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Cattle Production Course

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Presentation on theme: "Cattle Production Course"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cattle Production Course
Dr. Brian Dietrich & Dr. Claire Varney Abiqua Animal Clinic Silverton, Oregon 2013

2 Abiqua Animal Clinic Mixed animal practice in Silverton
Purchased in 2009 Dr Dietrich’s agrarian interests include dairying, sheep farming, forage and pasture management. Dr Varney’s veterinary interests include cattle and small ruminants, in addition to small animals.

3 Beef Breeds This three--‐hour morning class will focus on cattle
animal husbandry, health and body condition evaluation, oral medication, hoof care, vaccination/injection techniques, parasite control And Emergency management. Demonstrations include work cattle.

4 Dairy Breeds

5 Dual-purpose Breeds

6 Restraint

7 Restraint

8 Handling Equipment

9 Handling Techniques

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11 C A T T L E A G I N

12 Nutrition Roughage Concentrates Water Vitamins Minerals

13 Roughages Forages Cool season grasses Warm season grasses Legumes
PRG, ARG, TF, OG, Timothy, RCG Warm season grasses Sorghum-sudan grass, forage corn, Bermuda grass, pearl millet, teff Legumes Alfalfa, clovers, trefoils, medics, beans Forbs Broadleaf “weeds” Toxic plants Tansy, poison hemlock, bracken fern, etc.

14 Pasture management Rotational grazing Noxious weed control
Keep forage in growing phase Minimum 4 inch stubble Noxious weed control

15 Roughages Hay Straw Silage/haylage Test, TEST, TEST! Alfalfa Grass
Grass/legume Grain Straw Silage/haylage Test, TEST, TEST!

16 Grains Whole grains Processed grains Mixes By-products
Rolled/Flaked/Steamed Cracked/Ground Pelleted Mixes By-products Grass seed screenings Cannery waste

17 Water Clean and abundant Sources Man-made Natural Parasite risk Algae

18 Vitamins Fat-soluble A, D, E, K Water-soluble B vitamins, C

19 M i c r o Minerals M a c r o 2:1 Calcium Phosphorus Potassium
Magnesium Sulfur Cobalt Copper Manganese Molybdenum Zinc Iodine Iron Selenium c i M o r 2:1

20 Balancing a Ration Assess the main components
Determine needs based on: Age Gender Use Balance first for protein and energy, then vitamins and minerals

21 Balancing a Ration Diet will consist of: Feeding a 1200 lb cow
Local grass hay 12% livestock grain Feeding a 1200 lb cow Mid-gestation Non-lactating

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23 Balancing a Ration

24 Balancing a Ration Balancing ration to achieve 18 lbs of a 7.5% protein diet Local grass hay: 6% protein based on feed test Livestock grain: 12% protein based on label

25 Pearson Square 7.5 Local grass hay 6% 4.5 parts Livestock grain 12%
6 parts total (1.5 /6) x 100 = 25% grain 18 lb x 25% = 4.5 lb grain (4.5 /6) x 100 = 75% hay 18 lb x 75% = 13.5 lb hay

26 Choke Blockage of esophagus Usually able to breathe Results in bloat
Risk of inhaling saliva and feed material, leading to pneumonia Object must be removed Up Down Common culprits Apples Pears Beets Onions Potatoes Cauliflower Pineapples Et cetera

27 Bloat Frothy bloat Free-gas bloat Legumes Treat with surfactant
+/- trocar Free-gas bloat Choke Grain overload Nerve dysfunction Relieve with tube +/- trocar

28 Acidosis Due to: Evidenced by: Sequelae: Prevention Treatment
Grain overload Lack of dietary fiber Decreased gut motility Evidenced by: Inappetance Lethargy Bloat Sequelae: Lameness Liver abscesses Prevention Change diet slowly Ensure adequate fiber Provide sodium bicarb? Treatment Call your vet… …who may give a neutralizing mixture via stomach tube

29 Grass Tetany Causes When? Often during spring pasture growth Signs
Low dietary magnesium Decreased magnesium absorption due to excessive potassium When? Often during spring pasture growth Signs Incoordination Inability to stand Irritability Death Treatment Calcium/magnesium IV infusion Call your vet! Prevention Provide magnesium blocks starting with spring grass growth Add dolomitic lime to pastures

30 Respiratory disease Causative agents Contributing factors IBR PI3 BVD
Mannheimia hemolytica Contributing factors STRESS Transportation

