Presentation on theme: "Cattle Production Course"— Presentation transcript:
1Cattle Production Course Dr. Brian Dietrich & Dr. Claire VarneyAbiqua Animal ClinicSilverton, Oregon2013
2Abiqua Animal Clinic Mixed animal practice in Silverton Purchased in 2009Dr Dietrich’s agrarian interests include dairying, sheep farming, forage and pasture management.Dr Varney’s veterinary interests include cattle and small ruminants, in addition to small animals.
3Beef Breeds This three--‐hour morning class will focus on cattle animalhusbandry,healthandbodyconditionevaluation,oralmedication,hoofcare,vaccination/injectiontechniques,parasitecontrolAnd Emergency management.Demonstrationsincludeworkcattle.
24Balancing a RationBalancing ration to achieve 18 lbs of a 7.5% protein dietLocal grass hay: 6% protein based on feed testLivestock grain: 12% protein based on label
25Pearson Square 7.5 Local grass hay 6% 4.5 parts Livestock grain 12% 6 parts total(1.5 /6) x 100 = 25% grain18 lb x 25% = 4.5 lb grain(4.5 /6) x 100 = 75% hay18 lb x 75% = 13.5 lb hay
26Choke Blockage of esophagus Usually able to breathe Results in bloat Risk of inhaling saliva and feed material, leading to pneumoniaObject must be removedUpDownCommon culpritsApplesPearsBeetsOnionsPotatoesCauliflowerPineapplesEt cetera
27Bloat Frothy bloat Free-gas bloat Legumes Treat with surfactant +/- trocarFree-gas bloatChokeGrain overloadNerve dysfunctionRelieve with tube +/- trocar
28Acidosis Due to: Evidenced by: Sequelae: Prevention Treatment Grain overloadLack of dietary fiberDecreased gut motilityEvidenced by:InappetanceLethargyBloatSequelae:LamenessLiver abscessesPreventionChange diet slowlyEnsure adequate fiberProvide sodium bicarb?TreatmentCall your vet……who may give a neutralizing mixture via stomach tube
29Grass Tetany Causes When? Often during spring pasture growth Signs Low dietary magnesiumDecreased magnesium absorption due to excessive potassiumWhen? Often during spring pasture growthSignsIncoordinationInability to standIrritabilityDeathTreatmentCalcium/magnesium IV infusionCall your vet!PreventionProvide magnesium blocks starting with spring grass growthAdd dolomitic lime to pastures
31Respiratory disease Prevention Treatment Vaccination (see program mentioned later)Space out stressful eventsProvide good nutritionTreatmentHydration/ElectrolytesAntibiotics
32Clostridial diseasesGroup of bacterial diseases caused by Clostridium spp.Require anaerobic environmentProduce potent toxinsSpores persist in the environmentExamples: Black leg, red water, big head, enterotoxemia, tetanus, botulismPrevention: Vaccinate!Treatment: Largely ineffective
34Reproductive diseases—Abortion SignsUsually late termMay find fetus, placenta, or just dirty tailDetermining cause is difficultAbortion testingFetus and placentaBlood sample
35Reproductive diseases—Dystocia SignsRestless/StrainingVaginal fluidPlacentaTypesLeg backHead onlyBreech/backwardsCall your vet!Within 1-2 hours if no progress
36Reproductive diseases—Uterine prolapse Due to continued straining following calvingRisk factors include difficult calving, calcium deficiency, and selenium deficiencyKeep uterus clean and call your vet
37Reproductive diseases—Milk fever SignsSevere weaknessHead on flankHypothermia (ears)Risk factorsHigh milk productionOlder cowsInadequate or excessive dietary calcium during last trimester
38Reproductive diseases—Milk fever SequelaeHind limb nerve damageUterine prolapseDecreased gut motilityGet them up ASAP!IV CMPK infusionOral supplementation
39Reproductive diseases—Retained placenta Placenta should drop within 12 hoursTreatmentWait 72 hrsIf not out on its own, call the vet+/- AntibioticsNever pull on it!
40Reproductive diseases—Metritis Uterine infectionsDue to unsanitary calvings and uterine injuriesTreatment includes antibiotics +/- hormone therapyMonitor closely following parturition
41Reproductive diseases—Mastitis Bacterial infection of one or more udder quartersContracted from the udder environment or fecal contaminationRisk factorsMilking machinesDirty environmentTeat trauma
48Parasites—Gastrointestinal worms TreatmentTreat based on fecal test!DewormersUse 1 until it doesn’t workFor oral medications, fast for 24 to 48 hoursFor resistance, consider mixing classesEnsure adequate nutritionDiatomaceous earth?Herbal remedies?
49Parasites—Gastrointestinal CoccidiaOne-celled organismLife cycle takes ~3 weeksReplicates in small intestine cellsResults in cell ruptureBloody diarrhea and weight lossPreventionMaintain sanitary environmentMaintain nutrition levelRotational grazingCoccidiostat in feed or waterTreatmentSulfa drugsAmproliumMust treat for 5 days to break life cycle
50Parasites—Gastrointestinal CryptosporidiumCauses diarrhea in calvesShort life cycleAutoinfectionPreventionHygieneTreatmentTimeSupportive therapyGood nutritionZoonotic!!
