Presentation on theme: "OHIOSPECIALRESPONSETEAMOHIOSPECIALRESPONSETEAM The following power point training presentation must be viewed at unit training and/or under the supervision."— Presentation transcript:
OHIOSPECIALRESPONSETEAMOHIOSPECIALRESPONSETEAM The following power point training presentation must be viewed at unit training and/or under the supervision of an OSRT officer. Members viewing the presentation must sign an OSRT sign in sheet. The completed sign in sheet signed by an officer must be submitted to the OSRT planning (Training) Section to receive credit for the training.
SAR Crew Safety The purpose of this presentation is not to be an in depth course on each of the threats. It is merely an opportunity to make crew members aware of the threats that exist in our area and how to best avoid them. Complacency is the leading cause of injuries
Reference: MRA 105-1, Para 1.3.f.vii Team and Crew Safety ASTM f 2209 Para 5,6,2,6 Safety Source: Consulted with various Emergency Service Technicians, Police Chiefs and Fire Department Chiefs to determine best practice. Training powerpoint slide program prepared by Headquarters OSRT- 22Mar2013
DRIVING SAFETY When responding to a call out or drill in a Privately-Owned Vehicle (POV): Never exceed the posted speed limit. Come to a complete stop at all stop signs and lights. Use seat belts and restraints. Keep a safe distance from other vehicles. Reduce your speed at nighttime and inclement weather. While laws vary from state to state, a privately owned vehicle is not an emergency vehicle even when using courtesy lights. True or False. TRUE A recent study by the U.S. Fire Administration shows that 25% of firefighters who were killed in motor vehicle crashes were killed while driving privately-owned vehicles. Make yourself slow down mentally. Don’t be overcome by adrenalin tunnel vision on the way to a scene.
DRIVING SAFETY Ways to reduce occurrence of accidents in POV’s: Make sure personnel have current drivers license and registration. Make sure personnel have current liability insurance. Make sure all personnel have their POV inspected for safety. Make use of carpools whenever possible. Use staging areas when possible. DRIVE DEFENSIVELY! Think about the consequences of your being involved in an accident: Can I afford the time off work if injured? Can I afford the medical expenses? Can I afford to be without the use of my vehicle. Will this accident cause the rates of my personal insurance or that of my agency or department to go up? Will my careless actions hurt the reputation of my agency or department.
DRINKING WATER Water is essential for survival in the field. A minimum of 3 liters is required to remain healthy in a survival situation. If you need additional drinking water while in the field –make sure it is safe to drink. Waterborne illnesses include: Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cholera, and other bacteria, viruses, cysts and chemicals. Disinfect The Water ! Filter it using one of the many devices available on the market today. Boil it for at least 1 minute. Treat with Iodine (liquid or tablet) 8mgs per liter. let stand for 10 minutes. Chlorine, household bleach. 1 drop (5%) per liter Can’t Disinfect It : Drink from small tributary stream instead of the main flow. If possible follow tributaries uphill to their source such as a spring.
Alternate ways to collect drinking water: Harvest dew. Catch rainwater. Melt snow. Set up a solar still. Drinking contaminated water can lead to Gastrointestinal Infections. Symptoms don’t usually show up for several days, weeks and sometimes even months. All require a physicians attention. Symptoms include: Fever Diarrhea, often “explosive” and watery. Bloating Violent vomiting. Cramps. Weight loss.
PREVENTION OF SNOW BLINDNESS The reflection of the sun’s ultraviolet rays off a snow covered area And to a lesser degree, reflection off water surfaces. causes this condition. Prolonged exposure to these rays can result in permanent eye damage, but generally resolves itself in 24-48 hrs You can prevent snow blindness by wearing UV rated sunglasses. If you don’t have sunglasses, improvise. Cut slits in a piece of card- board, thin wood, tree bark, or other available material. Putting soot under your eyes (on the cheek) will help reduce shine and glare. Symptoms include: Eye pain Redness Swollen eyelids Sensitivity to light Feeling of sand in the eyes.
CAUGHT IN A LIGHTNING STORM *Find the safest place possible to avoid or minimize being struck: Avoid high places, tall objects, metal objects, open places, open bodies of water, and long electrical conductors such as metal fences. Seek uniform cover such as a low spot in low, rolling hills or a stand of trees all about the same size, but DO NOT lean against a lone solitary tree. If caught in the open, assume the lightning safety position: squat or sit in a tight position on insulating material. Stay updated on current weather conditions.
