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ICS220 – Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 13 Dr. Ken Cosh.

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Presentation on theme: "ICS220 – Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 13 Dr. Ken Cosh."— Presentation transcript:

1 ICS220 – Data Structures and Algorithms Lecture 13 Dr. Ken Cosh

2 Review Data Compression Techniques –Huffman Coding method

3 This week Memory Management –Memory Allocation –Garbage Collection

4 The Heap Not a heap, but the heap. –Not the treelike data structure. –But the area of the computers memory that is dynamically allocated to programs. In C++ we allocate parts of the heap using the ‘new’ command, and reclaim them using the ‘delete’ command. C++ allows close control over how much memory is used by your program. Some programming languages (FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC), the compiler decides how much to allocate. Some programming languages (LISP, SmallTalk, Eiffel, Java) have automatic storage reclamation.

5 External Fragmentation External Fragmentation occurs when sections of the memory have been allocated, and then some deallocated, leaving gaps between used memory. The heap may end up being many small pieces of available memory sandwiched between pieces of used memory. A request may come for a certain amount of memory, but perhaps no block of memory is big enough, even though there is plenty of actual space in memory.

6 Internal Fragmentation Internal Fragmentation occurs when the memory allocated to certain processes or data is too large for its contents. Here space is wasted even though its not being used.

7 Sequential Fit Methods When memory is requested a decision needs to be made about which block of memory is allocated to the request. In order to discuss which method is best, we need to investigate how memory might be managed. Consider a linked list, containing links to each block of available memory. –When memory is allocated or returned, the list is rearranged, either by deletion or insertion.

8 Sequential Fit Methods First Fit Algorithm, –Here the allocated memory is the first block found in the linked list. Best Fit Algorithm, –Here the block closest in size to the requested size is allocated. Worst Fit Algorithm, –Here the largest block on the list is allocated. Next Fit Algorithm, –Here the next available block that is large enough is allocated.

9 Comparing Sequential Fit Methods First Fit is most efficient, comparable to the Next Fit. However there can be more external fragmentation. The Best Fit algorithm actually leaves very small blocks of practically unusable memory. Worst Fit tries to avoid this fragmentation, by delaying the creation of small blocks. Methods can be combined by considering the order in which the linked list is sorted – if the linked list is sorted largest to smallest, First Fit becomes the same as Worst Fit.

10 Non-Sequential Fit Methods In reality with large memory, sequential fit methods are inefficient. Therefore non-sequential fit methods are used where memory is divided into sections of a certain size. An example is a buddy system.

11 Buddy Systems In buddy systems memory can be divided into sections, with each location being a buddy of another location. Whenever possible the buddies are combined to create a larger memory location. If smaller memory needs to be allocated the buddies are divided, and then reunited (if possible) when the memory is returned.

12 Binary Buddy Systems In binary buddy systems the memory is divided into 2 equally sized blocks. Suppose we have 8 memory locations; {000,001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111} Each of these memory locations are of size 1, suppose we need a memory location of size 2. {000, 010, 100, 110} Or of size 4, {000, 100} Or size 8. {000} In reality the memory is combined and only broken down when requested.

13 Buddy System in 1024k memory 64K 1024K A-64K64K128K256K512K A-64K64KB-128K256K512K A-64KC-64KB-128K256K512K A-64KC-64KB-128KD-128K128K512K A-64K64KB-128KD-128K128K512K 128KB-128KD-128K128K512K 256KD-128K128K512K 1024K

14 Sequence of Requests. Program A requests memory 34K..64K in size Program B requests memory 66K..128K in size Program C requests memory 35K..64K in size Program D requests memory 67K..128K in size Program C releases its memory Program A releases its memory Program B releases its memory Program D releases its memory

15 If memory is to be allocated Look for a memory slot of a suitable size –If it is found, it is allocated to the program –If not, it tries to make a suitable memory slot. The system does so by trying the following: Split a free memory slot larger than the requested memory size into half If the lower limit is reached, then allocate that amount of memory Go back to step 1 (look for a memory slot of a suitable size) Repeat this process until a suitable memory slot is found

