadsTemporary loads Temporary structuresTemporary structures Fall protection anchorage pointsFall protection anchorage points Why are designers increasingly involved Why are designers increasingly involved Growth of design-buildGrowth of design-build Their understanding of structure and siteTheir understanding of structure and site

99 Increased Spatial Investigation Communicating site hazards on project documents Communicating site hazards on project documents Working distances for each trade Working distances for each trade Cranes and powerlinesCranes and powerlines Excavation dimensions for work withinExcavation dimensions for work within Steel connectionsSteel connections Raceways and plumbing pipesRaceways and plumbing pipes Ergonomic issues Ergonomic issues OverheadOverhead Awkward anglesAwkward angles

100 Example DfCS Process Design Kickoff Design Internal Review Issue for Construction External Review Trade contractor involvement Establish design for safety expectations Include construction and operation perspective Identify design for safety process and tools QA/QC Cross- discipline review Focused safety review Owner review

101 Facilitating Collaboration Having designers interact with constructors Having designers interact with constructors Having specialists interact with generalist planners Having specialists interact with generalist planners Implications for contracting/delivery method Implications for contracting/delivery method

102 Implications for Education of Design Engineers Shift in mindset Shift in mindset Holistic view Holistic view Exposure to DfCS fundamentals Exposure to DfCS fundamentals Training in system-specific DfCS opportunities Training in system-specific DfCS opportunities Engineering course-specific DfCS modules Engineering course-specific DfCS modules

103 Implications for Contracting New contract terms needed New contract terms needed Design-Bid-Build typically hinders collaboration during design Design-Bid-Build typically hinders collaboration during design Design-Build and Design+Negotiated construction better facilitate collaboration Design-Build and Design+Negotiated construction better facilitate collaboration

104 Implications for Use of Information Technology IT represents efficient means for providing designers with information needed to perform DfCS IT represents efficient means for providing designers with information needed to perform DfCS Manufacturers must make DfCS information available Manufacturers must make DfCS information available All entities will need IT to facilitate communication, collaboration, integration All entities will need IT to facilitate communication, collaboration, integration

105 What do you think? How can we reduce barriers to DfCS? How can we reduce barriers to DfCS? Designers’ fear of liabilityDesigners’ fear of liability Designers’ lack of knowledgeDesigners’ lack of knowledge

106 Where Do You Fit In? Initiate or expand DfCS in your company Initiate or expand DfCS in your company Share information about your DfCS program Share information about your DfCS program Provide data to make the business case for DfCS Provide data to make the business case for DfCS Serve as a case study Serve as a case study Participate in the OSHA workgroup and/or the ASCE-CI PtD Committee Participate in the OSHA workgroup and/or the ASCE-CI PtD Committee

107 Summary Designing for construction safety is: Designing for construction safety is: the right thing to do, andthe right thing to do, and the smart thing to do.the smart thing to do. Many countries require or promote designing for safety Many countries require or promote designing for safety National organizations are working to create tools, eliminate barriers and facilitate adoption of this important process in the United States National organizations are working to create tools, eliminate barriers and facilitate adoption of this important process in the United States Your participation is needed! Your participation is needed!

108 Thanks for Participating! Questions? Comments? Questions? Comments? john.gambatese@oregonstate.edu john.gambatese@oregonstate.edu john.gambatese@oregonstate.edu mike.toole@bucknell.edu mike.toole@bucknell.edu mike.toole@bucknell.edu Brad.giles@wgint.com Brad.giles@wgint.com Brad.giles@wgint.com

109 The following slides are just in case someone asks….

110 Barrier: Contract Terms Model contracts between owner and designer and general conditions between owner and contractor explicitly reject designer role in safety Potential Solution: Revise the model contracts

111 Barrier: Increased Designer Costs Associated with DfCS While DfCS results in decreased total project life cycle costs for the owner, DfCS processes will increase both direct and overhead costs for designers. While DfCS results in decreased total project life cycle costs for the owner, DfCS processes will increase both direct and overhead costs for designers. : Educate owners that they must be willing to pay slightly higher design fees to save themselves money in the long run. Potential solution: Educate owners that they must be willing to pay slightly higher design fees to save themselves money in the long run.

112 Barrier: Designers' Fear of Liability Barrier: Fear of undeserved liability for worker safety. Potential solution: Clearly communicate the DfCS initiative does NOT suggest designers should be held responsible for construction accidents. Potential solution: Propose legislation is facilitate designing for construction safety without inappropriately shifting safety duties and liability onto designers.

113 Barrier: Designers' Lack of Safety Expertise Barrier: Few design professionals possess sufficient expertise in construction safety. Barrier: Few design professionals possess sufficient expertise in construction safety. : include construction safety in construction, engineering and architectural curricula. Potential solution: include construction safety in construction, engineering and architectural curricula. : Develop and promote 10-hour and 30-hour OSHA courses for design professionals. Potential solution: Develop and promote 10-hour and 30-hour OSHA courses for design professionals.

114 The Washington Group’s Training Initiative The Washington Group International provides safe design training to: The Washington Group International provides safe design training to: EngineeringEngineering DesignDesign ProcurementProcurement ContractsContracts EstimatingEstimating

115 WG’s Safety Qualified Supervisor Training 2 Day Training 2 Day Training 10-Hour OSHA Construction Safety 10-Hour OSHA Construction Safety Economics of Safety Economics of Safety Safety Res. & Accountability Safety Res. & Accountability Work Planning & Job Hazard Analysis Work Planning & Job Hazard Analysis Safety Construction & Design Safety Construction & Design

116 An Ounce of Prevention is Worth a Pound of Cure Order of precedence for addressing safety hazards Order of precedence for addressing safety hazards 1.Design to eliminate or avoid the hazard 2.Design to reduce the hazard 3.Incorporate safety devices after the fact 4.Provide warning devices 5.Institute training and operating procedures (Source: Manuele, F.A., “On the Practice of Safety.” Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, NY, 1997.)


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