Presentation on theme: "Making Sense of National and State Sexual Violence Data Emilee Coulter-Thompson, MSW Oregon Public Health Division, Office of Family Health & Linda Drach,"— Presentation transcript:
Making Sense of National and State Sexual Violence Data Emilee Coulter-Thompson, MSW Oregon Public Health Division, Office of Family Health & Linda Drach, MPH Oregon Public Health Division & Multnomah County Health Dept, Program Design & Evaluation Services Welcome! We will start soon.
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Upcoming SATF Webinars & Trainings Webinar: Sexual Assault in Detention ◦ October 26 th – Save the Date! Annual SATF Advocate Training ◦ November 1-5, each day ◦ DHS Training Center, Salem, OR Register or get info at: ◦ or
Introductions Please share: Name Organization Your Role / Position
Poll Please rate your relationship to working with data – if you had to compare it to a weather pattern, it would be: A. Sunny and clear B. Partly cloudy, partly sunny C. Oregon drizzle D. Midwest thunderstorm We welcome all answers!
Learning Objectives Identify national and state SV data sources Understand strengths and limitations of the data Demonstrate ability to access and interpret data Understand how to use data to inform program planning and grant writing
Oregon Public Health Division Joining the Oregon Health Authority Portland State Office Building 800 NE Oregon Street Portland, OR DHS Oregon Health Authority
Program Design & Evaluation Services Maternal & Child Health Program – Rape Prevention & Education Program PRAMS Injury & Violence Prevention Program – NVDRS Youth Suicide Prevention IPV Data Adolescent Health Program – Oregon Healthy Teens Survey Center for Health Statistics – BRFSS & OHT
Center for Health Statistics shtml shtml Vital Records: Birth, Death, Marriage, Divorce, Domestic Partnership Oregon Healthy Teens Survey Adult Behavior Survey (BRFSS)
What is Public Health, anyway?
Surveillance Definition (CDC) Ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data ◦ (e.g., regarding agent/hazard, risk factor, exposure, health event) Informs planning, implementation, and evaluation of public health practice Shared with prevention partners Examples: NISVSS & BRFSS
Why is using data important? Type your answers in the text chat.
National Data Sources "The Use (and Misuse) of Data on Rape" (2008), CounterQuo white paper of-data-on-rape/ Podcast with Jody Raphael & TK Logan, lead writers National Sexual Violence, Intimate Partner Violence and Stalking Surveillance System (NISVSS), a new CDC survey dex.html dex.html
Use (and Misuse) of SV Data Prevalence = proportion of population surveyed that has been raped at least once in a specified time period Incidence = # of times rapes occurred in a given time period
Use (and Misuse) of SV Data Key Factors in Prevalence: ◦ Definition of rape ◦ Sample ◦ Context of rape ◦ Methods ◦ Timeframe
Lifetime Rape Prevalence Trends Over Time Kilpatrick et al. (2007) Rape in America 12.6% National Women’s Study (1992) ◦ 1 in % National VAW Survey ( ) ◦ 1 in % Recent Kilpatrick Study (2006) ◦ 1 in 6 Rape defined as forced penetration Lifetime prevalence
National Women’s Study Kilpatrick,1992 ◦ 4,008 women interviewed by phone ◦ 12.6% women reported rape (12.1 million) ◦ Second interview one year later 3,246 women ◦.7% rape in past year (683,000 women) Rape defined as forced penetration
National VAW Survey Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000 ◦ 8,000 women & 8,000 men surveyed ◦ Telephone surveys and interviews ◦ 14.8% women raped; 2.8% attempted rape 17.6% total of both ◦ 2.1% men raped;.9% attempted rape 3% total of both Rape defined as forced penetration
Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated & Forcible Rape: A National Study Kilpatrick, et al ◦ 3,001 women surveyed by phone ◦ 18% of women raped in lifetime (20.2 million) 16.1% forcible sexual penetration (18 million) 5% penetrations involving drugs, alcohol, other incapacities ◦.6% raped in past year
