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Abiqua Animal Clinic Mixed animal practice in Silverton Purchased in 2009 Dr Dietrich’s agrarian interests include dairying, sheep farming, forage and.

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Presentation on theme: "Abiqua Animal Clinic Mixed animal practice in Silverton Purchased in 2009 Dr Dietrich’s agrarian interests include dairying, sheep farming, forage and."— Presentation transcript:


2 Abiqua Animal Clinic Mixed animal practice in Silverton Purchased in 2009 Dr Dietrich’s agrarian interests include dairying, sheep farming, forage and pasture management. Dr Varney’s veterinary interests include cattle and small ruminants, in addition to small animals.

3 Beef Breeds

4 Dairy Breeds

5 Dual-purpose Breeds

6 Restraint


8 Handling Equipment

9 Handling Techniques



12 Nutrition Roughage Concentrates Water Vitamins Minerals

13 Roughages Forages – Cool season grasses PRG, ARG, TF, OG, Timothy, RCG – Warm season grasses Sorghum-sudan grass, forage corn, Bermuda grass, pearl millet, teff – Legumes Alfalfa, clovers, trefoils, medics, beans – Forbs Broadleaf “weeds” – Toxic plants Tansy, poison hemlock, bracken fern, etc.

14 Pasture management Rotational grazing – Keep forage in growing phase – Minimum 4 inch stubble Noxious weed control

15 Roughages Hay – Alfalfa – Grass – Grass/legume – Grain Straw – Grass – Grain Silage/haylage Test, TEST, TEST!

16 Grains Whole grains Processed grains – Rolled/Flaked/Steamed – Cracked/Ground – Pelleted Mixes By-products – Grass seed screenings – Cannery waste

17 Water Clean and abundant Sources – Man-made – Natural Parasite risk Algae

18 Vitamins Fat-soluble – A, D, E, K Water-soluble – B vitamins, C

19 c a M o r c i M o r Minerals Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Magnesium Sulfur Cobalt Copper Manganese Molybdenum Zinc Iodine Iron Selenium 2:1

20 Balancing a Ration Assess the main components Determine needs based on: – Age – Gender – Use Balance first for protein and energy, then vitamins and minerals

21 Balancing a Ration Diet will consist of: – Local grass hay – 12% livestock grain Feeding a 1200 lb cow – Mid-gestation – Non-lactating


23 Balancing a Ration

24 Balancing ration to achieve 18 lbs of a 7.5% protein diet Local grass hay: 6% protein based on feed test Livestock grain: 12% protein based on label

25 Pearson Square Local grass hay 6% Livestock grain 12% 4.5 parts parts 6 parts total (1.5 /6) x 100 = 25% grain (4.5 /6) x 100 = 75% hay 18 lb x 25% = 4.5 lb grain 18 lb x 75% = 13.5 lb hay

26 Choke Blockage of esophagus Usually able to breathe Results in bloat Risk of inhaling saliva and feed material, leading to pneumonia Object must be removed – Up – Down Common culprits – Apples – Pears – Beets – Onions – Potatoes – Cauliflower – Pineapples – Et cetera

27 Bloat Frothy bloat – Legumes – Treat with surfactant – +/- trocar Free-gas bloat – Choke – Grain overload – Nerve dysfunction – Relieve with tube +/- trocar

28 Acidosis Due to: – Grain overload – Lack of dietary fiber – Decreased gut motility Evidenced by: – Inappetance – Lethargy – Bloat Sequelae: – Lameness – Liver abscesses Prevention – Change diet slowly – Ensure adequate fiber – Provide sodium bicarb? Treatment – Call your vet… – …who may give a neutralizing mixture via stomach tube

29 Grass Tetany Causes – Low dietary magnesium – Decreased magnesium absorption due to excessive potassium When? Often during spring pasture growth Signs – Incoordination – Inability to stand – Irritability – Death Treatment – Calcium/magnesium IV infusion – Call your vet! Prevention – Provide magnesium blocks starting with spring grass growth – Add dolomitic lime to pastures

30 Respiratory disease Causative agents – IBR – PI3 – BVD – Mannheimia hemolytica Contributing factors – STRESS – Transportation

31 Respiratory disease Prevention – Vaccination (see program mentioned later) – Space out stressful events – Provide good nutrition Treatment – Hydration/Electrolytes – Antibiotics

