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厚德載物 自強不息 王信雄 博士 從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09. Energy Star 2 王信雄 學經歷: – 國立清華大學電機系 81B 89D 畢業 – 美國維吉尼亞理工大學訪問學者 1987 - 1988 – 英群電力電子產品事業處總經理 1989 - 1999.

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Presentation on theme: "厚德載物 自強不息 王信雄 博士 從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09. Energy Star 2 王信雄 學經歷: – 國立清華大學電機系 81B 89D 畢業 – 美國維吉尼亞理工大學訪問學者 1987 - 1988 – 英群電力電子產品事業處總經理 1989 - 1999."— Presentation transcript:

1 厚德載物 自強不息 王信雄 博士 從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09

2 Energy Star 2 王信雄 學經歷: – 國立清華大學電機系 81B 89D 畢業 – 美國維吉尼亞理工大學訪問學者 – 英群電力電子產品事業處總經理 – 矩創科技股份有限公司總經理 / 技術長 – 清華大學電機系兼任副教授 現任: – 聯德電子研發中心副總經理 專長: – 切換式電源供應器

3 Energy Star 3 3 Energy Efficiency

4 External Power Adaptors  Crucial to the operation of virtually all small electronic devices  Most do not have an On/Off switch and consume in a no- load situation  1.5 billion in use in the US today (Approximately 5 for every person)  300 billion kWh/year  US$ 25 billion/year  6% of the national electric bill; or approximately 30% of the typical home electric bill by 2010 if left unchecked 4 Energy Star

5 Energy Star 2.0 In addition to the Active Mode efficiency requirements found above, power supplies with greater than or equal to 100 watts input power must have a true power factor of 0.9 or greater at 100% of rated load when tested at Hz. Effective date is November 1, Energy Star

6 Energy Star 2.0 In addition to the Active Mode efficiency requirements found above, power supplies with greater than or equal to 100 watts input power must have a true power factor of 0.9 or greater at 100% of rated load when tested at Hz. 6 Energy Star

7 Energy Star Energy Star

8 8 Efficiency Criteria for EPS (Adaptor) Energy Star

9  Developed by Ecos Consulting and California Electric Commission  Specifically for computer power supplies  Requirements are 80% efficiency at 20%, 50% and 100% load, plus PF of 0.9 at 100% load What is “80 Plus”? 9 Energy Star

10 “80 Plus” for Computer Power Supplies 10 Energy Star

11 “80 Plus” for Computer Power Supplies 11 Energy Star

12 Designing the “Perfect” Supply Lower Cost Smaller Size Higher Efficiency Optimized Design  No single solution  Trade-offs in every decision  Every benefit has a cost 12 Energy Star

13 1. Meeting standby mode requirements 0.3~0.5 W for external supplies and notebooks 2.0 W for desktop computers and workstations 2. Meeting active mode requirements Don’t over design the power supply PFC will eventually be required 3. Biggest design challenge Achieving 80% efficiency at 20% rated power 4. Possible solutions Multi-mode / Variable frequency operation Careful component selection Consider efficiency at every step Major Design Issues 13 Energy Star

14 Switching Power Supply Technologies 14 Energy Star

15 Topology Tree 15 Energy Star

16 Basic Converters 降壓型轉換器 Step-Down (Buck) Converter 升壓型轉換器 Step-Up (Boost) Converter 降升壓型轉換器 Step-Down/Up (Buck-Boost) Converter 16 Energy Star

17 Derived Converters ForwardFlybackPush-Pull Half-BridgeFull-Bridge 17 Energy Star

18 Possible Topologies for High-Efficiency  Multi-mode-controlled Quasi-Resonant Flyback (Valley Switching) Converter  Active-clamp Forward Converter  Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter  Serial-resonant Half-bridge LLC Converter  Synchronous Rectification 18 Energy Star

19 Standby Power 1.Rectifier conduction 2.Transformer loss 3.FET conduction loss 4.Resistor dissipative loss 5.Snubber losses Active Power 1.Capacitive losses : 2.Biasing network 3.Controller current 4.Gate charge : 5.Start-up network Where are the Losses Occurring ? 19 Energy Star

20 Conventional Flyback Converter Fixed-frequency Control CCM/DCM Operation Hard-Switching Hard to meet EPS new requirements, especially Light Load. Transition-mode Control Variable-frequency Operation Hard-Switching High-frequency high- line / light-load 20 Energy Star

21  Same flyback converter configuration  Switching-on at valley points  Switching-off by peak current PWM control Quasi-Resonant Flyback Converter 21 Energy Star

