This article is a tourist brochure about how the London Underground developed. Read the brochure quickly and answer these questions.
Fast reading for general ideas: 1. When was the first underground system opened? 2. Why was the Victoria Line important? 3. What did Charles Holden do?
Check your answers: 1. When was the first underground system opened? In 1863. 2. Why was the Victoria Line important? Because it linked with other lines at almost every station, making the system more user-friendly. 3. What did Charles Holden do? He is the architect that designed many of the new stations built between 1918 and 1938. Many of the stations are still in use today.
Detailed reading for important information (1) Why was an underground system first developed in London? Most railway tracks did not go into the London city centre, so buses were required. This increased traffic on the road. The underground system transported more people without increasing traffic on the road. (2) What was the London Underground like in 1863? The carriages did not have windows and were pulled by steam engines through narrow tunnels.
(3) What did Charles Yerkes do to improve the underground? He bought many of the different lines and set up the Underground Group. (4) What are some of the different things that the underground has functioned as? The underground has functioned as a bomb shelter, an aeroplane factory, an anti-aircraft centre and meeting rooms for the government administration.
(5) What happened to the London Underground after World War II? After World War II, more lines were added because more people traveled on the underground. (6) What does it mean when the brochure says that the underground system is user-friendly? It means that many of the lines are linked at many stations. Therefore, it is very convenient for riders to go to different places in the city from any station.
datesevent 1854 1863 1868 1884 An underground railway was decided to be built The first tunnels were opened The next section of the underground system was opened The underground service was provided in the middle of the city C2
1933 1918-1938 After 1945 1977 A public organization was created London transport was expanded More people traveled on the underground and more lines were added The last line was added
Language points Pay attention to the language points in the text.
1. distant: adj. far away in the distant past/future: far away in the past or future: distance: noun [C or U] the amount of space between two places: He travels quite a distance (= a long way) to work every day. Does she live within walking distance of her parents?
高考链接 (2004 全国 ) The faces of four famous American presidents on Mount Rushmore can be seen from a _____ of 60 miles. A. length B. distance C. way D. space
2. choke: noun [C] v. 窒息；堵塞；阻 塞 1) The child swallowed a pen and choked to death. 2) At lunchtime the streets were choked with traffic. 3) Children can choke on peanuts. 引申： choke back 忍住，抑制 choke up 因激动等说不出话来
典型题例 During the rush hours the roads are usually _____ up with traffic. A. choked B. crowded C. blocked D. checked
3. link: verb [T] to make a connection between two or more people, things or ideas: 1) The explosions are not thought to be linked in any way. link up: to form a connection, especially in order to work or operate together: 2) The organization's aim is to link up people from all over the country who are suffering from the disease. 3) They linked up two areas by telephone.
4. honor: a quality that combines respect, pride and honesty: a man of honor We fought for the honor of our country. noun [C] a reward, prize or title that publicly expresses admiration or respect: She received an honor for her services to the community. in honor of sb./ sth. in order to celebrate or show great respect for someone or something: a banquet ( 宴会 ) in honor of the president 讲信用的人，名声好
高考链接 My sister was against my suggestion while my brother was ______ it. (2006 陕西 ) A. in favor of B. in memory of C. in honor of D. in search of
5. permit: verb [T] to allow something: The regulations( 规章 ) do not permit much flexibility( 弹性 ). [+ ing form of verb] The prison authorities permit visiting only once a month. [+ object + to infinitive] The security system will not permit you to enter without the correct password.
6. order: noun [U] 顺序 in order of: 以 …… 的顺序 out of order: 杂乱无序 (1)The children lined up in order of age/height. (2)I can't find the file I need because they're all out of order (= they are no longer arranged in the correct way). (3)Put the files in alphabetical order.
高考链接 You have been sitting on my hat and now it is badly out of ______. (2006 广东 ) A. date B. shape C. order D. balance
7. refer to: phrasal verb 1 to talk or write about someone or something, especially briefly 提到，谈到 In her autobiography she occasionally refers to her unhappy schooldays. 2 If writing or information refers to someone or something, it relates to that person or thing: 涉及到，与某人或某事相关 The new salary scale( 工资级别 ) only refers to company managers and directors( 主管 ).
高考链接 (2007 上海） ______ he referred to in his article was unknown to the general reader. A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where
8. discount: noun [C] a reduction in the usual price: 折扣 They usually give you a discount if you buy multiple copies. They offer a 10 percent discount on rail travel for students. at a discount: 打折
典型题例 They sell the sweater _______ a discount of 30 percent. A. on B. for C. at D. with
The London underground system has the (1) __________ of being the oldest and most complex underground system in the world. Before 1850, train services to London had already been (2) __________, but people couldn’t build railways into the city because doing that would cause great (3) __________ to many historic buildings. distinction developed damage
So many buses were needed to (4) __________ people to the city centre, which, however, often (5) __________ traffic. This problem led to the development of the underground system. In 1854, Metropolitan Railway Company was allowed to build an underground railway and the first tunnels were opened in 1863. In 1868, the next (6) __________ of the underground system was opened by another company called the Metropolitan District Railway. transport choked off section
In 1884, these two companies (7) __________ and provided the underground service in the middle of the city. With the development of the (8) __________ ways of digging tunnels, the first railway tunnel under the River Thames was dug in 1884, and over the next 25 years, six (9) ___________ deep underground lines were made. But because they were (10) __________ owned and far away from each other, traveling on these lines was (11)_____________ linked up advanced independent separately inconvenient
Having seen the situation, Charles Yerkes, tried to improve the system. He bought many of the different lines and setting up the Underground Group. In 1933, a public (12) ___________ called the London Passenger Transport Board was created, which eventually became London Transport. From 1918 to 1938, the system (13) __________ a lot. During World War II, the underground system had some (14) __________ uses. organization expanded unusual
For example, many underground stations once (15) __________ as bomb shelters. After the war, more lines were added. Now, the network of the underground system includes 12 lines and goes 26 miles out of central London. Three million people travel on the underground every day. Can you imagine what London would be if there were no such underground system? functioned