16 If memory is to be freed Free the block of memory Look at the neighbouring block - is it free too? If it is, combine the two, and go back to step 2 and repeat this process until either the upper limit is reached (all memory is freed), or until a non-free neighbour block is encountered

17 Buddy Systems Unfortunately with Buddy Systems there can be significant internal fragmentation. –Case ‘Program A requests 34k Memory’ – but was assigned 64 bit memory. The sequence of block sizes allowed is; –1,2,4,8,16…2 m An improvement can be gained from varying the block size sequence. –1,2,3,5,8,13… Otherwise known as the Fibonacci sequence. –When using this sequence further complicated problems occur, for instance when finding the buddy of a returned block.

18 Fragmentation It is worth noticing that internal and external fragmentation are roughly inversely proportional. –As internal fragmentation is avoided through precise memory allocation

19 Garbage Collection Another key function of memory management is garbage collection. Garbage collection is the return of areas of memory once their use is no longer required. Garbage collection in some languages is automated, while in others it is manual, such as through the delete keyword.

20 Garbage Collection Garbage collection follows two key phases; –Determine what data objects in a program will not be accessed in the future –Reclaim the storage used by those objects

21 Mark and Sweep The Mark and Sweep method of garbage collection breaks the two tasks into distinct phases. –First each used memory location is marked. –Second the memory is swept to reclaim the unused cells to the memory pool.

22 Marking A simple marking algorithm follows the pre order tree traversal method; marking(node) if node is not marked mark node; if node is not an atom marking(head(node)); marking(tail(node)); This algorithm can then be called for all root memory items. Recall the problem with this algorithm? –Excessive use of the runtime stack through recursion, especially with the potential size of the data to sort through.

23 Alternative Marking The obvious alternative to the recursive algorithm is an iterative version. –The iterative version however just makes excessive use of a stack – which means using memory in order to reclaim space from memory. A better approach doesn’t require extra memory. –Here each link is followed, and the path back is remembered by temporarily inverting links between nodes.

24 Schorr and Waite SWmark(curr) prev = null; while(1) mark curr; if head(curr) is marked or atom if head(curr) is unmarked atom mark head(curr); while tail(curr) is marked or atom if tail(curr) is an unmarked atom mark tail(curr); while prev is not null and tag(prev) is 1 tag(prev)=0 invertLink(curr,prev,tail(prev)); if prev is not null invertLink(curr, prev, head(prev)); else finished; tag(curr) = 1; invertLink(prev,curr, tail(curr)); else invertLink(prev,curr,head(curr));

25 Sweep Having marked all used (linked) memory locations, the next step is to sweep through the memory. Sweep() checks every item in the memory, any which haven’t been marked are then returned to available memory. Sadly, this can often leave the memory with used locations sparsely scattered throughout. –A further phase is required – compaction.

26 B Compaction Compaction involves copying data to one section of the computers memory. As our data is likely to involve linked data structures, we need to maintain the pointers to the nodes even when their location changes. A B C C A B C C A B C BC A

27 Compaction compact() lo = bottom of heap; hi = top of the heap; while (lo < hi) while *lo is marked lo++; while *hi is not marked hi--; unmarked cell *hi; *lo = *hi; tail(*hi--) = lo++; //forwarding address lo = the bottom of heap; while(lo <=hi) if *lo is not atom and head(*lo) > hi head(*lo) = tail(head(*lo)); if *lo is not atom and tail(*lo) > hi tail(*lo) = tail(tail(*lo)); lo++;

28 Incremental Garbage Collection The Mark and Sweep method of garbage collection is called automatically when the available memory resources are unsatisfactory. When it is called the program is likely to pause while the algorithm runs. In Real time systems this is unacceptable, so another approach can be considered. –The alternative approach is incremental garbage collection.

29 Incremental Garbage Collection In Incremental Garbage collection the collection phase is interweaved with the program. –Here the program is called a mutator as it can change the data the garbage collector is tidying. One approach, similar to the mark and sweep, is to intermittently copy n items from a ‘fromspace’ to a ‘tospace’, to semispaces in the computers memory. The next time the two spaces are switched. Consider – what are the pro’s and con’s of incremental vs mark and sweep?

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