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Fonología y Lingüística del Inglés para Profesionales del Habla-Lenguaje y Audición Jose Galarza MA, CCC-SLP EBS Healthcare

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Presentation on theme: "Fonología y Lingüística del Inglés para Profesionales del Habla-Lenguaje y Audición Jose Galarza MA, CCC-SLP EBS Healthcare"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fonología y Lingüística del Inglés para Profesionales del Habla-Lenguaje y Audición Jose Galarza MA, CCC-SLP EBS Healthcare

2 Fundamental Concepts The rules of a language are learned as one acquires a language. These rules include: Phonology - the sound system. Morphology - the structure of words. Syntax - the combination of words into sentences. Semantics - the ways in which sounds and meanings are related. Lexicon – the mental dictionary of words.

3 Components of GAE - Consonants 24 consonant phonemes – two versions of /r/ Syllable-initial position and r-colored vowels The symbols used to transcribe the consonants of English are: /p, b, t, d, k, g, m, n, ŋ, f, v, θ, ð, v, s, ʃ, ʒ, h, tʃ, dʒ, l, r, w, j/

4 English Phonemic Inventory Source: ASHA

5 International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) Source: Consonants

6 Place - Bilabials Bilabial Sounds Upper and lower lips. – /p/ (pie), /b/ (by), /m/ (my), /w/ (why)

7 Place - Labiodentals Labiodental Sounds Upper teeth and lower lip. – /f/ (fear, fairy), /v/ (veer, very)

8 Place - Dentals Interdental Sounds Pronounced with tongue between teeth. – /θ/ (thistle), /ð/ (this)

9 Place - Alveolars Alveolar Sounds Tongue touching or near the alveolar ridge (hard ridge just behind the teeth). – /t/ (teeth), /d/ (dear), /n/ (near), /s/ (sear), /z/ (zero), /l/ (lead), /r/ (read)

10 Place - Velars Velar Sounds Back of the tongue touches the soft palate(velum). – /k/ (kind), /g/ (go), /ŋ/ (king, gong)

11 Place - Palatals Palatal Sounds Tongue touching the roof of the mouth behind the alveolar ridge. – /ʃ/ (sheer), /ʒ/ (azure), /tʃ/ (church), /ʤ/ (judge), /j/ (you)

12 Place - Glottal Glottal Sounds Air flows through the glottis (= opening between vocal chords). – /h/ (house)

13 Place of Articulation Nasal ConsonantsOral Consonants mp/b f/v θ/ðθ/ð nt/d s/z l r ʃ/ʒ j tʃ/ʤ ŋk/g h

14 Manner of Articulation Refers to the interaction between the various articulators and the airstream. The air is temporarily trapped then released. The various manners of articulation are: PlosivesNasalsFricatives AffricatesLiquidsGlides

15 Manner - Plosive The airflow is completely blocked in the oral cavity, and the stop is suddenly released. Air pressure increases behind the closure and is then released explosively. The place of the block can vary (place of articulation). If the vocal cords vibrate even during closure, the stop is voiced. p/b, t/d, k/g

16 Manner - Nasals Total obstruction of airflow in the oral cavity. Air flows through the nasal cavity. The shape and position of the tongue determine the resonant cavity that gives different nasals their characteristic sounds. /m/, /n/, /ŋ/

17 Manner - Fricatives No total obstruction of airflow in the oral cavity. Airflow through the small aperture between articulators causes friction. Friction can appear at various places along the vocal tract (place of articulation). The vocal cords can vibrate (voiced fricatives) or not (voiceless fricatives). f/v, θ / ð, s/z, ʃ / ʒ,h

18 Manner - Affricates Plosive followed by fricative therefore air is released with less force than a plosive. English: only alvelopalatal (alveolar – palatal) affricates produced. Voiced or voiceless, depending on whether the vocal cords vibrate or not. tʃ/dʒ

19 Manner – Liquids No real friction in the oral cavity; the airflow is redirected around raised tongue. /l/ is a lateral sound; air passes on two sides of the tongue. Various pronunciations of /r/

20 Manner – Glides Little or no obstruction in the mouth. Glides resemble vowels. Glides usually precede or follow a vowel. A [glide + vowel] or [vowel + glide] unit is a diphtong (as in you, toy, wow,etc.). Glides are voiced. j, w

21 Voiceless and Voiced Sounds Voiceless Consonants Vocal folds are not vibrating. Voiced Consonants Vocal folds are vibrating (air passing through them). pb m w fv θð td sz l r n ʃʒ j tʃʤ kg ŋ h