51Parasites—Liver Flukes Live in bile ducts of liverCause liver failureEdemaJaundiceWeight lossDeathMay predispose to clostridial disease4 to 6 month life cycle requires snails
52Parasites—Liver Flukes PreventionFence off water ways and low groundTile fieldsControl snail populationsCopper sulfateSlug baitTreatmentClorsulonAlbendazoleKills mainly adultsTreat in early fall
53Parasites—External Flies Irritating, blood-sucking Lead to stress and decreased productionSome species have migrating larvae (warbles)Spread pinkeyePrevention/TreatmentEar tagsDust bagsAir movementTopical insecticides
54Parasites—External Lice Two main varieties Blood–suckingSkin chewingCause hair loss, itching, anemia, decreased body conditionTreatmentInjectables (only work on blood-suckers)Pour-ons, powders, DE?
55Skin disease—Warts Caused by a virus Usually in young animals Unsightly, may bleedTreatmentNeglectAutovaccinationCommercial vaccine
56Skin disease—Ringworm Caused by several species of fungiLives in soil and on equipmentCauses dry skin and hair lossCan be zoonoticTreatmentNeglectSunlightVarious topicals (FDA!)
57Skin disease—Photosensitization UV light causes reaction in unpigmented skinSkin dies and sloughsSecondary to plant toxins or liver diseaseSt John’s WortTansy RagwortLiver flukes
58Hardware disease Metal objects penetrate reticulum Cause pain and thoracic/abdominal infectionManifested by hunched posturePreventionMagnetsTreatmentAbdominal surgeryAntibiotics
59Calf Management Colostrum Nutrition Hygiene Calf scours E. coli RotavirusCoronavirusSalmonellaCryptosporidium
60Calf Management Navel ill/joint ill Pneumonia White muscle disease Swollen joints and umbilicusColostrum!Difficult to treatPneumoniaSnotty nose, coughing, labored breathingEarly treatment importantWhite muscle diseasePrevention: Bo-Se
61Castration Technique options vary with age, size and/or season Banding “Easy” to do, no bloodIncreased risk of tetanusUse appropriate band!!CuttingFail-safe, bloodyIncreased risk of flies/infectionCrimpingDifficult to do rightMay be price docked at sale
62Breeding Programs Natural service vs artificial insemination Heat detection and synchronizationPurebred vs crossbredSeedstock vs commercialFlushing and embryo transfer
63Production Benchmarks 90% of cows should calve every yearBreed less than 83 days after calving (2-3 heat cycles)Breeding season should be days long90% of calves should survive to weaningWean calves at 6-7 months oldCalves should weigh 45-50% of cow weight at weaningCalves should gain lb/dayBreed heifers at 60-65% of mature weight (14 months)
64Beef Herd Health—Calves At BirthBoSe – 1cc/25# (for white muscle)Vitamin A&D – 1cc/75#Dip navels with 7% iodine; do not sprayMake sure calf nurses cow within first 6 hours. If not, tube feed calf 2 quarts colostrum. Repeat in 4-6 hours.Intranasal IBR/PI3 if calf pneumonia has been a problem
65Herd Health—Calves cont. One Month of AgeBurn off horns with electric dehornerCastrate bullsThree Weeks Prior to WeaningIBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccinationHaemophilus, if a problem7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccinationCheck for parasites – lice and worms. Treat if indicated.WeaningRepeat IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccinationHaemophilus, if a problem7-way or 8-way Clostridium (blackleg) vaccination
66Herd Health—Heifers Four to Twelve Months of Age Brucellosis vaccination for heifers (must be done by veterinarian)Heifers at Breeding AgeIBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccinationHaemophilus, if a problemLepto 5-way vaccinationMuSe – 1cc per #Repeat Clostridium (blackleg) vaccinationVaccinate for Vibriosis (if bull breeding)Deworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on)
67Herd Health—Cows Every 4-6 Months Annually (prior to breeding) Lepto 5-way vaccinationAnnually (prior to breeding)Killed IBR, BVD, PI3, BRSV vaccinationHaemophilus (optional)Vibriosis vaccination (if bull breeding)At the End of Breeding SeasonRectal examination for pregnancyCheck teeth, teats, etc., and cull any open or problem cowsThree to Four Weeks Before CalvingDeworm – use injectable or oral dewormers (not pour-on)MuSe – 1cc per #Check uddersVaccinate for E. coli, Rota and Corona virus, if scours caused by these organisms have been a problem in calves
69Marketing Options Direct marketing Niche marketing Auctions More personal interactionLimited customer baseNiche marketingAble to set the priceCustomized productAuctionsEasy, available, convenientNo price controlOn-line marketingHuge customer baseMinimum quantities
70Harvesting OptionsFederal law requires that products to be sold be processed in a USDA-inspected facilityProducts for home use are exemptUSDA mobile slaughter vs slaughterhouseBeef share program