GENERAL DATA Official name of the state: Republic of Estonia System of governing: Parliamentary republic Capital city: Tallinn Currency unit: EURO Administrative division: Counties 15 Total area (km2): 45 227 Average life expectancy: men 67 years women 78 years
CHILD AND ADOLESCENT INJURY DEATHS IN ESTONIA AND THE NETHERLANDS 3-YEAR MOVING AVERAGES FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS 0-19 YEARS
OBJECTIVE OF THE NATIONAL HEALTH PLAN 2009-2020 To reduce the mortality rate of 0-19 year-old children and youth due to fatal accidents, poisonings and injuries by a half per 100,000 people (i.e. from 30% to 15%).
THE ROLE OF SCHOOL NURSES Teaching first aid to students is additional task for school nurses from 1 Sept 2010 A special study programme has been prepaired There is a special subject in our curriculum – personal education School nurses implement the programme in cooperation with teachers
AIM OF TEACHING FIRST AID Provision of basic knowledge and life saving techniques and providing first aid in case of an accident. Improvement of healthy and secure lifestyle and the prevention of accidents and injuries among school children.
FIRST AID STUDY PROGRAMME WHICH SCHOOL NURSES APPLY TO ALL GENERAL EDUCATION SCHOOLS STAGE /FORM/ TOPICS WITH QUESTIONS THAT NEED FURTHER DISCUSSION I stageforms 1-3 45 minutes 1. Risk assessment and self- protection 2. Wounds, burns, falls, bites/stings... 3. Calling for help EXPECTED RESULTS Student knows the emergency number and can call for help Demonstrates simpler first aid measures and possibilities to get help
II STAGE/ FORMS 4-6 90 MINUTES (2*45´) 1.Traumas, contusions, spreins, fractures, burns 2. Danger and emergency situations 3. Hands-on exercises Student demonstrates simpler first aid measures and possibilities to get help
III STAGE/FORMS 7-9 90 MINUTES (2*45) 1.Danger and emergency situations 2. Unconsciousness What to do if there is no breathing and pulse? Discuss calling for help and the sequence of actions. Student knows how to act safely in an emergency situation and call for help in the case of allergy, asthma, diabetes, electric shock, epilepsy, choke, poisoning, fever and pain
EXAMPLES OF TWO SCHOOLS OF TALLINN: SCHOOL NO 21 AND JUHKENTALI UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL) The target group included 11-12 year-old fifth form students. 192 students participated in the first aid training 105 students of them had studied first aid before in the third or fourth form Training was carried out in three stages
METHODS AND MATERIALS The following methods were applied in teaching: discussions, illustrative situations, conversations/debates, lectures, group works, role-plays, solving contingency tasks, hands-on activities. Teaching materials: medical mannequins, printed matters, videos, slide shows.
THREE CYCLES OF TRAINING I cycle Traumas, provision of first aid, first aid equipment, self-defence techniques. II cycle Fractures, sprains, burns etc and their most common causes.Theory was followed by a role-play. III cycle Solving contingency tasks to revise learned skills. Reinforcement of the entire programme.
RESULTS EVALUATION 190 questionnaires were distributed, 185 students replied altogether. The students who had completed the first aid training had 80% right answers in the reference group was 65%.
CONCLUSION In two schools, 192 students were trained altogether in the school year 2010/2011 and the following was obtained: safe behaviour skills; knowledge of how to act in case of an accident; basic first aid measures.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS First aid trainings should be organised in a continual basis. Carrying the training out in a smaller group (up to 15 students) gives better results. It should be kept in mind that not all students are able to act in different situations providing first aid; however, all of them must know how to call for help. All accidents and traumas should be registered and analysed. It is necessary to continue national programmes/projects at schools (e.g. ’Protect yourself and help others’, ’Safe Community’, projects on the prevention of injuries in cities and counties etc.). Estonia is in urgent need of a national trauma register.