Presentation on theme: "ShoShoni Indians (1960-1990) The word Shoshone originates from the word Newe which means “The People” The Shoshone Tribes were nomadic people whose area."— Presentation transcript:
ShoShoni Indians (1960-1990) The word Shoshone originates from the word Newe which means “The People” The Shoshone Tribes were nomadic people whose area of travel encompasses a major portion of the Western US, including Montana, Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and Nevada. They expanded their travel from the Great Basin to the Plains into what is current day Wyoming and Colorado.
Study Questions Q: What was the Shoshone language a mixture of? Q: What does Shoshoni mean?
Shoshone Language The language was a mixture of Shoshoni, Comanch, and Hopi. The Shoshoni language was also influenced by the Great Basin, Plateau, and Plains areas as they traveled across the United States.
Study Questions on American Indian Movement: 1.What were some of the goals and demands the Indian tribes of the AIM had? 2.How long did the Indians from the AIM “reclaim” Alcatraz and who took it back? 3.What grade range of children could receive an education at the Heart of Earth survival school formed by Indian Tribes supporting the AIM? What kind of education would they receive?
American Indian Movement Who and what does it affect? –It effected, over the space of many years, the goals of all Indian tribes that covered the entire spectrum of Indian demands EXAMPLE : economic independence, revitalization of traditional culture, protection of legal rights, and, most especially, autonomy over tribal areas and the restoration of lands that they believed had been illegally seized.
What’s its purpose ? –Its purpose was to help Indians in urban ghettos, which were displaced by government programs that forced them from reservations. Events that took place –“Reclaim” of Alcatraz Island 1969: Many Native tribe leaders, including LaNada Boyer of the Shoshone tribe, reclaimed Alcatraz All tribes signed a proclamation stating the reasons and plans for the island. Some consisted of a museum including a cultural education center of all Indian cultures
President turned nation against the reclaim and it fell back into Federal hands 19 months later –Heart of Earth Survival School 1972: Second survival school to open up as a result of Indian Education Act pushed by AIM Provided children of all Indian tribes, K-12, a culturally based education
Study Questions on Education: 1. How was Shoshone education before American influence? 2. How was Shoshone education after American influence?
Shoshone Education before Education was done with story telling by the tribe elders, teaching about their ancestors ways of life, ceremonies, and experiences. Traditional language was taught and learned and spoken in the tribe. Pottery and basket weaving were essential life teachings and used as every day dishes. The meanings of myths, spirits, and traditional beliefs were taught. They were educated in the use of plants and herbs for medicine and how to use the land for their survival.
Shoshone Education after Shoshone children were placed into government boarding schools, where many were abused. Traditional language was not allowed to be spoken. English was taught. Traditional teachings were lost. 1966 Thirty six young Shoshones were put in a early start program run by white teachers. 1972 The Indian Education act. Was an effort to carry out “self- determination.” 1973 Duckwater Shoshone Elementary School was opened with 18 Shoshones and 3 whites. 1975 Indians Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act was intended to reduce government paternalism over the tribe.
Study Questions on Religion 1. Who was the Medicine Man? 2. The Shoshone Indians believed in Kachinas which are what? 3. In the Shoshone Ghost Dance, the Indians used songs that were viewed as what?
RELIGION Shoshone Indians: Based on Christian denominations Believed in Kachinas: - Gods - beings of a great might and a great power - made into dolls and given to children
BELIEFS The Great Spirit: The Spirit (Mugua) Ghost (Tsoap) The Sun (Apo) The Medicine Man: Spiritual leader Prophet Possess special powers
Shoshone Ghost Dance They use songs that are viewed as cultural documents that mediate complex and richly textured levels of meaning. Dancing to these songs was believed to to bring back the world that was being lost. Helped growth of crops, helped restore land, and kept animals healthy.
Study Questions Economics 1.Native Americans economics advancement goals had to be postponed due to a more important issue. Native Americans almost lost their rights to the treaties they had with the government over something referred to as what? 2.Shoshone Indian children have suffered the consequences of poverty among the tribe, especially in areas of education. True or False? 3.Popular jobs among the Shoshone during this time period included land work, teaching, and what?
Shoshone Indians Economics Front Row: Dick Washakie, Chief Washakie, Tigee. Back Row: Per-na-go-shia, Pan-zook, So-pa-gant and Mat-ta-vish.
In the 1930 President Roosevelt promoted Indian self autonomy by creating the “Indian new deal” However in the 1940’s and 1950’s the government tried to revert back to assimilating Indians into Anglo culture. In 1950 the house of representatives passed house concurrent resolution 108. Also known as “termination”. Under this tribes would lose all privileges related to treaties with the government. The start of the 1960’s is when Native American protesters and political activists really started to take way in reaction to the “termination”. Economic development for reservations a goal set in the 1960’s was now a lesser concern for the NACI.
The NCAI ( The National Congress of American Indians) passionately opposed this “Termination” and urged all Indians to do the same. Young urban Indians founded “Red Power” and the American Indian Movement in 1968. Running for president in 1968, Nixon backed anti-assimilation for native American tribes. 1969 more than 100 Indians made Alcatraz their home in response to them making it a national park. They claimed in under Fort Laramie treaty of 1968. This soon lost media attention but remains a symbol for the needs of Indians that have been unmet time and time again. Native Americans became involved in the war on poverty in the 1960’s and the Inter-Tribal council received it’s first quarter million grant to aid California Rancherias. July 8 th, 1970 Nixon renounced termination as “ morally and legally unacceptable.”