32 Clostridial diseases Group of bacterial diseases caused by Clostridium spp. Require anaerobic environment Produce potent toxins Spores persist in the environment Examples: Black leg, red water, big head, enterotoxemia, tetanus, botulism Prevention: Vaccinate! Treatment: Largely ineffective

33 Reproductive diseases— Abortion Toxic causes Bracken fern False hellebore Pine needle abortion Infectious causes Leptospirosis – Vaccinate!! Brucellosis – Bang’s vaccine Trichomonas fetus BVD Neospora

34 Reproductive diseases—Abortion Signs – Usually late term – May find fetus, placenta, or just dirty tail Determining cause is difficult Abortion testing – Fetus and placenta – Blood sample

35 Reproductive diseases—Dystocia Signs – Restless/Straining – Vaginal fluid – Placenta Types – Leg back – Head only – Breech/backwards Call your vet! – Within 1-2 hours if no progress

36 Reproductive diseases—Uterine prolapse Due to continued straining following calving Risk factors include difficult calving, calcium deficiency, and selenium deficiency Keep uterus clean and call your vet

37 Reproductive diseases—Milk fever Signs – Severe weakness – Head on flank – Hypothermia (ears) Risk factors – High milk production – Older cows – Inadequate or excessive dietary calcium during last trimester

38 Reproductive diseases—Milk fever Sequelae – Hind limb nerve damage – Uterine prolapse – Decreased gut motility Get them up ASAP! – IV CMPK infusion – Oral supplementation

39 Reproductive diseases—Retained placenta Placenta should drop within 12 hours Treatment – Wait 72 hrs – If not out on its own, call the vet – +/- Antibiotics – Never pull on it!

40 Reproductive diseases—Metritis Uterine infections Due to unsanitary calvings and uterine injuries Treatment includes antibiotics +/- hormone therapy Monitor closely following parturition

41 Reproductive diseases—Mastitis Bacterial infection of one or more udder quarters Contracted from the udder environment or fecal contamination Risk factors – Milking machines – Dirty environment – Teat trauma

42 Reproductive diseases—Mastitis Treatment – Culture first – Strip quarter frequently – Hot packing/topical ointments – +/- Antibiotics

43 Other infectious diseases Johne’s disease – Contagious bacterial disease that causes diarrhea – No treatment Tuberculosis – Federally regulated – Zoonotic BLV – Viral disease that causes tumors

44 Toxin-induced disease Plant poisoning – Bracken fern – Tansy ragwort – St John’s wort – Poison hemlock Lead poisoning – Farm junk piles

45 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms Live in stomach, small intestine, and cecum Suck blood and protein from the host Cause anemia, decreased body condition, and scours

46 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms Life cycle – Eggs deposited in feces – Develop over days to weeks into infective larvae – Climb grass and are ingested – Develop into adults which produce eggs

47 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms Prevention – Rotational grazing – Multi-species grazing – High tannin forages – Genetic selection – Parasitic fungi? – Vaccines?

48 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms Treatment – Treat based on fecal test! – Dewormers Use 1 until it doesn’t work For oral medications, fast for 24 to 48 hours For resistance, consider mixing classes – Ensure adequate nutrition – Diatomaceous earth? – Herbal remedies?

49 Parasites—Gastrointestinal Coccidia – One-celled organism – Life cycle takes ~3 weeks – Replicates in small intestine cells – Results in cell rupture – Bloody diarrhea and weight loss – Prevention Maintain sanitary environment Maintain nutrition level Rotational grazing Coccidiostat in feed or water – Treatment Sulfa drugs Amprolium Must treat for 5 days to break life cycle

50 Parasites—Gastrointestinal Cryptosporidium – Causes diarrhea in calves – Short life cycle – Autoinfection – Prevention Hygiene – Treatment Time Supportive therapy Good nutrition – Zoonotic!!

51 Parasites—Liver Flukes Live in bile ducts of liver Cause liver failure – Edema – Jaundice – Weight loss – Death May predispose to clostridial disease 4 to 6 month life cycle requires snails

52 Parasites—Liver Flukes Prevention – Fence off water ways and low ground – Tile fields – Control snail populations Copper sulfate Slug bait Treatment – Clorsulon – Albendazole – Kills mainly adults – Treat in early fall

53 Parasites—External Flies – Irritating, blood-sucking – Lead to stress and decreased production – Some species have migrating larvae (warbles) – Spread pinkeye – Prevention/Treatment Ear tags Dust bags Air movement Topical insecticides

54 Parasites—External Lice – Two main varieties Blood–sucking Skin chewing – Cause hair loss, itching, anemia, decreased body condition – Treatment Injectables (only work on blood-suckers) Pour-ons, powders, DE?