22 Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter 22 Energy Star

23 Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter 23 Energy Star

24 Advantages : Quasi-Resonant Mode For Reduced EMI And Low Switching Losses (Valley Switching). DCM Operation Eliminates Reverse Recovery on Secondary Diode. DCM and FFM can Reduce Switching Losses, especially at Light Loads. Burst Mode can Reduce Power Consumption at very Light Load and No Load Conditions. Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter Suitable to meet EPS Requirements for Small_Medium Power Applications. 24 Energy Star

25 Forward Converter --- Various Reset Approaches 25 Energy Star

26 Conventional 2-Switch Forward Converter PWM fixed-frequency operation. Hard-switching on both MOSFETs and Diodes. Easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current. No reset winding needed. 26 Energy Star

27 Active-clamp Forward Converter PWM fixed-frequency operation. Soft-switching on MOSFETs is possible. Very easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current. 27 Energy Star

28 Conventional Half-Bridge Converter PWM fixed-frequency operation. Hard-switching on both MOSFETs and Diodes. Easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current 28 Energy Star

29 Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter PWM fixed-frequency control. D and (1-D) duty operation with dead time control. Less hold-up time. Higher secondary diode voltage stress. DC bias on transformer. Easy to implement SR. ZVS 29 Energy Star

30 Resonant Half-Bridge Converter Variable-Frequency Operation SRC LLC SPRC PRC 30 Energy Star

31 Series Resonant Half-Bridge Converter LLC 31 Energy Star

32 Regulation Equation of LLC-SRC ffrf>fr Energy Star 32

33 Diode on Basic Resonant Cell Diode off Energy Star 33

34 Half-Bridge LLC Converter 34 Energy Star

35 Half-Bridge LLC Converter FHA 35 Energy Star

36 Features of LLC Converter Variable Frequency Operation. 50% Duty on each Transistor. Zero-Voltage-Switching Naturally. No DC Bias on Transformer. Less Voltage Stress on Secondary Diodes (2V o ). Higher Current Stress but Zero-Current-Switching on Secondary Diodes. Complicated to Implement SR. Longer Hold-up Time. Higher Magnitizing Current, Lower Efficiency at Light Load. Suitable for High-Efficiency Applications 36 Energy Star

37 Synchronous Rectification V IN =12V, V O =5V, I O =20A, L=2.5uH,15mΩ, C=2200uF, 12mΩ R dson =10mΩ, Diode=MBR3020CT f S =120kHz, PSpice 37 Energy Star I QH RMS (A) I QL RMS (I DL AVG ) (A) P QH (W) P QL (W) Con. Buck SR Buck

38 LLC-SRC HB with Synchronous Rectifiers Efficiency Improvement 1.5 ~ 2% for 12V 2 ~ 2.5% for 19V Energy Star 38

39 PFC Choke Bulk Cap SR Module Bridge Rectifier LLC Tank Hardware Implementation Energy Star 39

40 Energy Star 40 Average Efficiency Measurement (Cable-end) Vac\Load 25%50%75%100%Average 100V V V

41 Performance Comparison Efficiency Load Company ACompany BBestec 115V230V115V230V115V230V 100% % % % Power Factor Load Company ACompany BBestec 115V230V115V230V115V230V 100% % % % AVG Energy Star 41

42 Energy Star 42 EMI Test Results 110Vac 220Vac Conducted Emission

43 Energy Star 43 Thermal Test Results (90V/60Hz, 120W)

44 No (Light) Load Power Consumption  Burst –mode operation to decrease average switching frequency.  Synchronous Burst –mode operation to APFC circuit. Energy Star 44

45 Energy Star 45 No Load and Light Load Power Dissipation Input Voltage100Vac115Vac230Vac No load0.27W 0.33W P o =0.5W0.97W 0.94W P o =1W1.64W1.60W1.55W P o =1.5W2.31W2.24W2.14W

46 Summary 1. 提高電源供應器轉換效率,有助於降低對油電能源 依賴。 2. 特別在沒有 ON-OFF 開關的電源供應器中,輕載效 率與空載功耗是從事電源設計者最大的挑戰。 3. 傳統電路拓樸可能無法滿足能源之星的新要求。高 效率低功耗的軟切換電路拓樸將取而代之。 4. 除了選用高效率的電路拓樸外,在元器件與控制模 式的選用以佔舉足輕重的地位。 46 Energy Star

47 47 多謝


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