How does all this effect the Shoshone Indians in an economic state? The Shoshone Indian reservations, much like other Indian reservation had suffered much poverty through the 1960’s – 1990’s and still struggle today. During this time politically they were struggling to hold on to their independence as a tribe, this was something that needed to be resolved first and foremost. Trying to enrich their tribe economically had to be on the back burner for a while. Jobs range in a wide variety of activities of those many worked on the land, taught various things on the reservations and also were private business owners.
Shoshone Children The children of Shoshone tribes are directly affected by the poor economic state of the reservations. It is a vicious cycle. The schools are poorly funded and the children are not given a fair chance to rise up out of poverty. Also, national testing has not been sensitive native American children. Testing has been geared toward a Anglo middle class to upper class population. However Since 1975, the political climate has increasingly supported the inclusion of American Indian culture and language in Native education and the training of Native teachers.
Study Guide Questions: What did boys and girls of the Shoshone tribe play with? For generations, toys have been used to teach the values and traditions of culture to children. Mothers used toys to teach young girls the arts of beadwork and sewing through making dolls. The Shoshone children played with dolls, toy cradles, and miniature hide teepees. Mothers used toys to teach young girls the arts of beadwork and sewing through making dolls. Young boys had child-size bows and arrows Children would make their toys out of materials they found around the reservation
What chores were children of the Shoshone tribe responsible for? Boys Boys went hunting with their Father or their older brothers Took care of the horses and cows Gathered corn and potatoes Bailed hay Cleared land Girls Girls helped with the housekeeping Hang dried their clothes Tended buckskin hides Also helped with farm chores
C. 1960-1975s. Shoshone beaded male doll. Cotton thread, yarn, buckskin, cloth, seed beads. This doll depicts a Traditional Dancer as in the 1960- 1975 period, as might be seen on the powwow circuit. The dancer has on beaded cuffs, with matching beaded "mirror" bag, matching beaded belt, and matching beaded moccasins with bell & fur anklets. He also has on an apron, leggings, beaded breastplate, and an imitation "roach" headdress.
Study Guide Questions: Play What type of play is thought to be most beneficial within this tribe?
Shoshone Children at Play Opened preschool on reservation for Shoshone children and other community children to learn the ways of the Shoshone Encouraged young children to act out stories of their ancestors, to keep their culture alive. Story time involves stories of the ancestors and legends from generations before. Use the Montessori Method- many activities are open ended, for the child to experience and become creative individuals.
Outside of School G~A~M~E~S Football – played in spring and summer, only boys could play Single Goal Ball – two balls, one goal, older boys only Target games – used bow and arrow as early as age 4 Jacks – a game girls were allowed to participate in (Girls are slowly being integrated into games but still are limited on the activities they are allowed to do)
Rachelle Delmonico Shoshone Education Bibliography Crum Steven J. The Road on Which We Came. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994. Dorn, Edward. The Shoshoneans. New York. 1966. Loftsteadt, Stephanie. Personal interview. 23 Jan. 2005. Readers Digest. America’s Fascinating Indian Heritage. New York: Montreal, 1978. Smithsonian Institution. Handbook of North American Indians. Washington Dc: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. Utah State History. The Northwestern Shoshone. New York, 1966. Wyoming Indian Schools. Fremont County School District #14. Wyoming, 2005. http://www.fremont14.k12.wy.us/
Sarah Browns Works Cited page Eastern Shoshoni Tribal Culture.25 January 2005. Hopi Indians. 25 January 2005. Noss, Danny. Western Shoshoni Indians in Nevada. 25 January 2005.
Sara Ochs’ Bibliography “American Indian Movement”. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopedia Britannica Online 18 Jan. 2005. “The Shoshone Indians”. 2003. Jun 2. 2003. Eagle, Adam Fortunate. Heart of The Rock: The Indian Invasion of Alcatraz. University of Oklahoma. 2002. Wittstock, Laura Waterma and Salinas, Elaine J. “A Brief History of the American Indian Movement”. 2002..
Ashely’s Bibliography “A Gallery of Shoshone-Bannock Childrens' Dolls, Toys & Games.” Wind River History. Retrieved 25 Jan. 2005 http://www.windriverhistory.org/exhibits/Shoshon eArt/games/index.html Fradin, Dennis B. The Shoshoni. Chicago: Children’s Press, 1988. Teran, Reba. Interview. 26 Jan. 2005.
Danielle’s Bibliography Essie's story : the life and legacy of a Shoshone teacher / by Horne, Esther Burnett., McBeth, Sally J. c1998. Constructive Conquest in the Courts: A Legal History of the Western Shoshone Lands Struggle--1861 to 1991. O'Connell, John D. Natural Resources Journal; Fall2002, Vol. 42 Issue 4, p765, 35p Alcatraz, Wounded Knee, and Beyond: The Nixon and Ford Administrations Respond to Native American Protest. Kotlowski, Dean J. Pacific Historical Review; May2003, Vol. 72 Issue 2, p201, 27p American Indian Women's Activism in the 1960s and 1970s. Langston, Donna HightowerHypatia; Spring2003, Vol. 18 Issue 2, p114, 19p FOUR DIRECTIONS INSTITUTE Western Shoshoni http://www.fourdir.com/western_shoshoni.htm Pictures from: Wind River Indian Reservation http://www.easternshoshone.net/
Tamara’s Bibliography Funk and Magnalls. “Hopi”. The History Channel. Jan 25, 2005. Harrod, Howard. The Journall of American History. Vol.84, no. 3. December 1997, 1100. Utah Division of Indian Affairs-Shoshone Tribe.