Goals Define terms related to waste reduction Hazardous waste recycling Discuss advantages associated with waste reduction and recycling. Discuss recycling of specific MSW components Discuss ways to increase recycling
Terminology Reduction: Reduction in generation, reduction in amount of material, increase lifetime, or eliminate the need Recycle - used, reused, or reclaimed, use of the material as a source raw material, involves physical transformation –Reused: The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamation –Reclaimed: regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable materials from wastes (e.g., regenerating spent solvents in a solvent still). Wastes are regenerated when they are processed to remove contaminants in a way that restores them to their usable condition materials that must be reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuse Recovery - Process to recover useful material from mixed waste (energy is an example)
Hazardous waste materials that are recycled may be: Excluded from the definition of solid waste and fall out of RCRA altogether; Subject to less-stringent regulatory controls; or Required to comply with the full universe of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal regulations.
Inherently waste-like materials The following materials are solid wastes when they are recycled in any manner: (1) Hazardous Waste Nos. F020, F021 (unless used as an ingredient to make a product at the site of generation), F022, F023, F026, and F028. (2) Secondary materials fed to a halogen acid furnace that exhibit a characteristic of a hazardous waste or are listed as a hazardous waste
Materials are solid wastes (and potentially hazardous waste) if they are recycled in the following ways: Used in a manner constituting disposal - Directly placing wastes or products containing wastes on the land is considered to be use constituting disposal. – If, however, direct placement on the land is consistent with its normal use (e.g., pesticides), then the material is not regulated as a solid waste. –For example, heptachlor can potentially be a P-listed waste. This pesticide is not regulated as a solid waste, however, when it isused as a pesticide. Burned for energy recovery Reclaimed (with some exceptions) - materials that must be reclaimed/ recycled prior to use or reuse Accumulated speculatively
Materials that are not solid waste (and therefore not hazardous wastes) when recycled: (i) Used or reused as ingredients in an industrial process to make a product, provided the materials are not being reclaimed; or (ii) Used or reused as effective substitutes for commercial products; or (iii) Returned to the original process from which they are generated, without first being reclaimed or land disposed.
Materials Subject to Less Stringent Standards Universal Waste regulations include batteries, pesticides, lamps (e.g., fluorescent bulbs), and mercury-containing equipment (e.g., thermostats) (see 40 CFR Part 273). Universal Waste40 CFR Part 273 Used Oil includes petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been used (see 40 CFR Part 279 ). Used Oil40 CFR Part 279 Waste-Derived Fertilizers (e.g., zinc fertilizer products) and Other Materials Used in a Manner Constituting Disposal (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart C). Waste-Derived Fertilizers40 CFR Part 266 Subpart C Materials Utilized for Precious Metal Recovery (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart F).40 CFR Part 266 Subpart F Spent Lead-Acid Batteries (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart G - note that lead-acid batteries may also be managed as a Universal Waste). Spent Lead-Acid Batteries40 CFR Part 266 Subpart G Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
Recycling Advantages Prevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants, Saves energy, Supplies valuable raw materials to industry, Creates jobs, Stimulates the development of greener technologies, Conserves resources for our children’s future, and Reduces the need for new landfills and combustors.
MSW Recycling Goals 25% by 1995 (was met) 30% by 2000 (was met) 35% by 2005 (not met)
Recycling Challenges Location of wastes (9000 curbside programs) Uncertainty of supply Administrative and institutional constraints Legal restrictions Uncertain markets Technical challenges to recycling Changes in materials (i.e. light weighting) Too many items in waste Actually encourages waste production (because recycling will take care of it)
SWANA Recommendations to Increase Reduction/RecoveryRecommendations Encourage more extensive product stewardship by product designers, manufacturers retailers, and consumers Expand efforts by federal, state, and provincial governments to develop markets for recycled materials and recovered energy Provide financial incentives for investments in recycling, composting and the use of recovered materials
SWANA Recommendations to Increase Reduction/Recovery Include WTE and conversion technologies in renewable portfolio standards and green power programs Encourage the recovery and use of landfill gas by maintaining federal tax credits and through renewable portfolio standards and green power programs Support technology transfer and research efforts that have the potential to increase waste recovery rates
Commodity% of MSW Recycled Paper and Paperboard48.1 Steel36.4 Aluminum21.4 Glass18.8 Plastics5.2
Paper Recycling Problems –Chlorination produces dioxins/furans –Inks are petrochemical based –Acid used to break fibers shortens life –Coating of high gloss paper –Demand for high quality paper –Glues, laminates, plastics, inks not water soluble –Paper can only be reused 4-12 times, always need a virgin source
Paper Recycling ~ 50% of consumed material and growing Goal 55% by 2012 Strong markets for old corrugated cardboard (OCC) and newsprint (ONP) Expanding domestic and international demand Office paper lower demand
Steel Recycling Expanding economy – increased steel demands; China and India biggest markets 36.4% of steel is recycled Use of plastic for automobiles is a problem One ton steel recycled saves 2500 lb of iron ore, 1000 lb of coal, 40 lb of limestone, and significant energy savings
Aluminum Recycling About 51 percent of aluminum cans is being recycled Twenty years ago it took 19 aluminum cans to make one pound, but today, aluminum beverage cans are lighter and it takes 29 cans to make a pound. Americans throw away enough aluminum every three months to rebuild our entire commercial air fleet. Making new aluminum cans from used cans takes 95 percent less energy and 20 recycled cans can be made with the energy needed to produce one can using virgin ore. Domestic recycling has declined recently, collection is expensive
Glass Recycling Glass always lags other recyclables Alternative markets needed – grind for construction fill, “glassphalt,” fiberglass Transportation of heavy glass is expensive Raw materials are inexpensive Contamination is an issue Reuse used to be common practice; however as manufacturing plants became larger and decreased in number, bottles had to be carried further for refilling. More colored glass is imported than used domestically
Plastic Recycling Problems –Light weight, bulky, low density –Wide variety of polymers –Concerns over contamination for reuse –Difficult to differentiate among types
Plastic Recycling PET and HDPE have high prices due to domestic and international demand Curbside recycling is down, driving prices up More expensive oil prices makes virgin plastic more expensive
Return to Home Page Last updated July 2008 by Dr. Reinhart