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從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09.

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Presentation on theme: "從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09."— Presentation transcript:

1 從能源之星看轉換器拓樸 聯德電子 Dec. 01, ‘09

2 王信雄 學經歷: 國立清華大學電機系 81B 89D 畢業 美國維吉尼亞理工大學訪問學者 1987 - 1988
美國維吉尼亞理工大學訪問學者 英群電力電子產品事業處總經理 矩創科技股份有限公司總經理/技術長 清華大學電機系兼任副教授 現任: 聯德電子研發中心副總經理 專長: 切換式電源供應器 Energy Star

3 Energy Efficiency 3 Energy Star

4 External Power Adaptors
Crucial to the operation of virtually all small electronic devices Most do not have an On/Off switch and consume in a no-load situation 1.5 billion in use in the US today (Approximately 5 for every person) 300 billion kWh/year US$ 25 billion/year 6% of the national electric bill; or approximately 30% of the typical home electric bill by 2010 if left unchecked Energy Star

5 Energy Star 2.0 In addition to the Active Mode efficiency requirements found above, power supplies with greater than or equal to 100 watts input power must have a true power factor of 0.9 or greater at 100% of rated load when tested at Hz. Effective date is November 1, 2008 Energy Star

6 Energy Star 2.0 In addition to the Active Mode efficiency requirements found above, power supplies with greater than or equal to 100 watts input power must have a true power factor of 0.9 or greater at 100% of rated load when tested at Hz. Energy Star

7 Energy Star 2.0 Energy Star

8 Efficiency Criteria for EPS (Adaptor)
Energy Star

9 What is “80 Plus”? Developed by Ecos Consulting and California Electric Commission Specifically for computer power supplies Requirements are 80% efficiency at 20%, 50% and 100% load, plus PF of 0.9 at 100% load Energy Star

10 “80 Plus” for Computer Power Supplies
Energy Star

11 “80 Plus” for Computer Power Supplies
Energy Star

12 Designing the “Perfect” Supply
Lower Cost Higher Efficiency Optimized Design No single solution Trade-offs in every decision Every benefit has a cost Smaller Size Energy Star

13 Major Design Issues 1. Meeting standby mode requirements
􀂄0.3~0.5 W for external supplies and notebooks 􀂄2.0 W for desktop computers and workstations 2. Meeting active mode requirements 􀂄Don’t over design the power supply 􀂄PFC will eventually be required 3. Biggest design challenge 􀂄Achieving 80% efficiency at 20% rated power 4. Possible solutions 􀂄Multi-mode / Variable frequency operation 􀂄Careful component selection 􀂄Consider efficiency at every step Energy Star

14 Switching Power Supply Technologies
Energy Star

15 Topology Tree Energy Star

16 Basic Converters 降壓型轉換器 升壓型轉換器 降升壓型轉換器 Step-Down (Buck) Converter
Step-Up (Boost) Converter 降升壓型轉換器 Step-Down/Up (Buck-Boost) Converter Energy Star

17 Derived Converters Forward Flyback Push-Pull Half-Bridge Full-Bridge
Energy Star

18 Possible Topologies for High-Efficiency
Multi-mode-controlled Quasi-Resonant Flyback (Valley Switching) Converter Active-clamp Forward Converter Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter Serial-resonant Half-bridge LLC Converter Synchronous Rectification Energy Star

19 Where are the Losses Occurring ?
Standby Power Active Power Capacitive losses : Biasing network Controller current Gate charge : Start-up network Rectifier conduction Transformer loss FET conduction loss Resistor dissipative loss Snubber losses Energy Star

20 Conventional Flyback Converter
Fixed-frequency Control CCM/DCM Operation Hard-Switching Transition-mode Control Variable-frequency Operation Hard-Switching High-frequency high-line / light-load Hard to meet EPS new requirements, especially Light Load. Energy Star

21 Quasi-Resonant Flyback Converter
Same flyback converter configuration Switching-on at valley points Switching-off by peak current PWM control Energy Star

22 Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter
Energy Star

23 Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter
Energy Star

24 Multi-mode Control of Flyback Converter
Advantages : Quasi-Resonant Mode For Reduced EMI And Low Switching Losses (Valley Switching). DCM Operation Eliminates Reverse Recovery on Secondary Diode. DCM and FFM can Reduce Switching Losses, especially at Light Loads. Burst Mode can Reduce Power Consumption at very Light Load and No Load Conditions. Suitable to meet EPS Requirements for Small_Medium Power Applications. Energy Star