If you are near your vehicle with a metal roof, get in and stay with the windows rolled up. A vehicle acts as a Faraday Cage (metal cage that prevents entry or escape of electromagnetic fields). Boats are not usually safe unless they have a covered cabin and lightning protection system. The best place to seek shelter is a substantial building with roof walls and preferably wiring and plumbing. Do not use any electrical devices. A tent is NOT a safe shelter. These cattle were killed by a lightening strike that traveled along the wire fence. Stay away from water or wet objects such as rope. Water in an excellent conductor. Avoid metal conductors such as fences and poles. Stay away from windows. Caught in a lightning storm
Searching along river banks poses hazards – The river banks may be deeply undercut and the edges may be susceptible to collapse. Potential exists to fall (slip on mud, moss, or snags) into the water or injury a foot or leg. Vegetation grows thickest here. River banks are often steep and can be difficult or impossible to climb out of if you fall in. If you take an unplanned tumble into the river or stream, you are now a target for hypothermia. When searching within 10 feet of a river wear a personal floatation device (PFD). Statistically many lost people are found along river or stream banks. If you must search here, use extra caution.
RIVER CROSSING Don’t underestimate the power and threat of moving water. Do Not attempt to cross moving water deeper than mid thigh or swiftly moving water. A smooth water current means a relatively smooth river bottom. Wear a PFD and unbuckle your pack’s hip buckle and loosen shoulder straps. If you must cross, take the time to look for the shallowest or the slowest moving water. Avoid crossing at the outside of bends where the currents flows faster. Watch for unusual variations in the flow of water. There may be rocks underneath.
River Crossing Crossing in a line method. Lock arms, the strongest person is on the upstream end, weakest person in the middle. Move perpendicular to the current. Move slowly and shuffle feet along the bottom. Crossing in a huddle method. Place arms around each others shoulders. Slightly lean towards the center of the group. Strongest person has his back to the current, move perpendicular to the current. Move slowly and shuffle feet along the bottom. Crossing alone. Not the best option, but if you must, use a walking staff or stick as a third leg for support and balance. Face the current, lean on the pole and walk slowly upstream, diagonally across the river. Keep two of the three points of contact on the bottom at all times. If a rope is available, first group across should play out rope and secure it around anchor when they reach the opposite side. CROSSING A RIVER SAFELY
Ice can be different thicknesses on the same body of water. It can be half a meter thick in one spot and only ten centimeters thick not far away. CROSSING A FROZEN RIVER/LAKE The Lifesaving Society recommends a minimum ice thickness of 4 inches for a single person to walk on it. This recommendation is for new, clear ice under ideal conditions. Wear a lifejacket or personal flotation device over winter clothing. Never go onto the ice alone. Ice is constantly changing in response to weather and water conditions. Ice is never 100 percent safe. The best advice is to stay off it. Ice thickness? Make sure to have a screw driver handy, you can use it to dig a small hole to gauge thickness of ice and to grip edge of ice if you fall through. Use a tape measure to determine ice thickness. White ice has air or snow in it. It is about half as strong as clear ice so use extreme caution on unclear ice. Interlaced with long ropes and spread out and all gear dragged behind on makeshift sleds
SAFELY NAVIGATE STEEP SLOPES When ascending or descending steep slopes, which can include wet grass, mud, or scree (loose rock). Use a angling or zigzag course across the slope. Use any trees or brush to help assist you. Use a walking staff to help support yourself. Keep it on your downhill side. Scan ahead for the easiest routes. When descending, do not build up too much speed. Use ropes when needed.
SEARCHING NEAR BUSY ROADWAY Recognize that by walking and standing near or by the road, you are increasing your risk of a roadside accident. Many people become the victim of a car accident themselves or create accidents for others by standing too close to the road. Walk facing traffic. Wear reflective vest. During darkness use a baton style flashlight. Keep a reasonable distance away from busy traffic lanes – depending the roadway this could mean 20 feet or more. If you have to cross a busy roadway – stop, look, & listen before crossing. Avoid using a cell phone or the VHF radio while crossing – stay alert to traffic conditions, For certain behavioral groups such as Alzheimer's or Dementia people, searching along a roadway is a necessity. Be extra careful when searching here.
SMALL ANIMALS THREATS Get away from the animal. Most wild animals large and small have a natural fear of man and will usually avoid him Wild animals that are most likely to have rabies: raccoons, skunks, bats, and foxes. A skunk’s spray can be accurate to at least 13 feet. Can cause temporary blindness, and loss of friendship among man and beast. Feral Animals: Many domestic animals have been released or have escaped into the wild. Examples are: Pigs, Cats, Dogs, Mink and Snakes. In many cases they have become aggressive and have lost natural fear of man. Be especially careful around these animals.
