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1 Stockyard layout (re)design 13-05-2013 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Stockyard layout (re)design Delft University of Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Stockyard layout (re)design 13-05-2013 Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Stockyard layout (re)design Delft University of Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Stockyard layout (re)design Challenge the future Delft University of Technology Stockyard layout (re)design Delft University of Technology G. Lodewijks, T.A. van Vianen and J.A. Ottjes Faculty 3ME, Transport Engineering & Logistics

2 2 Stockyard layout (re)design Export Terminal Saldanha Bay SA 2

3 3 Stockyard layout (re)design Bulk terminal simulation

4 4 Stockyard layout (re)design Content 1.Stockyard functions 2.Stockyard machines 3.The machine selection for capacity & blending or homogenizing 4.The machine selection for the storage of bulk materials 5.CASE: stockyard layout design for an import terminal 6.Summary Delwaidedok, Antwerp (Courtesy HeliHolland/Kees Vlot)

5 5 Stockyard layout (re)design 1. Stockyard functions

6 6 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard functions

7 7 Stockyard layout (re)design 2. Stockyard machines

8 8 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines - Overview (1) Handling coal using wheel loaders and mobile feed bunker (Courtesy N.M. Heilig BV) Stacking of coal using a stacker (Courtesy ThyssenKrupp)Circular storage (Courtesy HeliHolland/ Kees Vlot)

9 9 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines - Overview (2) Bucket wheel reclaimer (Courtesy FAM) Bucket wheel stacker/reclaimer, left: stacking, right: reclaiming (Courtesy ThyssenKrupp)

10 10 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines - Overview (3) Double sided bridge scraper reclaimer (Courtesy ThyssenKrupp) Reclaiming with a side scraper and stacking with an overhead belt conveyor (Courtesy Taim Weser)

11 11 Stockyard layout (re)design 3. The machine selection for capacity & blending or homogenizing

12 12 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines - Effective capacity ratio (1) During terminal (re)design, the effective capacity ratio is essential to prevent selecting a machine with insufficient capacity Effective capacity ratio for a bucket wheel reclaimer relates to the used reclaiming method Long-travel reclaiming method Slewing bench reclaiming method

13 13 Stockyard layout (re)design Slewing reclaiming method A) top view and B) lateral view

14 14 Stockyard layout (re)design Nominal reclaiming capacity: Para- meter DescriptionValueUnitPara- meter DescriptionValueUnit hshs Slice height4.5[m]r bw Radius of bucket wheel4.5[m] ΔxMax. chip thickness1[m]ω ss Minimum slewing speed0.145[rad/min] ρmρm Bulk density coal0.8[t/m 3 ]ω sm Maximum slewing speed0.58[rad/min] lblb Boom length60[m]asas Maximum slewing acceleration/ deceleration 0.5[rad/min 2 ]

15 15 Stockyard layout (re)design Reclaiming capacity for the slewing bench reclaiming method relates to (i) slice cross-sectional area, (ii) the slewing speed and (iii) bulk density of the reclaimed material. The reclaim capacity can be kept stable with an increase of the slewing speed Without slewing speed adjustmentWith slewing speed adjustment

16 16 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines - Effective capacity ratio (2) The effective capacity ratio was calculated for bucket wheel reclaimers for the long-travel and the slewing-bench reclaiming method. Para- meter DescriptionValueUnitPara- meter DescriptionValueUnit ltlt Total pile’s length325[m]hSlice height4.5[m] wPile’s width50[m]ΔxMaximum chip thickness1[m] hHeight of the pile18[m]lblb Boom length60[m] ρmρm Bulk density coal0.8[t/m 3 ]r bw Radius of bucket wheel4.5[m] αAngle of repose38[°]ω ss Start slewing speed0.25[rad/min] vtvt Travelling speed10[m/min]ω sm Maximum slewing speed0.58[rad/min] atat Travel acceleration and deceleration 0.15[m/min 2 ]asas Maximum slewing acceleration & deceleration 0.5[rad/min 2 ] yDistance centerline machine to pile 10[m]

17 17 Stockyard layout (re)design The effective capacity ratio was for the long-travel reclaiming method 75% and for the slewing bench reclaiming method 45% Reclaiming capacity during a time interval of 40 hours for two reclaiming methods Note: these ratios are not general but were derived using specific input parameters

18 18 Stockyard layout (re)design Reclaiming efficiency versus the pile's length for the long-travel reclaiming method

19 19 Stockyard layout (re)design Stockyard machines Main Characteristics Machine typeMaximum capacity [t/h] Effective capacity ratio [-] Stockpile width [m] Reclaiming method to the pile Stacker10, Radial stacker8, Ø120- Side scraper reclaimer 1, Alongside Single boom portal scraper reclaimer 2, Alongside Double boom portal scraper reclaimer 4, Alongside Bridge scraper reclaimer 1, At the face Bridge bucket wheel reclaimer 10, At the face Drum reclaimer4, At the face Bucket wheel reclaimer 12, Alongside