31 Respiratory disease Prevention Treatment
Vaccination (see program mentioned later) Space out stressful events Provide good nutrition Treatment Hydration/Electrolytes Antibiotics

32 Clostridial diseases Group of bacterial diseases caused by Clostridium spp. Require anaerobic environment Produce potent toxins Spores persist in the environment Examples: Black leg, red water, big head, enterotoxemia, tetanus, botulism Prevention: Vaccinate! Treatment: Largely ineffective

33 Reproductive diseases— Abortion
Toxic causes Bracken fern False hellebore Pine needle abortion Infectious causes Leptospirosis Vaccinate!! Brucellosis Bang’s vaccine Trichomonas fetus BVD Neospora

34 Reproductive diseases—Abortion
Signs Usually late term May find fetus, placenta, or just dirty tail Determining cause is difficult Abortion testing Fetus and placenta Blood sample

35 Reproductive diseases—Dystocia
Signs Restless/Straining Vaginal fluid Placenta Types Leg back Head only Breech/backwards Call your vet! Within 1-2 hours if no progress

36 Reproductive diseases—Uterine prolapse
Due to continued straining following calving Risk factors include difficult calving, calcium deficiency, and selenium deficiency Keep uterus clean and call your vet

37 Reproductive diseases—Milk fever
Signs Severe weakness Head on flank Hypothermia (ears) Risk factors High milk production Older cows Inadequate or excessive dietary calcium during last trimester

38 Reproductive diseases—Milk fever
Sequelae Hind limb nerve damage Uterine prolapse Decreased gut motility Get them up ASAP! IV CMPK infusion Oral supplementation

39 Reproductive diseases—Retained placenta
Placenta should drop within 12 hours Treatment Wait 72 hrs If not out on its own, call the vet +/- Antibiotics Never pull on it!

40 Reproductive diseases—Metritis
Uterine infections Due to unsanitary calvings and uterine injuries Treatment includes antibiotics +/- hormone therapy Monitor closely following parturition

41 Reproductive diseases—Mastitis
Bacterial infection of one or more udder quarters Contracted from the udder environment or fecal contamination Risk factors Milking machines Dirty environment Teat trauma

42 Reproductive diseases—Mastitis
Treatment Culture first Strip quarter frequently Hot packing/topical ointments +/- Antibiotics

43 Other infectious diseases
Johne’s disease Contagious bacterial disease that causes diarrhea No treatment Tuberculosis Federally regulated Zoonotic BLV Viral disease that causes tumors

44 Toxin-induced disease
Plant poisoning Bracken fern Tansy ragwort St John’s wort Poison hemlock Lead poisoning Farm junk piles

45 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms
Live in stomach, small intestine, and cecum Suck blood and protein from the host Cause anemia, decreased body condition, and scours

46 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms
Life cycle Eggs deposited in feces Develop over days to weeks into infective larvae Climb grass and are ingested Develop into adults which produce eggs

47 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms
Prevention Rotational grazing Multi-species grazing High tannin forages Genetic selection Parasitic fungi? Vaccines?

48 Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms
Treatment Treat based on fecal test! Dewormers Use 1 until it doesn’t work For oral medications, fast for 24 to 48 hours For resistance, consider mixing classes Ensure adequate nutrition Diatomaceous earth? Herbal remedies?

49 Parasites—Gastrointestinal
Coccidia One-celled organism Life cycle takes ~3 weeks Replicates in small intestine cells Results in cell rupture Bloody diarrhea and weight loss Prevention Maintain sanitary environment Maintain nutrition level Rotational grazing Coccidiostat in feed or water Treatment Sulfa drugs Amprolium Must treat for 5 days to break life cycle

50 Parasites—Gastrointestinal
Cryptosporidium Causes diarrhea in calves Short life cycle Autoinfection Prevention Hygiene Treatment Time Supportive therapy Good nutrition Zoonotic!!

51 Parasites—Liver Flukes
Live in bile ducts of liver Cause liver failure Edema Jaundice Weight loss Death May predispose to clostridial disease 4 to 6 month life cycle requires snails

52 Parasites—Liver Flukes
Prevention Fence off water ways and low ground Tile fields Control snail populations Copper sulfate Slug bait Treatment Clorsulon Albendazole Kills mainly adults Treat in early fall

53 Parasites—External Flies Irritating, blood-sucking
Lead to stress and decreased production Some species have migrating larvae (warbles) Spread pinkeye Prevention/Treatment Ear tags Dust bags Air movement Topical insecticides

54 Parasites—External Lice Two main varieties
Blood–sucking Skin chewing Cause hair loss, itching, anemia, decreased body condition Treatment Injectables (only work on blood-suckers) Pour-ons, powders, DE?