Avoiding small animal confrontations: Make noise to alert animals to your presence. Make yourself look bigger, swing arms. Don’t make sudden moves. Put something between you and the animal, such as a backpack. Don’t make eye contact, but keep animal in peripheral vision. Walk backward, slowly. Leave small animals alone that seem abandoned. SMALL ANIMAL THREATS
BLACK BEAR COUNTRY Travel in groups. Don’t wipe food stained hands or utensils on clothing. Try never to surprise a bear. Be noisy. Give mother bears and cubs a wide berth. Avoid getting into a position between mother and her cubs. Avoid animal kills that a bear might be feeding on. Avoiding Bear confrontations: When in known bear territory, keep watch for tracks and droppings. Avoid thickets and streams where bears rest and feed. Stow food away from your camp sight.
BLACK BEAR COUNTRY When Confronted by a Bear: Make yourself look bigger, wave your arms. Don’t make direct eye contact, but keep the bear in your peripheral vision. Don’t climb a tree. Black Bears climb better than you do. Wake backwards slowly. Do not run, this triggers chase instinct in the bear. If attacked; fight with whatever means you have available, firearm, knife, large stick or pepper spray. Target the eyes and nose. Some believe that playing dead will more quickly end the attack. There are around 300 Black Bear in Ohio each year. Most are males in search of females. Most are just passing through. As with most wild animals, large or small, they would rather avoid humans. However, they will defend themselves if cornered or surprised or with young.
SEARCHING DURING DARKNESS If it isn’t possible to use a flashlight, time allowing, close your eyes for 20 minutes to allow them to adjust to night vision. Clear nights with stars or moon help provide enough light to navigate. Keep your pace slow and deliberate. Check your compass regularly. Without distant landmarks, it is easy to become disoriented. Walking at night: Unless you’re in the desert and it’s cooler at night, avoid walking at night because of the added risks posed by navigational difficulties. In areas where there are predators that could be a threat, they are more active at night. If you must search at night, try the following: Do not travel alone. Stay calm. If you are not used to traveling in the dark, the woods can be intimidating and disorienting.
SEARCHING DURING DARKNESS When operating in darkness in woods –wear eye protection – a clear safety face shield or eye goggles. Eye glasses with safety lens are adequate but it is recommended that they have side shields. Use caution – in stepping – use a stick or hiking pole to check for obstacles, tripping hazards or sudden drops in the ground. When looking at an object at night, look at one side rather than directly at it. It is hard to distinguish anything in a dark mass, but edges show more clearly. Be alert for bees, wasps, and hornets nests hanging low level tree branches. They’re not active at night, but they will be if you disturb their nest.
AVOIDING BEES/WASPS/HORNETS Bee Yellow Jacket In the U.S. there are an average of 40 deaths per year from bee sting. Most are due to allergic reaction. Far more than snake bite. Myth: Most stings are caused by bees. Fact: Most stings are cause by Yellow Jackets. Mostly because of their close proximity to where man lives. Bees are agitated by rapid movements, especially swatting motions. Stay calm and back away slowly. Be careful and alert to high bee activity. Most stinging insects will become aggressive when nests are threatened or become trapped. Avoid eating outdoors. Most all stinging insects are attracted to food and drink. Especially in the fall when they are storing for the winter.
Bald Faced Hornet AVIODING BEES/WASPS/HORNETS When outdoors, keep food covered and drinks should have a narrow straw. Keep garbage cleaned up and in covered receptacle. Stay on established trails when possible. Nests have usually been cleared. Gives you an easier escape when necessary. Wasp Wasps and Hornets build the common paper nest in trees and overhangs on buildings. Honey Bees usually build hives in boxes, hollow trees and cavities. Yellow Jackets can make ground nests, stone fences, hollow trees, under siding. Stinging insects can remember their nests being disturbed for up to two weeks. Which means a short fuse for the next person who enters the area.
PROTECT FROM MOSQUITO BORNE ILLNESSES Diseases that people can get from mosquitoes in Ohio: West Nile Virus (1400 reported severe cases 2012 nationwide) St. Louis Encephalitis La Crosse Encephalitis Eastern Equine Encephalitis If a mosquito bites an infected bird or mammal, it can then transmit these viruses to humans. They can make some people very sick with encephalitis-causing inflammation of the brain and nervous system. Avoid being bitten Wear long sleeves and pants and also socks when outdoors Use a repellant that contains DEET or Picaridin when outdoors. Follow label instructions. Mosquitoes are most active around dusk and dawn. Be especially aware at these times. Mosquitoes rest in tall grass and weeds. Avoid these if possible.
