Presentation on theme: "BrushstrokesBrushstrokes *When painting: different styles of brushstrokes are used to create a masterpiece for the eyes to view. *When writing: similarly,"— Presentation transcript:
BrushstrokesBrushstrokes *When painting: different styles of brushstrokes are used to create a masterpiece for the eyes to view. *When writing: similarly, different styles of brushstrokes are used to create a masterpiece within the reader’s mind as they read.
Participle A participle brush stroke can be defined as an “ing” word or phrase tagged onto the beginning or end of a sentence. Racing to her car, the young lady gathered her things and left.
Examples of Participles Shivering Crying Snarling and growling sinking his teeth into it Flipping through the air surging and wrestling with it Living life to the fullest
Participles continued: The young girl began to choke up the sea water she had swallowed. Coughing, gasping, and wheezing, the young girl began to choke up the sea water she had swallowed. The participles evoke action. Now, we can see the girl coughing, and gasping, and the wheezing sound make us feel we are part of the experience.
participial phrases = a participle along with any modifiers that complete the image. EXAMPLE: –Coughing with all of her might and gasping for air, the young girl began to choke up the sea water she had swallowed.
Participles can end in –ed as well Rugged and scarred, his hands were anxiously locked together awaiting the news of the new arrival. Crying from the suspense, angered by the fact that it was her fault, Christina managed to remove herself from the wrecked car and check the other driver.
Your Turn – Get your paper and pencil/pen, and add participles or participial phrases to the following sentences. He sprinted into action. Rock climbing had become more than a pass time to him. The children began to cheer at the sight of the birthday cake. The eagle searched for his freedom.
AbsolutesAbsolutes Can be described as a noun followed by a participle.
Examples of Absolutes Hair styling mouth foaming Lips writhing and snarling Ears laid back Jaws clipping together chest panting futilely Body flashing forward Muscles writhing and knotting like live things under his silky fur (simile)
An absolute consists of a noun + an “ing” word. You can add one or two absolutes to the beginning or end of the sentence. Engine smoking, gears grinding, the car went into the parking lot. The car went into the parking lot, wheels squeaking, bumper dragging.
Absolutes are best used in pairs. If you add three, or if you place absolutes into the middle of a sentence, they lose some of their power to be effective. = big no no!
The scuba diver made his way along the ocean floor. Example: absolute –Flippers kicking, bubbles releasing, The scuba diver made his way along the ocean floor. Example: absolute phrase –The scuba diver made his way along the ocean floor, hands gliding across the bottom, eyes searching for hidden treasures.
Now it is your turn. Take out your paper, and add absolutes/absolute phrases either at the beginning or at the end of the following sentence. ARE YOU READY? Absolutes:
The spider was moving. The scientist viewed the specimen once more. I glanced at my phone. The kitten pawed at the feather. The quarterback threw the pass. He squirmed out of the nest. Add Absolutes/or absolute phrases:
AppositivesAppositives Can be described as a noun that describes another noun.
Examples of Appositives: Angela Hudman, our English teacher, wished us all a great weekend. Several students, both male and female, kept track of their test scores.
More examples of Appositives: Christmas, my favorite holiday, keeps me in the giving spirit. Living in another country, like Spain or Germany, could be an exciting experience.
Your turn: Add appositives to the following sentences. The tree swayed in the wind. Ocean waves tickled my feet. The diver peered under the rock and found a shell. Life as a student is rough sometimes. The circus was so exciting to watch.
My examples: The tree, a southern maple, swayed in the wind Ocean waves, with their tiny hands of foam, tickled my feet. The diver, an undersea expert, peered under the rock and found a shell. Life as a student, living beneath every other living thing, is rough sometimes. The circus, a show like no other, was exciting to watch.
Adjectives-out-of- order Can be described as 2 or 3 adjectives that enhance a given noun in a sentence. 2 adjectives: after the noun it describes 3 adjectives: 1 before the noun, 2 after the noun it describes
Adjectives out-of-order Adjectives out of order amplify the details of an image. Professional writers avoid a three in a row string of adjectives by leaving one adjective in its original place and shifts the other two after the noun.
