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Chapter 15 Secession and the Civil War 1861-1865.

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1 Chapter 15 Secession and the Civil War 1861-1865

2 How could the US function as a country if its members could come and go as they pleased?

3 The War Starts – Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina if Lincoln did not resupply the fort, it would have to be abandoned, acknowledging the authority of the Confederate government – Lincoln – told the governor he was sending food, but no soldiers or arms – Davis – ordered General P.G.T. Beauregard to demand the Fort surrender or take it by force; opened fire for a 34-hour bombardment by firing on federal property, the Confederates had committed an act of open rebellion and Lincoln had no choice but to respond – division between North and South would not be settled peacefully

4 Adjusting to Total War “total war” – involving every aspect of society – a test of societies, economies, and political systems – a battle of wits between generals and military strategists North – could achieve its aim of restoring the Union only by defeating the South – would end up being a long war the Confederacy put up “a hell of a fight”

5 Prospects, Plans, and Expectations North had an enormous edge in population, industrial capacity, and railroad mileage – had to invade and conquer the South

6 South had some advantages – Confederacy needed only to defend its territory successfully – faced a less serious supply problem – could choose the time and place of combat take advantage of familiar terrain and a friendly civilian population – southern leaders defined their cause as defense of their homeland against an alien invader appealed to the patriotism of a white population

7 was widely assumed that Southerners would make better fighting men than Yankees – farm boys used to riding and shooting most of the large proportion of high- ranking officers in the U.S. Army were of southern origin – resigned to accept Confederate commands Southerners confidently expected that their armies would be better led

8 believed major foreign powers such as England and France would come to the aid of the South – their industrial economies depended on southern cotton

9 both sides tried to find the best way to capitalize on their advantages and compensate for their limitations Confederate military – stay on the defensive or seek a sudden and dramatic victory by invading the North – chose a mainly defensive war primary strategic orientation was defensive, an “offensive defense”

10 Northern military planners had greater difficulty – optimists believed the war could be won quickly and easily by sending an army to capture the capital at Richmond “On to Richmond” solution died on the battlefields – clear that difficult terrain and an ably led, hard-fighting Confederate army blocked the way

11 aged General Winfield Scott – commanded the Union army during the early months of the war – recommended an “anaconda policy” – great boa constrictor that would squeeze the South into submission by blockading the southern coasts, seizing control of the Mississippi, and cutting off supplies of food and other necessary commodities the West became the main focus of military operations


13 Lincoln decided on a two-front war – keep the pressure on Virginia – authorize an advance down the Mississippi Valley – aim to isolate Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana – importance on the coastal blockade and expected naval operations to seize the ports through which goods entered and left the Confederacy plan of applying pressure and probing for weaknesses at several points simultaneously took maximum advantage of the North’s superiority in manpower and matériel – required better military leadership

14 Mobilizing the Home Fronts both sides had problems in trying to create the vast support systems needed by armies in the field both had more volunteers than could be armed and outfitted – recruiting was done primarily by states, who were reluctant to surrender control of the forces they had raised

15 a short and easy war wasn’t going to happen and the pool of volunteers began to dry up – early recruits had been enrolled for short terms and were reluctant to re-enlist Confederacy passed a conscription law – Union edged toward a draft as well

16 materials of war relied mainly on private industry – North – contracted with private firms and individuals to supply the army there was a lot of corruption and inefficiency – shoddy uniforms that disintegrated in a heavy rain, defective rifles, and broken-down horses unfit for service – by 1863 – factories and farms were producing more than enough to provision the troops without significantly lowering the living standards of northern civilians

17 because of the South’s weakness of their industrial base, they depended on the outside world for most of their manufactured goods – as the Union blockade became more effective had to rely increasingly on a government- sponsored crash program to produce war materials built its own munitions plants Confederate Ordnance Bureau – headed by General Josiah Gorgas, succeeded in procuring sufficient armaments to keep southern armies well supplied throughout the conflict

18 Southern agriculture failed to meet the challenge though – planters were reluctant to shift from staples that could not be exported to foodstuffs the were needed inadequacy of the South’s internal transportation system – limited rail network – most new lines were aimed at the movement of troops rather than the distribution of food

19 well armed, Confederate soldiers were increasingly undernourished – civilians were rioting to protest shortages of food Confederate commissary resorted to the impressment of available agricultural produce well below the market value – policy eventually had to be abandoned

