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Ajay Bohtan, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof Prem Vrat, Vice Chancellor, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof A.K Vij, HoD, Management, ITM University, Gurgaon.

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Presentation on theme: "Ajay Bohtan, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof Prem Vrat, Vice Chancellor, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof A.K Vij, HoD, Management, ITM University, Gurgaon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ajay Bohtan, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof Prem Vrat, Vice Chancellor, ITM University, Gurgaon Prof A.K Vij, HoD, Management, ITM University, Gurgaon.

2 INDIA Plains Desert Coast Mountains INDIA: TYPES OF TERRAINS

3 HIGH ALTITUDE AREA Height > 9000 feet above sea levelHimalaya Belt in India J & K, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh

4 HAA PLAINS HAA : LANDSCAPE

5 HAA DESERT HAA : ROADS

6 HAA COAST HAA : BUILDINGS

7 PECULIARITIES OF HIGH ALTITUDE Rarified AtmosphereLow temperatureHigh Ultra Violet RadiationHarsh TerrainExtreme Precipitation

8 PECULIARITIES OF HAA

9 RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE Low pressure of oxygen Decreased density of air Low Atmospheric pressure

10 RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON HUMANS Reduced oxygen supply to body tissues Headache / Nausea / Fatigue / Appetite lossMuscular weakness / Loss of night visionLoss of memory / Sleeping disordersAMS / HAPO / HACOAcclimatisation

11 RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT Change in aerodynamics Reduction in power, thrust & liftReduced maneuverabilityLower climb rate / Longer take offHovering (helicopters) is difficult Reduced load lifting capacity

12 AIRCRAFT CAPACITY At Sea Level – 30 pers At Leh (35 0 C) - Nil MI-17 At Sea Level- 400 pers At Leh (25 0 C) - Nil IL-76

13 RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON VEHICLES Reduced efficiencyLoss of engine power Excessive smoke in vehicular exhaustIncrease in fuel consumption Reduced load carrying capacity

14 PECULIARITIES OF HAA

15 LOW TEMPERATURE Further deterioration by ‘wind-chill’ effect Temperatures as low as C Temperature decreases with altitude

16 LOW TEMPERATURE : EFFECT ON HUMANS & ANIMALS Physiological shockHypothermiaFrostbite Need for special clothing / food

17 LOW TEMPERATURE : EFFECT ON AIRCRAFT, VEHICLES & MACHINERY Freezes Fuel Oil LubricantsMakes metal parts brittleStarting problems Need for special additives / care

18 PECULIARITIES OF HAA

19 HIGH ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION Increases by 12 % for every 1000m heightCauses high ionisationPolymers, paints & dyes: DegradationSkin: Sunburn, Premature aging, CancerEyes: Snow blindness, Cataract Special protective gear required for humans

20 PECULIARITIES OF HAA

21 HARSH TERRAIN Narrow valleys with high peaksRidgelines- far awayRocky narrow roadsFog / Changing windsChoke points – bridges, passes, defiles Distances calculated in time

22 TERRAIN: EFFECT ON MEN & MACHINES Few airstrips / helipads / dropping zonesFlying difficult in narrow valleysDrastic reduction in vehicular speedLimited approaches by road & air Move on foot is extremely exhaustive

23 PECULIARITIES OF HAA

24 EXTREME PRECIPITATION RainSnowFogThunderstorms Either excessive / reduced Excessive – Uttarakhand, Kashmir, NE India Reduced - Ladakh

25 DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN HAA

26 POTENTIAL NATURAL DISASTERS EarthquakeMelting of PermafrostHeavy PrecipitationLandslides / MudslidesAvalancheBlizzardDrought

27 DISASTER MANAGEMENT: HAA Prevention Mitigation Preparation Event Response Recovery Development

28 Construction Activity Takes time Only in summer months Wooded areas at High reaches Fire Lanes Only when not under snow or heavy rain Prevention

29 Legal Aspect Disaster Management in Master plans Construction of houses as per specifications Proper Road Construction Hazardous Material, Fuel, Chemicals Decentralised Stocking Early Warning System Unattended Robust Reliable Mitigation

30 Advance Winter Stocking Annual road cut off period Potential cut off sites e.g bridges, crossing points Ab initio Construction Helipads, Airstrips, Communication, Power Backup Adequate redundancy Facility Locations Decentralised Locations chosen with due modeling Updated Population & Tourists Records Preparation

31 Pin point affected areas Helicopters / UAVs / Satellite Imagery Collection of data Affected populace / Survivors Restoration of Communication Road/ Air/Tele Debris removal Low efficiency of machines Reduced human effort Acclimatise Search & Rescue teams Response

32 Restoration takes time Little construction period Food & medical priorities Time only to raise temporary shelters Pre-fabricated Supply Chain for Stores Stores as per priority Selected mode of transportation Stocking space pre-identified Recovery

33 Master Plan- Regulated & controlled Disaster Management aspects incorporated ab-initio Specially designed Infrastructure Development Activities should not add to potential disasters Development

34 DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN HAA

35 SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL PHASEPRE DISASTERDISASTERPOST DISASTER OPERATIONPreventionMitigationPreparationResponseRecoveryDevelopment MAJOR ACTIVITIES Identify potential disaster sites EvacuationPre Positioning Evacuate Casualty Distribute Relief Extricate displaced persons Road Comn Build houses Generate employment TYPE OF SUPPLY CHAIN Business Supply ChainDisaster Response Supply Chain Business Supply Chain

36 SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL Business supply chain – Minisum Time not a high priority Cost is paramount Aim - Minimise the sum of cost of logistics Disaster supply chain - Minimax Relief supplied fastest Aim - Minimise the Maximum time for response

37 MEANS OF TRANSPORT : HAA By Air By Road

38 DISASTER RELIEF SUPPLY : AIR Air infrastructure availabilityWeather dependentLess timeExorbitant costOpportunity cost – RELATIVELY LOW

39 DISASTER RELIEF SUPPLY : ROAD Condition of roads, bridges etcWeather dependentLong timeLow costOpportunity cost – CATASTROPHIC

40 AIR vs ROAD AirRoad LCV 5 hrs Mi hrs Load of 3 Tons to be transported to a distance of 100 km

41 AIR vs ROAD AirRoad 10,000e5 hrs 87, hrs Cost of transportation α Kt 2 Note: Calculations done as per Gravity Location Model K – cost/time t- time

42 A B C D E H G I F J L K MNOP 3 4/6 7 2/4 3/6 2/3 6/24 2/8 2/3 3/4 2/32/52/4 PERT CHART: MOVEMENT OF DISASTER RELIEF MATERIAL AIR vs ROAD Assumptions Intact Road Communication Completion Time Most Likely Pessimistic Time Road23 hrs53 hrs Air22 hrs42 hrs

43 CONCLUSION Supply Chain by MiniMax modelFacility Location by Gravity ModelRelief material by air / roadPre-positioning of relief material‘One size fits all’ – does not applyHAA Peculiarities: Planning Imperatives

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