Presentation on theme: "Plant Survival, Reproduction, and Defense 6.L.1.1 Summarize the basic structures and functions of flowering plants required for survival, reproduction,"— Presentation transcript:
Plant Survival, Reproduction, and Defense 6.L.1.1 Summarize the basic structures and functions of flowering plants required for survival, reproduction, and defense.
Plant Defense Against Being Eaten Plants have evolved an enormous array of mechanical and chemical defenses against the animals that eat them. These tools allow plants to survive and reproduce in the same area as herbivores and act to prevent herbivory or at least minimize damage incurred from feeding.
Plant defenses include: Mechanical protection on the surface of the plant; complex polymers that reduce plant digestibility to animals; and toxins that kill or repel herbivores. Pokeweed Berries Cactus
Briars – This plant is protected by thorns.
Choke Cherry Choke cherry, or wild cherry, is a North American plant that is known for its large sprays of tiny white flowers. The cherries are small and not eaten. The plant’s woody stalks and leaves are full of hydrocyanic acid, which is fatal if consumed. The poison affects the respiratory system, and rapid breathing, choking and asphyxiation result.
Poison Ivy Poison ivy produces urushiol to protect the plant from herbivores. In humans this chemical produces an allergic skin rash, known as urushiol-induced contact dermatitis.
Foxglov es The roots, sap, flowers, seeds, and leaves of foxgloves are all poisonous - even when dried.
Reproduction Flowering plants sometimes use the help of birds, bees, other animals and insects, wind and water to help them reproduce. Wate r Win d Be e
Pollen Pollen is the male sex cell that donates half of the DNA to make a seed. It is a powdery substance, usually orange or yellow in color, that gets carried by pollinators.
Pollinators A pollinator is something that moves pollen from the male parts to the female parts.
The petals of a flower are usually very colorful to attract pollinators. Plants also use aromas to attract pollinators for reproduction.
They will visit up to 500 flowers in one collection trip. A really ambitious honey bee could potentially visit up to 2,000 flowers a day. And remember, all these hard workers are female. The bees gather pollen to eat themselves, as it is very nutritious, and to feed their young. Pollinating the flower is just a by-product for them. When we talk about pollinators, most people think of bees. Honey bees are the gold medals champions when it comes to pollination. They have little sacks on their legs to stuff the pollen in as they move from flower to flower.
In this illustration a hummingbird is getting nectar from a colorful flower, therefore pollinating it. The hummingbird needs the sugar in the nectar to survive because of its extraordinarily high heart rate. The flower would have a difficult time getting pollinated if the hummingbirds did not need the nectar.
Mimicry/Camouflage Some plants use mimicry or camouflage to help them survive. Mimicry - the action or art of imitating someone or something. Camouflage – to hide or disguise the presence of a person, animal, or object.
Carrion Flower Carrion flowers or stinking flowers mimic the smell of rotting flesh to attract carrion insects in order to get them to pollinate their flowers and other flowers in the same species.
Orch id Some people -- and animals -- will go to any lengths to attract members of the opposite sex, including the use of aliases and lies. As many as 10,000 species of dainty orchids in the floral world also utilize deception in order to be get pollinated: Over time, they have evolved elaborate ruses to lure insects.
Orchid & Bee Pollinated orchid flowers use a bee pheromone to attract bees. When the male wasp tries to mate with the dummy female, he fails, but the orchid succeeds in getting pollen on the wasp. He flies away, only to be fooled again by another orchid pulling the same trick. In the process, the wasp transfers pollen from flower to flower.
Flowers That Open At Night One of the creatures which fertilize flowers at night are bats. They feed on the nectar in plants. The colorful flowers fertilized by bats at night have such a strong smell that bats, which are blind and fly in the dark, can easily find them.
Plants also have features that enhance the probability of attracting natural enemies to herbivores. Ex.) A plant releasing a sent to attract wasps that eat worms.
References Cute Killers: 16 Unassuming-but-Lethal Poison Plants yet-lethal-killer-plants/ yet-lethal-killer-plants/ The Miracle Of Creation In Plants ants/chapter/2546 ants/chapter/2546 Plant Defense Against Being Eaten ory.htm ory.htm
Questions What is something that moves pollen from the male parts to the female parts. A. A polynomial B. A pollinator C. A terminator D. A termite
What is the action or art of imitating someone or something? A. Mimicry B. Camouflage C. Pollinator D. Reproducing
What means to hide or disguise the presence of a person, animal, or object? A. Mimicry B. Camouflage C. Pollinator D. Reproducing