55 Skin disease—Warts Caused by a virus Usually in young animals
Unsightly, may bleed Treatment Neglect Autovaccination Commercial vaccine

56 Skin disease—Ringworm
Caused by several species of fungi Lives in soil and on equipment Causes dry skin and hair loss Can be zoonotic Treatment Neglect Sunlight Various topicals (FDA!)

57 Skin disease—Photosensitization
UV light causes reaction in unpigmented skin Skin dies and sloughs Secondary to plant toxins or liver disease St John’s Wort Tansy Ragwort Liver flukes

58 Hardware disease Metal objects penetrate reticulum
Cause pain and thoracic/abdominal infection Manifested by hunched posture Prevention Magnets Treatment Abdominal surgery Antibiotics

59 Calf Management Colostrum Nutrition Hygiene Calf scours E. coli
Rotavirus Coronavirus Salmonella Cryptosporidium

60 Calf Management Navel ill/joint ill Pneumonia White muscle disease
Swollen joints and umbilicus Colostrum! Difficult to treat Pneumonia Snotty nose, coughing, labored breathing Early treatment important White muscle disease Prevention: Bo-Se

61 Castration Technique options vary with age, size and/or season Banding
“Easy” to do, no blood Increased risk of tetanus Use appropriate band!! Cutting Fail-safe, bloody Increased risk of flies/infection Crimping Difficult to do right May be price docked at sale

62 Breeding Programs Natural service vs artificial insemination
Heat detection and synchronization Purebred vs crossbred Seedstock vs commercial Flushing and embryo transfer

63 Production Benchmarks
90% of cows should calve every year Breed less than 83 days after calving (2-3 heat cycles) Breeding season should be days long 90% of calves should survive to weaning Wean calves at 6-7 months old Calves should weigh 45-50% of cow weight at weaning Calves should gain lb/day Breed heifers at 60-65% of mature weight (14 months)

64 Beef Herd Health—Calves
At Birth BoSe – 1cc/25# (for white muscle) Vitamin A&D – 1cc/75# Dip navels with 7% iodine; do not spray Make sure calf nurses cow within first 6 hours. If not, tube feed calf 2 quarts colostrum. Repeat in 4-6 hours. Intranasal IBR/PI3 if calf pneumonia has been a problem

65 Herd Health—Calves cont.
One Month of Age Burn off horns with electric dehorner Castrate bulls Three Weeks Prior to Weaning IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination Haemophilus, if a problem 7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination Check for parasites – lice and worms. Treat if indicated. Weaning Repeat IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination Haemophilus, if a problem 7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination

66 Herd Health—Heifers Four to Twelve Months of Age
Brucellosis vaccination for heifers (must be done by veterinarian) Heifers at Breeding Age IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination Haemophilus, if a problem Lepto 5-way vaccination MuSe – 1cc per # Repeat Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination Vaccinate for Vibriosis (if bull breeding) Deworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on)

67 Herd Health—Cows Every 4-6 Months Annually (prior to breeding)
Lepto 5-way vaccination Annually (prior to breeding) Killed IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination Haemophilus (optional) Vibriosis vaccination (if bull breeding) At the End of Breeding Season Rectal examination for pregnancy Check teeth, teats, etc., and cull any open or problem cows Three to Four Weeks Before Calving Deworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on) MuSe – 1cc per # Check udders Vaccinate for E. coli, Rota and Corona virus, if scours caused by these organisms have been a problem in calves 

68 Herd Health—Bulls Annually (prior to breeding)
Killed IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccination Haemophilus (optional) Vibriosis vaccination Lepto 5-way vaccination

69 Marketing Options Direct marketing Niche marketing Auctions
More personal interaction Limited customer base Niche marketing Able to set the price Customized product Auctions Easy, available, convenient No price control On-line marketing Huge customer base Minimum quantities

70 Harvesting Options Federal law requires that products to be sold be processed in a USDA-inspected facility Products for home use are exempt USDA mobile slaughter vs slaughterhouse Beef share program

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