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Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc.
Chapter Three Basic Shooting Skills
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Key Topics Good Marksmanship and Accuracy Rifle Shooting Shotgun Shooting Handgun Shooting
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Objectives You should be able to … define “good marksmanship” and explain why it is important. list the three fundamentals of good marksmanship. define “sight alignment” and “sight picture”. demonstrate how to determine your master eye.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Objectives (cont.) explain the basic steps to sighting-in a rifle. explain four rifle firing techniques that will help improve accuracy. show four proper positions for rifle shooting. state the four common shotgun chokes and give an example of when you would use each. explain the basic steps to patterning a shotgun.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Objectives (cont.) explain four shotgun firing techniques that will improve accuracy. demonstrate proper shotgun shooting stance. explain the difference in swing-through and sustained lead when hunting with a shotgun. demonstrate proper handgun shooting stance and grip.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Good Marksmanship and Accuracy Good marksmanship is built on three fundamentals Proper sight adjustment or patterning Proper shooting technique Practice
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Marksmanship and Accuracy (cont.) Ethical hunters know personal accuracy and limit shots accordingly. Use an 8-inch paper plate to establish deer hunting shooting accuracy. Need to be able to hit paper plate consistently at same distance and from same shooting position you will be using when hunting. Practice until confident. When hunting, limit shots to most accurate range.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting With an open sight, line up target with the blade or bead of the front sight with the notch of the rear sight. With an aperture sight, line up target with the front sight within the rear peephole.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) With a telescopic sight with a crosshair reticle, line up target with the crosshairs of the sight. With a telescopic sight with a dot reticle, line up target with the dot of the sight. Dot must be centered.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.)
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) To determine dominant eye: Form a triangular opening with your thumbs and forefingers. Stretch your arms out in front of you. Focus on a distant object while looking through the triangular opening.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Bring hands slowly to your face, keeping sight of object through the opening; opening will come to your dominant eye naturally. If you’re not sure, close one eye at a time. The weak eye will see the back of your hand; the strong one will be focused on object in the triangle.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Sighting-In a Rifle Rifle bullets travel in an arc, formed by pull of gravity. “Sighting-in” is process of adjusting sights to hit target at specific range.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Rifles should be sighted-in before every hunt using ammunition you plan to use, especially rifles with peep or telescopic sights. Other than ensuring accurate shots, sighting-in a rifle has other advantages: ► Forces you to practice ► Helps determine problems with your shooting technique ► Builds confidence in your shooting ability
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Sighting-In Procedure Fire rifle from solid bench rest with forearm resting on pad or sandbag—don’t rest gun on barrel. Basic steps involve firing at least three shots consistently at target. If bullets form relatively small group of holes on target, but not where you were aiming, sights must be adjusted. When adjusting peep or telescopic sights, rear sights or dials adjusted by number of minutes-of-angle or “clicks.”
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) With open sights, the rear sight is moved in the same direction you want your shot to move on the target. Moving shots from side to side is “adjusting for windage.” Moving shots up or down is “adjusting for elevation.”
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Sighting-InSteps
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Rifle-Firing Techniques Using correct firing techniques helps steady rifle for most accurate shooting. Further study will help you understand other factors that can affect your accuracy, such as wind, heat, and parallax.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Shooting From a Rest: safest and most accurate shots are taken from a rest. Don’t rest barrel directly on a hard surface—put padding, such as a hat or a jacket, under the rifle. Breathing: breathing can move the rifle just enough to throw off your shot. Trigger Squeeze: Jerking the trigger or abruptly clenching the trigger hand can move the gun enough to cause a miss. Follow Through: After the bullet fires, it’s important to continue the squeeze or follow through—prevents you from jerking the gun before the bullet has left the barrel.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Four Fundamentals for an Accurate Rifle Shot Aim carefully, aligning your sights. Take a deep breath, and then release about half of it. Squeeze the trigger slowly. Follow through.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) The Four Standard Rifle Shooting Positions: Prone: Steadiest of four positions. Easiest to hold, and best position for mastering fundamentals of shooting—aiming, breath control, trigger squeeze, and follow through.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Standing: Most difficult position for firing accurate shot since neither arm is supported. Rather than trying to hold barrel steady, try to keep movement of barrel as small as possible.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Rifle Shooting (cont.) Sitting: Both arms are supported by your legs. Next to prone position, this is steadiest position. Kneeling: With only one arm braced, kneeling position is less steady than prone or sitting positions.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting Matching Choke to Your Quarry Choke allows you to fine-tune shotgun for type of game you’re hunting. Built-in or attached to muzzle end of barrel, choke can be constricted to create tighter pattern of shot, controlling pattern density at various distances.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) The tighter the constriction, the longer the cluster of shot stays together. The lesser the constriction, the faster the shot pattern spreads. Most common chokes from tightest to widest: ► Full ► Modified ► Improved Cylinder ► Cylinder (unchoked)
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.)