22 Components of General American English (GAE) 18 Vowels Tense vowels are lengthened or diphthongized in stressed syllables. – The tense vowels are /i, e, u, o, ɔ, a/ The schwa is used very often: – a, about; e, believe; i, compatible; o, oblige; u, circus

23 Components of GAE - Vowels

24 GAE LocationGAE VowelsGAE Examples High-frontiɪiɪ seat, meet sit, his, syllable Mid-front Low-front eɛæeɛæ raid, play, grey red, said bad, flag, land High-back roundeduʊuʊ blue, school, two book, look Mid-back roundedoɔoɔ boat, sew, choke tall, caught, awful Low-backadrop, shock, hot Central (stressed) (unstressed) ʌəʌə cut, shove, upon, soda

25 Components of GAE - Vowels GAE LocationGAE VowelsGAE Examples [r]-colored vowelsɝ ɚ ɪr ɛr ʊr ɔr ar fur, were, sir never, color ear, cheer, here, pier air, share tour, sure four, shore, door car, Diphthongsei ai aʊ ɔi oʊ pay, paid my, hide, applied out, mouse, cow boy, coin, Illinois low, load, although

26 Syllable Structures Syllable structures range from a single vowel (e.g., I) to CCCVCCC (e.g., sprints). Words range from 1 to 9 or 10 syllables. Abundance of monosyllabic words due to possibility of using singleton consonants and clusters at both the beginning and end of the word (e.g., sky, ask, steel, least).

27 Phonological Processes Patterns that young children use to simplify adult speech. All children use these processes while speech and language are developing. By age 5, most children stop using phonological processes and their speech sounds more like the adults around them.

28 Syllable Structure Processes Sound changes that cause sounds or syllables to be reduced in number, deleted, or repeated. Final Consonant Deletion is the deletion of the final consonant or consonant cluster in a syllable or word. – “soap” /sop/ is pronounced “sew” /so/ – “pig” /pɪg/ is pronounced “pi” /pɪ/

29 Syllable Structure Processes Cluster Reduction is the deletion of one or more consonants from a two or three consonant cluster. – “spot” /spat/ is pronounced “pot” /pat/ – “clown” /klaʊn/ is pronounced “cown” /kaʊn/ Syllable Reduction is the deletion of a syllable from a word containing two or more syllables. The deletion usually occurs in the unstressed syllable. – “computer” /kəmpjutɚ/ is pronounced “puter” /pjutɚ/

30 Substitution Processes Sound changes in which one sound class replaces another class of sounds. Gliding occurs when /r/ becomes /w/ or /l/ becomes /w/ or /j/. – “rail” /rel/ is pronounced “whale” /wel/ “leap” /lip/ is pronounced “weep” /wip/

31 Substitution Processes Vocalization occurs when one of the following, /l/, /ɝ/, or /ɚ/, is replaced by a more neutral vowel. – “seal” /sil/ is pronounced “sio” /sio/ – “computer” /kəmpjutɚ/ is pronounced “computa” /kəmpjutʊ/ Fronting (Velar and Palatal) is the substitution of sounds in the front of the mouth, usually alveolars, for velar or palatal sounds. – “key” /ki/ is pronounced “tea” /ti/ – “gate” /get/ is pronounced “date” /det/

32 Substitution Processes Deaffrication is the deletion of a stop component from an affricate leaving only the continuant aspect. – “cheese” /tʃiz/ is pronounced “sheese” /ʃiz/ – “jar” /dʒar/ is pronounced “zhar” /ʒar/ Stopping is the substitution of a stop consonant for a fricative or an affricate. – “sail” /sel/ is pronounced “tail” /tel/ – “knife” /naif/ is pronounced “knipe” /naip/

33 Assimilation Processes Sound changes in which one sound or syllable influences another sound or syllable. Prevocalic Voicing is the voicing of an initial voiceless consonant in a word. – “peach” /pitʃ/ is pronounced “beach”/bitʃ/ Postvocalic Devoicing is the devoicing of a final voiced consonant in a word. – “bag” /bæg/ is pronounced “back”/bæk/

34 Summary Fundamental components of General American English, with an emphasis on phonology. Consonants, vowels, and diphthongs with the International Phonetic Alphabet and key words. Articulation by describing place, manner, and voicing and phonological processes.

35 Resources ASHA Phonemic Inventories ltural/Phono.htm International Phonetic Alphabet (Has audio clips for each phoneme) /charts/IPAlab/IPAlab.htm Diphthongs and Triphthongs (Has audio clips for each sound) /diphthongs.html Learning English Pronunciation ronunc.htm Merriam-Webster Dictionary http://www.merriam-

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