PROTECT FROM TICK BORNE ILLNESSES Prevention of tick borne illnesses. Tuck your pants into top of socks or boots. Use repellants and follow label carefully. Avoid tick infested areas such as tall grass and dense vegetation. Wear light colored clothing to make it easier to spot ticks. Tick borne illnesses in Ohio: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever. Carried mostly by the Dog Tick Lyme Disease: Carried mostly by the Deer or Black Legged Tick. Check yourself, children and pets frequently for ticks. Wash or shower after exposure to tick habitat (preferably within 2 hours) to wash off and more easily find ticks that may be crawling or imbedded in your skin.
PROTECTION FROM TICK BORNE ILLNESSES. Black Legged Tick Lone Star Tick Dog Tick Female Male Nymph Larva Remove tick as soon as possible. Using tweezers, grasp the tick close to the skin, gently pull up and out. After removing tick, wash the bite site and disinfect.
FOODBORNE ILLNESSES Top Foodborne Illnesses: Norovirus Salmonella Clostridium perfringens Campylobacter Staphylococcus Toxoplasma gondii E.Coli Keeping prepared foods safe: Bacteria grows between 41° F and 135° F. Keep cold foods below that range and hot foods, above that range. Prepared foods can be within the danger zone for no more than 2 hours. Wash hands with soap and water before and after preparing foods. Use separate utensils for cooked meat and uncooked meat. Clean fresh fruit before consuming. You can start to feel the effects of foodborne illnesses anywhere from a few hours to 30 days.
FATIGUE RELATED INJURIES. Sleep deprivation was a factor in some of the biggest disasters in recent history: 1979-Three Mile Island nuclear accident Alaskan oil spill (Exxon Valdez) 1986 Chernobyl nuclear meltdown. 1550 crash related deaths per year in the U.S., it has the same effect as being legally intoxicated. Sleep deprivation hurts our thought processes in many ways. It impairs: Attention Alertness Reasoning Concentration Problem Solving Slows down your ability to remember what you’ve learned, and over the long term can lead to health related issues.
FATIGUE RELATED INJURIES What can lead to sleep deprivation: Psychological stress factors Sleeping/Working outside of your normal times. Not eating properly Work that is physically and mentally demanding. Working different shifts, which makes it had to stay in a rhythm. Sleeping in surroundings not conducive to quality sleep. Psychological stress factors. Reducing fatigue caused by sleep deprivation: Get more sleep! For every 2 hours of work or travel, plan for 1 hour of time off in a 24hr. period. Take 10-20 minute power naps when the opportunity arises. Avoid sleeping longer than that. In prolonged operations, seize every opportunity to get some sleep. Do not use coffee and caffeinated boosters. You need 4-5 hrs/day to maintain performance.
GASOLINE ENGINE SAFETY RULES EXHAUST FUMES ARE POISONOUS Never operate the engine in a closed area or it may cause unconsciousness and death within a short time. Operate the engine in a well ventilated area. FUEL IS HIGHLY FLAMMABLE AND POISONOUS Always turn off the engine when refueling. Never refuel while smoking or in the vicinity of an open flame. Take care not to spill any fuel on the engine or muffler when refueling. If you swallow any fuel, inhale fuel vapor, or allow any to get in your eye(s), see your doctor immediately. If any fuel spills on your skin or clothing, immediately wash with soap and water and change your clothes. When operating or transporting the machine, be sure it is kept upright. If it tilts, fuel may leak from the carburetor or fuel tank. Place the machine in a place where pedestrians or children are not likely to touch the machine. Avoid placing any flammable materials near the exhaust outlet during operation. Keep the machine at least 1 m (3 ft) from buildings or other equipment, or the engine may overheat. Avoid operating the engine with a dust cover.
STARTING THE GENERAC 2000 GENERATOR Instructions are on the side of the generator. Slide choke lever to the “ON” position.
STARTING THE GENERAC 2000 GENERATOR Turn on-off switch to “ON” position
STARTING THE GENERAC 2000 GENERATOR After pulling start rope several times and engine starts, you may slowly return choke to the “OFF” position.
RUNNING THE GENERAC 2000 GENERATOR Use no longer extension cord than is necessary. Use higher amperage rated cords when available such as 12 ga. rated instead of 14. Do not overload the generator with more total amps than it can handle.
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENRATOR Instructions are on the generator
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR Check fuel level. Refill as needed.
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR Turn “FUEL SHUTOFF” to the “ON” position.
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR Move “CHOKE” lever to the “ON” position.
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR Pull on starter rope until engine starts.
STARTING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR After a few seconds, as the engine warms up, slowly return choke lever to midpoint, and then to the “OFF position
RUNNING THE GENERAC 4000 GENERATOR Use no longer extension cord than is necessary. Use higher amperage rated cords when available such as 12 ga. rated instead of 14. Do not overload the generator with more total amps than it can handle.