Rape in past year (Rates remain stable over time).7% rape in past year (683,000 women) ◦ National Women’s Survey % raped in past year ◦ Kilpatrick, et al. 2007
Key Points: National Surveys ◦ Rape prevalence has not decreased over time ◦ Most women were raped by someone they knew (75%-89%) About 1 in 4 raped by a current or former intimate partner (19%-30%); proportions may be higher if included dates…definitions differ ◦ Substance facilitated/incapacitated rape only recently recognized as important trend and measured ◦ Limitations of telephone survey methodology
Use (and Misuse) of SV Data Common errors: ◦ Lifetime prevalence vs. within last year ◦ Uniform Crime Reports vs. prevalence
Use & Misuse of Data The myth of 1 in 3 Potential backlash Reframing: ◦ 16% = 18 million women ◦ 12.1% of women experience breast cancer
The Rape Denial Industry False reports vs. unfounded Myth of 50% of false reports Actually 3-7% false reports ◦ SATF papers on False Allegations & Case Unfounding Definitions of rape too broad Do not reference studies since 1985
Recommendations Most men are not rapists Focus on subset of men who offend Don’t exaggerate the numbers Publicize new studies
National Intimate Partner Violence, Sexual Violence and Stalking Surveillance System (NISVSS) Ongoing population-based surveillance data Telephone survey beginning 2010 CDC, NIJ & DoD Incidence and prevalence estimates: ◦ IPV, SV, Dating violence, Stalking Victimization only
CDC SV Data Links /sexualviolence/datasources.html /sexualviolence/datasources.html ◦ SV Facts: At-a-glance ◦ CDC Data Sources ◦ Other Federal Data Sources ◦ Non-Federal Data Sources ◦ Journal Articles
Oregon Data Sources Rape in Oregon Report BRFSS Oregon Healthy Teens Survey (OHT) PRAMS Speak Out! LGBTQ Survey
31 Rape in Oregon 1 in 6 Oregon adult women ◦ Victim of forcible rape in lifetime ◦ 230,000 total ◦ 17.5% (13.4% U.S.) 60% first raped in childhood 30% first or only rape before age 11 (Rape in Oregon, Kilpatrick & Ruggiero, 2003) Population estimates based on data from the National Women’s Study & National VAW Survey
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) /index.shtml /index.shtml The BRFSS is the largest, continuously conducted, telephone health survey in the world.
33 Oregon BRFSS - SV 2008 In the past 12 months, has anyone ever had sex with you, or attempted to have sex with you after you said or showed that you didn't want them or without your consent?
Raped or Attempted Rape Past 12 months (2008) Total Respondents (n=4,434): ◦.3% Attempted (.7% ages18-24 & 25-34) ◦.0% Carried Out Females: ◦.4% Attempted (1.6% ages18-24,.6% 55-64) ◦.0% Carried Out Males: ◦.3% Attempted (1.1% 25-34)
35 Oregon BRFSS - IPV 2008 In the past 12 months, have you experienced any physical violence or had unwanted sex with an intimate partner?.6% (n=4,433) Females.7% (1.7% 25-34) Males.5% (1.4% 35-44)
36 Oregon BRFSS – SV % of females over 18 years of age report experiencing attempted sex without consent 16.3% of females over 18 years of age report experiencing sex without consent From 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey
Data doesn’t always add up…
Oregon Healthy Teens (OHT) Survey thsurvey/index.shtml thsurvey/index.shtml Anonymous and voluntary 8th and 11th graders statewide County-level data Every 2 Years The Addictions and Mental Health Division (AMH) conducted a Student Survey in 2010.
OHT: SV by grade
OHT: SV by gender
OHT: IPV by grade
OHT: IPV by gender
Healthy Sexuality... A New Frame of SV Prevention
Ever Forced to Have Sex
Never Forced to Have Sex
Given in to Sexual Activity because of Pressure
Did not give in to sexual activity/ was not pressured
Positive Youth Development Focuses on young people’s capacities, strengths and developmental needs – not solely on their problems (risks or negative behaviors). Shift from crisis management and problem reduction to strategies that increase youth contact with positive, supportive relationships and challenging, meaningful activities.