20 question of how to finance an enormously costly struggle – special war taxes neither side was willing to resort to the heavy taxation that was needed – more willing to die for their government than pay for it floating loans and bonds

21 both sides deliberately inflated the currency by printing large quantities of paper money that could not be redeemed in gold and silver – runaway inflation was the inevitable result was less severe in the North because of the strength of its economy

22 Confederacy faced a severe shortage of readily disposable wealth – land and cotton could not easily be turned into rifles and cannons – southern treasury had to accept payments “in kind” – Confederate “assets” eventually consisted of bales of cotton that were unexportable because of the blockade rate of inflation soared – took a wheelbarrow full of money to buy a purse full of goods

23 Political Leadership: Northern Success and Southern Failure how much democracy and individual freedom could be permitted when military success required an unprecedented exercise of government authority both constitutions made the president commander in chief of the army and navy

24 Lincoln was especially bold in assuming new executive powers – expanded the regular army and advanced public money to private individuals without authorization by Congress – declared martial law – enabled the military to arrest civilians suspected of aiding the enemy

25 suspended the writ of habeas corpus – felt it was necessary because of mob attacks on Union troops passing through Baltimore – enabled the government to arrest Confederate sympathizers and hold them without trial – extended this authority to all parts of the U.S. where “disloyal” elements were active – willingness to interfere with civil liberties was unprecedented and possibly unconstitutional – Lincoln viewed it as a “necessity” to justify a flexible interpretation of his war powers

26 the Lincoln administration showed restraint and tolerated a broad spectrum of political dissent – government closed down a few newspapers for brief periods – anti-administration journals were allowed to criticize the president and his party – some were arrested for pro-Confederate activity – “Peace Democrats” – called for restoration of the Union by negotiation rather than force showed the persistence of vigorous two-party competition in the North

27 Lincoln was adept at the art of party leadership and was able to accommodate various factions and define party issues and principles in a way that would encourage unity and dedication to the cause – held the party together by persuasion, patronage, and flexible policymaking

28 Jefferson Davis – was a less effective war leader – defined his powers as commander in chief narrowly and literally – assumed personal direction of the armed forces – left policymaking for the mobilization and control of the civilian population primarily to the Confederate Congress

29 lack of initiative and leadership in dealing with the problems of the home front devoted little attention to a deteriorating economic situation that caused great hardship and sapped Confederate morale more serious problem of internal division and disloyalty refrained from declaring martial law – applied only in limited areas and for short periods Jefferson Davis Inauguration

30 Davis’s political and popular support eroded – opposed and obstructed by state governors resisted conscription and other Confederate policies that violated the tradition of states rights did not have an organized party behind him, and the Confederacy never developed a two-party system – difficult to mobilize the support required for hard decisions and controversial policies

31 North vs. South Advantages twice as much railroad – made movement of troops, food, and supplies quicker and easier twice as many factories – better able to produce guns, ammunition, shoes, etc. for army economy balanced between farming and industry more money functioning experienced government small army and navy already in place two-thirds of population – 22 million to 9 million – more men available sufficient labor force to stay behind for farm and factory work more natural resources very urban 23 states Advantages military colleges in South majority of nation’s trained officers from South best military officers – Robert E. Lee did not need to initiate military action – maintain defensive position and not be beaten fighting to preserve way of life, and right to self-government – convinced they were right fighting for home trading relationship with Europe – British and French sympathies long coastline difficult to blockade 11 states

32 North vs. South Disadvantages not into the war not in complete agreement over the abolition of slavery lost most good military officers Disadvantages small navy long coastline hard to defend southern slaves, although a large part of the population were not any help – 3.5 million little industry and factory production very rural

33 – Union Military Strategies General Winfield Scott - naval blockade, choke off the Confederacy; gain control of Mississippi and cut Confederacy in two Anaconda Plan – after a type of snake that coils around its victims and crushes them to death – Confederate War Strategies prepare and wait war of attrition – one side inflicts continuous loses on the enemy in order to wear down its strength

34 – Tactics and Technology bullet-shaped ammunition – drifted less than a round ball (older type) rifling – spiral groove cut on the inside of a gun barrel, makes bullet pick up spin, so it goes faster and straighter (500 yards, not 100 – muskets) – reloaded and fired faster than muskets shells – devices that exploded in the air or when they hit something canister – special type of shell filled with bullets

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