20 20 Stockyard layout (re)design Blending or homogenizing machines Stacking is the starting point of the blending process. Generally there are four basic stacking methods Reclaimer machine Stacking method Cone Shell ChevronStrataWindrow Single scraper reclaimer and Portal scraper reclaimer Bridge scraper reclaimer Bridge bucket wheel reclaimer Drum reclaimer Bucket wheel reclaimer

21 21 Stockyard layout (re)design 4. The machine selection for the storage of bulk materials Selection of archetype Cost calculation Operational performance

22 22 Stockyard layout (re)design Multi-purpose machine (stacker/reclaimer) or two single-purpose machines (stacker and reclaimer) Two layout archetypes Selection of archetype

23 23 Stockyard layout (re)design Selection must be based on the archetype’s investment cost and performance It was assumed that the machine investment cost relates to its weight Stacker/reclaimers weight versus capacities as function of boom length Price per meter for belt conveyors versus its transport capacity and the belt conveyor investment cost relates to its capacity Cost calculation

24 24 Stockyard layout (re)design The performance at dry bulk terminals is generally expressed in the total time that ships and trains spend in the port The port time is the sum of the waiting time and service time The ships waiting time relates to: Interarrival time distribution Carrier tonnage distribution The ship (un)loader utilization Mean service rate Mean arrival rate Queuing theory formulas or simulation Operational performance

25 25 Stockyard layout (re)design 5. Case: stockyard layout design for an import terminal

26 26 Stockyard layout (re)design Main requirements: Import terminal with an annual throughput of 37 [Mt/y], 21% bypass (no storage and handling by stockyard machines) Required stockyard area: 92 [ha] Seaside: bulk carriers, landside: trains Interarrival time distribution seaside and landside: NED Carrier tonnage distribution: based on historical data (avg. 101 [kt]) Train tonnage distribution : uniform distributed between 2 and 4 [kt] Stockyard machine efficiency: 0.55 [-] 4 unloaders at seaside and 4 loaders at landside Average seaside’s port time (W ss ): 3 days and average landside’s port time (W ls ): 0.5 day Blending of coal: 1.7 [Mt/y] 28 different grades of bulk materials must be stored separately

27 27 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 1: Determine the number of stockyard lanes (n l ) and dimension the stockyard lanes (length L l and width w). Assume a machine’s boom length (l b ) of 60 meter and use 10 meter as distance from the machine’s centerline to the stockyard lane (p). Assume that the lane’s length (L l ) must be in the range between 1,000 and 1,500 meter Number of stockyard lanes must be an even number to realize complete archetypes. Calculate the number of archetypes using the following equation: An outcome is n l = 14, L l = 1,315 [m] and w = 50 [m]

28 28 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 2: Determine the required machine capacity based on W ss ≤ 3 days and W ls ≤ 0.5 day for both archetypes. Layout A with 7x archetype (I) Layout B with 7x archetype (II)

29 29 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 2: results of the simulation study LayoutMachineC s [kt/h]C r [kt/h] AStacker/Reclaimer B Stacker3.6 Reclaimer2.7

30 30 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 3: Calculate the total investment cost per archetype. Calculate the stockyard machine’s weight (w) based on the determined stacking and reclaiming capacities Investment cost of the stockyard machine(s): where for this case it was assumed that κ sm was 8 [€/kg], machine fully installed at the stockyard Investment cost for the belt conveyor(s): where L bc is conveyor length (1,400 [m]) and κ bc was according Figure slide 22 “upper limit”. LayoutMachineC s [kt/h]C r [kt/h]w [kt]IC sm [M€]IC bc [M€]TIC (A) [M€] AStacker/Reclaimer B Stacker Reclaimer

31 31 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 4: Design the blending bed with associated machine types. Future: high-quality coal will probably become scarce thus install stacker and reclaimer combination which is able to realize the highest bed blending ratio Blending bed dimensions: assume coal-fired power plant’s own storage of 5 days and use two blending beds for simultaneously stacking and reclaiming.

32 32 Stockyard layout (re)design Step 5: Final layout.

33 33 Stockyard layout (re)design 6. Summary

34 34 Stockyard layout (re)design Summary Three main stockyard functions: storage, blending and homogenizing Main characteristics of stockyard machines were presented The effective capacity ratio for bucket wheel reclaimers differs per reclaiming method; a method has been provided. Different combinations of stacking methods and reclaimers result in specific bed blending effect ratios. A selection procedure was introduced to select single-purpose or multi-purpose machines for the storage of bulk materials For a specific case, the stockyard layout was designed Future work: Design of the network of belt conveyors

35 35 Stockyard layout (re)design Questions?


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