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Patterning Your Shotgun Choke, brand of shot shell, shot size, and type of shot affect pattern. Fire from distance of 40 yards. Pellets should be spread fairly evenly inside 30-inch circle and dense enough to ensure a clean kill. Circle also should contain correct amount of pellets, ranging from 40% - 80% of total number of pellets in load, based on choke you’re using.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Shotgun-Firing Techniques Unlike rifle shooting, quick reflexes and flexibility are essential for effective shotgun shooting. Shooting Stance: Shotgun almost always fired at moving target from standing position. Must be able to swing freely over wide arc and maintain control.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Stand with feet spread about shoulder-width and knees bent slightly so that you are balanced perfectly. Bring left foot slightly forward (if a right-handed shooter) and lean in same direction. Toes of forward foot should point toward target. Keep knees slightly bent—easier to swing with moving target. Bent leg to the rear supports movements of your hips, allowing you to swing smoothly.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Pointing: Because targets usually appear suddenly and move quickly, there’s no time to “aim” a shotgun. It’s designed to be pointed, with the eye sighting a little above the barrel or rib. Sight is usually a bead on front of gun. Your eye must be in line with barrel, so it’s important to position your head properly on the stock. When bringing gun to your shoulder, cheek should fit snugly against stock, providing proper sight picture. If position isn’t comfortable, adjust “gun fit”.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Shouldering the Shotgun: When bringing shotgun to your shoulder, stock should be brought to your cheek first, then back to your shoulder. When done properly, with head naturally erect, gun butt should always come to same spot on shoulder. Pulling the Trigger: Unlike rifle shooting, quick trigger action is important when hunting with a shotgun. Tap trigger in much the same way you would strike a computer key. Continue shotgun’s swing as trigger is pulled. Stopping swing will cause you to hit behind moving target.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Leading the Target Swing-Through: Best for beginning student. Point shotgun at a moving target and swing with it. Increase speed of the gun so muzzle passes target, then fire—“swing through” target and fire at blank space in front of target.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Sustained Lead: More challenging because requires more experience. Estimate length of lead necessary to hit target, maintain that lead as you swing with target, fire, and continue swing.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Shotgun Shooting (cont.) Snap-Shooting: Technique to use for a quick shot and target is straight ahead at close range. Simply raise shotgun and point where you think target will be when shot arrives.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting Loading and Handling Single-action revolvers typically load through a gate on right side of frame. To rotate cylinder, pull hammer back to half-cock. For a safer carry in holster or hand, leave an empty chamber in front of hammer.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Double-action revolvers have cylinders that fall downward, exposing all chambers for loading. Semi-automatics usually fire rounds stored in magazine that is inserted in grip or handle.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Position and Grip Body position and grip vital to hitting target. Hand position on grip of a pistol is especially critical. Although grip configuration of revolver and semi-automatic are different, gripping procedure is same.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Hold handgun high on grip so recoil is directed back to hand and arm in a straight line. Allows better repeat shots and more accurate shooting. Use two-handed hold whenever possible, applying pressure from front to rear. When hunting, use stable object as a rest. Placing some padding on top of a hard rest helps with aim.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Sight Alignment More important in pistol shooting because of shorter distance between sights. Typically, handgun sights consist of square rear notch sight and heavy square front blade sight. Most handguns sighted-in at 50 feet.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Aiming At shooting range, many handgunners use sight picture that places bull’s-eye on top of front sight, rather than in the sights over center of target. However, hunters should hold alignment directly over vital area. Scopes with long eye relief are popular and offer exact sighting for hunters. Scopes may take longer to align on a target than open sights, but are usually more accurate.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Shooting Fundamentals of trigger squeeze, breath control, and follow through almost identical to those in rifle shooting. Some important differences to remember include: First joint of finger should take up trigger pressure, not the tip as is often done with rifles. When fired, powder flashing at front of cylinder can cause burns. Keep fingers away from front of trigger. All handguns should be fired at arm’s length.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Handgun Shooting (cont.) Other Safety Considerations Permanent hearing loss happens gradually with each handgun blast. Choose an ear protection device with a high Noise Reduction Rating (NRR). Eye protection is essential when shooting a handgun to prevent damage from a ruptured shell or firearm malfunction. Wear eye protection whenever disassembling or cleaning a handgun.
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Review Questions Explain what good marksmanship is. Explain what sight alignment is. What should you do to help you steady the rifle when you’re ready to shoot? Explain the proper technique for pulling the trigger when shooting a rifle. Of the four standard rifle positions, what is the steadiest position? All handguns should be fired at what length?
Copyright © 2007 Kalkomey Enterprises, Inc. Review Questions (cont.) If you are planning to hunt small, fast birds like dove or quail, what is the best choke selection? When patterning a shotgun, the number of holes made in a 30-inch circular target at a range of 40 yards should be what percent of the number of the pellets in the load, based on the choke you are using? Which shotgunning technique is best for a beginning hunter? What is a common error when hunting birds with a shotgun?
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