Examples of Adjectives Out-of-Order Ruthless Swarthy Sour and introspective Mushy Limp and draggled parched and swollen Calm and impartial ragged and unkempt
The snake slithered across the desert. Add more description: The wise, rugged, stealthy snake slithered across the desert. What is the effect? MORE DETAIL paints a picture for you.
Adj. o-o-o: Let’s enhance the image The wise snake, rugged and stealthy, slithered across the desert. This sentence spotlights two of the adjectives giving them more power and sophisticated feel.
The large, red-eyed, angry bull moose charged the intruder. The large bull moose, red-eyed and angry, charged the intruder. The Pavilion was a simple building, large and rectangular. I could smell my pillow, crisp and starched, plumped by my momma.
Adj. out of order. Now it is your turn. Place them correctly in each sentence: Her fragile, little, delicate fingers grasped my hand His soiled, wrinkled, calloused hands portrayed a life of hard labor. The careful, cautious, watchful mother guarded her young.
Add adjectives out-of-order to the following sentences. Come up with at least 2 or 3 for the following sentences: The woman smiled upon her grandson with pride. The boxer felt no compassion for his contender. The cheetah stared at the gazelle, which would soon become his dinner.
ACTION verbs Action verbs take the place of “passive” verbs or “being” verbs.
Examples of Action Verbs Sprang for his throatsniffed Wagged his tailtaunted him Bristled his neck-hair and snarled Whirled overshrieked Choked himflungthrobbed Crawled to his feetgrowled
BEING VERBS: REPLACE THESE WITH ACTION VERBS!!!! AmIs AreWas WereBe Being Been
Example sentences changing “being” verbs to action verbs Being verb: The gravel road was on the left side of the barn. Action verb: The gravel road curled around the left side of the barn.
Action Verbs Writers can energize images with action verbs. Verbs with a passive voice communicate no action to the reader (this makes the writing boring).
The image can be compared to a still photograph with the subject of the action frozen with the prepositions by or with. The horse was ridden into town by an old rancher. The grocery store was robbed by two young men.
Change the passive verb phrase with an action verb. The old rancher rode the runaway horse into town. Two young men robbed the grocery store.
Action verbs replace still photos with motion pictures. Read the following two paragraphs. Rockwell was a beautiful lake. Canada geese could be heard across the water bugling like tuneless trumpets. Near the shore, two children were hidden behind a massive maple tree. Watching quietly, they hoped to see the first gosling begin to hatch. Tiny giggles escaped their whispers of excitement.
Final Draft Rockwell Lake echoed with the sounds of Canada geese. Their honking bugled across the water like tuneless trumpets. Two children hid behind a massive maple tree. They silently watched, hoping to see the first gosling hatch. Tiny giggles escaped their whispers of excitement.
Now it is your turn. Change the passive verb or being verb to action. I went to the game with my friend. The little girl is sad. They were very grateful for my contribution. The new car was totaled after only a week! The tree is taller than I thought.
The Five Basic Brush Strokes Core Sentence: The car went into the parking lot. 1. Absolute: Engine smoking, gears grinding, the car went into the parking lot. 2. Appositive: The car, a 1936 Ford, went into the parking lot. 3. Participle: Sliding on the loose gravel, the car went into the parking lot. 4. Adjectives Out-of-order: The car, dented and rusty, went into the parking lot. 5. Action verb: The car chugged into the parking lot.
All Brush strokes: PARTICIPLE ACTION VERB ADJECTIVES OUT-OF-ORDER ABSOLUTE APPOSITIVE Engine smoking, gears grinding, the car, a 1936 Ford, dented and rusty, chugged into the parking lot sliding on the loose gravel.
Combining brushstrokes Rushing to her side, I calmly helped the poor girl to her feet. The young lady, sweet and innocent, had fallen a few feet down the stairs before I reached her. Breathless and confused, she stood and awkwardly strolled to a nearby bench. The young girl, known by her friends as Alicia, had been hurt more than I had first assumed.
Now it is your turn! Write a paragraph using the brushstrokes. Remember: –Participle = “ing” verb –Absolute = noun + “ing” verb –Appositives = noun + noun –Adj. out of order = 2 or 3 adj + noun –Action Verbs = replace existing verbs