PYD Questions Would you say that in general your physical health is.... Would you say that in general your emotional and mental health is.... I can do most things if I try. There is at least one teacher or other adult in my school that really cares about me. I volunteer to help others in my community. I can work out my problems.
PYD Reduces the Risk of Sexual Violence
Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) s/prams.shtml s/prams.shtml Voluntary survey Paper or phone PRAMS – 6 months after birth PRAMS-2 – 2 years after birth IPV data
PRAMS months before pregnant: Were you physically hurt in any way by your husband or partner? ◦ 1.8% Yes (n=1,442) Did an ex-husband or ex-partner push, hit, slap, kick, choke, or physically hurt you in any other way? ◦ 3.3 % Yes (n=1,444)
PRAMS 2008 During most recent pregnancy: Were you physically hurt in any way by your husband or partner? ◦ 1.3% (n=1,441) Did an ex-husband or ex-partner push, hit, slap, kick, choke, or physically hurt you in any other way? ◦ 1.3% (n=1,440)
PRAMS-2 IPV Data (2007) In the past 12 months, did an intimate partner (current or former husband, boyfriend, girlfriend or date) do any of the following to you? Yelled and screamed at you, threatened you or made you feel unsafe 6.7% Yes Tried to limit your contact with family or friends 4.1% Yes
PRAMS-2 IPV Data (2007) Past 12 months… Prevented you from knowing about or having access to your shared income, even when you asked 2.0% Yes Pushed, hit, slapped, kicked, choked or physically hurt you in any way 3.1% Yes Had sex with you against your will or without your consent 0.42% Yes
Speak Out! 2009 LGBTQ Survey Online survey conducted among 843 sexual and gender minorities in the Portland metropolitan area: ◦ Conducted June-July 2009
Speak Out! 2009 Survey of LGBTQ Residents Multnomah, Washington, Clackamas (OR) and Clark County (WA) residents Eligibility: 18+, identify as gender and/or sexual minority Convenience sampling to recruit participants (e.g., computers at Gay PRIDE, s to various lists, Facebook, Craigslist)
IPV data from Speak Out Have you experienced any physical violence or had unwanted sex with an intimate partner…? ◦ Ever: 40% ◦ In the past 12 months: 4% These items did not ask about perpetrator’s gender ◦ these data do not measure IPV within same-sex relationships; ◦ they do measure lifetime & past-year prevalence among people who currently identify as a gender or sexual minority
Differences by Gender ID and SO Lifetime IPV prevalence varied significantly by gender and sexual orientation:
Data Overload? The Professor stopped when he heard that unmistakable thud – another brain had imploded.
Using Data As pieces of information (as individual facts) As sets of information (as groups of facts) Over time (as trends) Literature (in order to make the case for prevention activities)
Using Data: Program Planning Help determine the direction of the program ◦ ex. Follow trends of data, or to target most at-risk population Can help determine what data you need to collect ◦ BRFSS does not target your specific community, so you may want to collect more qualitative/quantitative information
Using Data: Grant Writing Statement of Need – See Handout ◦ Strengthen your case with: Hard data from a reputable source Data from multiple sources Describe your community ◦ Demographic, geographic and/or economic info ◦ US Census – American Community Survey
Using Data for Prevention WHO Report: Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women ntion/violence/activities/intimate/en/index. html End Sexual Violence Oregon website sources/research-lit.html
Oregon Data Reports: SV One in Six - Rape in Oregon Recommendations to Prevent Sexual Violence in Oregon: A Plan of Action Oregon Youth Sexual Health Plan Appendices sexuality.shtml
Oregon Data Reports: IPV DV Homicide-Suicide MMWR ( ) 0/ohd5909.pdf Violence Against Women Prevention Plan
Prevention Resources Attorney General’s Sexual Assault Task Force Oregon Coalition Against Domestic & Sexual Violence CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CALCASA Prevention Connection Prevention Institute