25 Forward Converter --- Various Reset Approaches
Energy Star

26 Conventional 2-Switch Forward Converter
PWM fixed-frequency operation. Hard-switching on both MOSFETs and Diodes. Easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current. No reset winding needed. Energy Star

27 Active-clamp Forward Converter
PWM fixed-frequency operation. Soft-switching on MOSFETs is possible. Very easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current. Energy Star

28 Conventional Half-Bridge Converter
PWM fixed-frequency operation. Hard-switching on both MOSFETs and Diodes. Easy to implement SR. Low magnetizing current Energy Star

29 Asymmetrical Half-Bridge Converter
ZVS PWM fixed-frequency control. D and (1-D) duty operation with dead time control. Less hold-up time. Higher secondary diode voltage stress. DC bias on transformer. Easy to implement SR. Energy Star

30 Resonant Half-Bridge Converter
SRC SPRC LLC PRC Variable-Frequency Operation Energy Star

31 Series Resonant Half-Bridge Converter
LLC Energy Star

32 Regulation Equation of LLC-SRC
f<fr f>fr f=fr Energy Star

33 Basic Resonant Cell Diode on Diode off Energy Star

34 Half-Bridge LLC Converter
Energy Star

35 Half-Bridge LLC Converter FHA
Energy Star

36 Features of LLC Converter
Variable Frequency Operation. 50% Duty on each Transistor. Zero-Voltage-Switching Naturally. No DC Bias on Transformer. Less Voltage Stress on Secondary Diodes (2Vo). Higher Current Stress but Zero-Current-Switching on Secondary Diodes. Complicated to Implement SR. Longer Hold-up Time. Higher Magnitizing Current, Lower Efficiency at Light Load. Suitable for High-Efficiency Applications Energy Star

37 Synchronous Rectification
VIN=12V, VO=5V, IO=20A, L=2.5uH,15mΩ, C=2200uF, 12mΩ Rdson=10mΩ, Diode=MBR3020CT fS=120kHz, PSpice IQH RMS (A) IQL RMS (IDL AVG) PQH (W) PQL Con. Buck 13.89 10.56 1.929 5.344 SR Buck 13.70 15.00 1.877 2.246 Energy Star

38 LLC-SRC HB with Synchronous Rectifiers
Efficiency Improvement 1.5 ~ 2% for 12V 2 ~ 2.5% for 19V Energy Star

39 Hardware Implementation
Bridge Rectifier LLC Tank PFC Choke Bulk Cap SR Module Energy Star

40 Average Efficiency Measurement (Cable-end)
Vac\Load  25% 50% 75% 100% Average 100V 0.8798 0.9173 0.9198 0.9144 0.9078 115V 0.8870 0.9197 0.9236 0.9263 0.9142 230V 0.9113 0.9186 0.9281 0.9292 0.9218 Energy Star

41 Performance Comparison
Efficiency Load Company A Company B Bestec 115V 230V 100% 89.10 90.25 86.89 87.83 92.63 92.92 75% 90.32 90.30 87.59 87.86 92.37 92.81 50% 90.64 88.81 87.15 86.54 91.97 91.86 25% 91.09 90.33 88.47 87.02 88.70 91.13 AVG 90.29 89.92 87.52 87.31 91.42 92.18 Power Factor Load Company A Company B Bestec 115V 230V 100% 0.990 0.933 0.939 0.996 0.969 75% 0.980 0.908 0.982 0.917 0.991 0.953 50% 0.959 0.865 0.967 0.883 0.988 0.911 25% 0.617 0.404 0.496 0.421 0.957 0.816 Energy Star

42 EMI Test Results Conducted Emission 110Vac 220Vac Energy Star

43 Thermal Test Results (90V/60Hz, 120W)
Energy Star

44 No (Light) Load Power Consumption
Burst –mode operation to decrease average switching frequency. Synchronous Burst –mode operation to APFC circuit. Energy Star

45 No Load and Light Load Power Dissipation
Input Voltage 100Vac 115Vac 230Vac No load 0.27W 0.33W Po=0.5W 0.97W 0.94W Po=1W 1.64W 1.60W 1.55W Po=1.5W 2.31W 2.24W 2.14W Energy Star

46 Summary 提高電源供應器轉換效率,有助於降低對油電能源 依賴。
特別在沒有ON-OFF 開關的電源供應器中,輕載效 率與空載功耗是從事電源設計者最大的挑戰。 傳統電路拓樸可能無法滿足能源之星的新要求。高 效率低功耗的軟切換電路拓樸將取而代之。 除了選用高效率的電路拓樸外,在元器件與控制模 式的選用以佔舉足輕重的地位。 Energy Star

47 多謝 Energy Star


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