2Goals Define terms related to waste reduction Hazardous waste recyclingDiscuss advantages associated with waste reduction and recycling.Discuss recycling of specific MSW componentsDiscuss ways to increase recycling
3TerminologyReduction: Reduction in generation, reduction in amount of material, increase lifetime, or eliminate the needRecycle - used, reused, or reclaimed, use of the material as a source raw material, involves physical transformationReused: The direct use or reuse of a secondary material without prior reclamationReclaimed: regeneration of wastes or recovery of usable materials from wastes (e.g., regenerating spent solvents in a solvent still). Wastes are regenerated when they are processed to remove contaminants in a way that restores them to their usable condition materials that must be reclaimed/recycled prior to use or reuseRecovery - Process to recover useful material from mixed waste (energy is an example)
4Hazardous waste materials that are recycled may be: Excluded from the definition of solid waste and fall out of RCRA altogether;Subject to less-stringent regulatory controls; orRequired to comply with the full universe of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal regulations.
5Inherently waste-like materials The following materials are solid wastes when they are recycled in any manner:(1) Hazardous Waste Nos. F020, F021 (unless used as an ingredient to make a product at the site of generation), F022, F023, F026, and F028.(2) Secondary materials fed to a halogen acid furnace that exhibit a characteristic of a hazardous waste or are listed as a hazardous waste
6Materials are solid wastes (and potentially hazardous waste) if they are recycled in the following ways:Used in a manner constituting disposal - Directly placing wastes or products containing wastes on the land is considered to be use constituting disposal.If, however, direct placement on the land is consistent with its normal use (e.g., pesticides), then the material is not regulated as a solid waste.For example, heptachlor can potentially be a P-listed waste. This pesticide is not regulated as a solid waste, however, when it isused as a pesticide.Burned for energy recoveryReclaimed (with some exceptions) - materials that must be reclaimed/ recycled prior to use or reuseAccumulated speculatively
7Materials that are not solid waste (and therefore not hazardous wastes) when recycled: (i) Used or reused as ingredients in an industrial process to make a product, provided the materials are not being reclaimed; or(ii) Used or reused as effective substitutes for commercial products; or(iii) Returned to the original process from which they are generated, without first being reclaimed or land disposed.
8Materials Subject to Less Stringent Standards Universal Waste regulations include batteries, pesticides, lamps (e.g., fluorescent bulbs), and mercury-containing equipment (e.g., thermostats) (see 40 CFR Part 273).Used Oil includes petroleum-based or synthetic oil that has been used (see 40 CFR Part 279 ).Waste-Derived Fertilizers (e.g., zinc fertilizer products) and Other Materials Used in a Manner Constituting Disposal (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart C).Materials Utilized for Precious Metal Recovery (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart F).Spent Lead-Acid Batteries (see 40 CFR Part 266 Subpart G - note that lead-acid batteries may also be managed as a Universal Waste).Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
9Recycling AdvantagesPrevents the emission of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants,Saves energy,Supplies valuable raw materials to industry,Creates jobs,Stimulates the development of greener technologies,Conserves resources for our children’s future, andReduces the need for new landfills and combustors.
10MSW Recycling Goals 25% by 1995 (was met) 30% by 2000 (was met) 35% by 2005 (not met)
13Recycling Challenges Location of wastes (9000 curbside programs) Uncertainty of supplyAdministrative and institutional constraintsLegal restrictionsUncertain marketsTechnical challenges to recyclingChanges in materials (i.e. light weighting)Too many items in wasteActually encourages waste production (because recycling will take care of it)
14SWANA Recommendations to Increase Reduction/Recovery Encourage more extensive product stewardship by product designers, manufacturers retailers, and consumersExpand efforts by federal, state, and provincial governments to develop markets for recycled materials and recovered energyProvide financial incentives for investments in recycling, composting and the use of recovered materials
15SWANA Recommendations to Increase Reduction/Recovery Include WTE and conversion technologies in renewable portfolio standards and green power programsEncourage the recovery and use of landfill gas by maintaining federal tax credits and through renewable portfolio standards and green power programsSupport technology transfer and research efforts that have the potential to increase waste recovery rates
16Commodity% of MSW RecycledPaper and Paperboard48.1Steel36.4Aluminum21.4Glass18.8Plastics5.2
17Paper Recycling Problems Chlorination produces dioxins/furans Inks are petrochemical basedAcid used to break fibers shortens lifeCoating of high gloss paperDemand for high quality paperGlues, laminates, plastics, inks not water solublePaper can only be reused 4-12 times, always need a virgin source
18Paper Recycling ~ 50% of consumed material and growing Goal 55% by 2012Strong markets for old corrugated cardboard (OCC) and newsprint (ONP)Expanding domestic and international demandOffice paper lower demand
19Steel RecyclingExpanding economy – increased steel demands; China and India biggest markets36.4% of steel is recycledUse of plastic for automobiles is a problemOne ton steel recycled saves 2500 lb of iron ore, 1000 lb of coal, 40 lb of limestone, and significant energy savings
20Aluminum Recycling About 51 percent of aluminum cans is being recycled Twenty years ago it took 19 aluminum cans to make one pound, but today, aluminum beverage cans are lighter and it takes 29 cans to make a pound.Americans throw away enough aluminum every three months to rebuild our entire commercial air fleet.Making new aluminum cans from used cans takes 95 percent less energy and 20 recycled cans can be made with the energy needed to produce one can using virgin ore.Domestic recycling has declined recently, collection is expensive
21Glass Recycling Glass always lags other recyclables Alternative markets needed – grind for construction fill, “glassphalt,” fiberglassTransportation of heavy glass is expensiveRaw materials are inexpensiveContamination is an issueReuse used to be common practice; however as manufacturing plants became larger and decreased in number, bottles had to be carried further for refilling.More colored glass is imported than used domestically
22Plastic Recycling Problems Light weight, bulky, low density Wide variety of polymersConcerns over contamination for reuseDifficult to differentiate among types
23Plastic RecyclingPET and HDPE have high prices due to domestic and international demandCurbside recycling is down, driving prices upMore expensive oil prices makes virgin plastic more expensive
24Return to Home Page Return to Home Page Last updated July 2008 by Dr. Reinhart