55 Skin disease—Warts Caused by a virus Usually in young animals Unsightly, may bleed Treatment – Neglect – Autovaccination – Commercial vaccine

56 Skin disease—Ringworm Caused by several species of fungi Lives in soil and on equipment Causes dry skin and hair loss Can be zoonotic Treatment – Neglect – Sunlight – Various topicals (FDA!)

57 Skin disease—Photosensitization UV light causes reaction in unpigmented skin Skin dies and sloughs Secondary to plant toxins or liver disease – St John’s Wort – Tansy Ragwort – Liver flukes

58 Hardware disease Metal objects penetrate reticulum Cause pain and thoracic/abdominal infection Manifested by hunched posture Prevention – Magnets Treatment – Abdominal surgery – Antibiotics

59 Calf Management Colostrum Nutrition Hygiene Calf scours – E. coli – Rotavirus – Coronavirus – Salmonella – Cryptosporidium

60 Calf Management Navel ill/joint ill – Swollen joints and umbilicus – Colostrum! – Difficult to treat Pneumonia – Snotty nose, coughing, labored breathing – Early treatment important White muscle disease – Prevention: Bo-Se

61 Castration Technique options vary with age, size and/or season Banding – “Easy” to do, no blood – Increased risk of tetanus – Use appropriate band!! Cutting – Fail-safe, bloody – Increased risk of flies/infection Crimping – Difficult to do right – May be price docked at sale

62 Breeding Programs Natural service vs artificial insemination Heat detection and synchronization Purebred vs crossbred Seedstock vs commercial Flushing and embryo transfer

63 Production Benchmarks 90% of cows should calve every year Breed less than 83 days after calving (2-3 heat cycles) Breeding season should be days long 90% of calves should survive to weaning Wean calves at 6-7 months old Calves should weigh 45-50% of cow weight at weaning Calves should gain lb/day Breed heifers at 60-65% of mature weight (14 months)

64 Beef Herd Health—Calves At Birth – BoSe – 1cc/25# (for white muscle) – Vitamin A&D – 1cc/75# – Dip navels with 7% iodine; do not spray – Make sure calf nurses cow within first 6 hours. If not, tube feed calf 2 quarts colostrum. Repeat in 4-6 hours. – Intranasal IBR/PI 3 if calf pneumonia has been a problem

65 Herd Health—Calves cont. One Month of Age – Burn off horns with electric dehorner – Castrate bulls Three Weeks Prior to Weaning – IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination – Haemophilus, if a problem – 7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination – Check for parasites – lice and worms. Treat if indicated. Weaning – Repeat IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination – Haemophilus, if a problem – 7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination

66 Herd Health—Heifers Four to Twelve Months of Age – Brucellosis vaccination for heifers (must be done by veterinarian) Heifers at Breeding Age – IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination – Haemophilus, if a problem – Lepto 5-way vaccination – MuSe – 1cc per # – Repeat Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination – Vaccinate for Vibriosis (if bull breeding) – Deworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on)

67 Herd Health—Cows Every 4-6 Months – Lepto 5-way vaccination Annually (prior to breeding) – Killed IBR, BVD, PI 3, BRSV vaccination – Haemophilus (optional) – Vibriosis vaccination (if bull breeding) At the End of Breeding Season – Rectal examination for pregnancy – Check teeth, teats, etc., and cull any open or problem cows Three to Four Weeks Before Calving – Deworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on) – MuSe – 1cc per # – Check udders – Vaccinate for E. coli, Rota and Corona virus, if scours caused by these organisms have been a problem in calves

68 Herd Health—Bulls Annually (prior to breeding) – Killed IBR, BVD, PI 3, BRSV vaccination – Haemophilus (optional) – Vibriosis vaccination – Lepto 5-way vaccination

69 Marketing Options Direct marketing – More personal interaction – Limited customer base Niche marketing – Able to set the price – Customized product Auctions – Easy, available, convenient – No price control On-line marketing – Huge customer base – Minimum quantities

70 Harvesting Options Federal law requires that products to be sold be processed in a USDA- inspected facility Products for home use are exempt USDA mobile slaughter vs slaughterhouse Beef share program


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