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Using Information Technology to Engage in Electronic Commerce

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Presentation on theme: "Using Information Technology to Engage in Electronic Commerce"— Presentation transcript:

1 Using Information Technology to Engage in Electronic Commerce
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS 8/E Raymond McLeod, Jr. and George Schell Chapter 3 Using Information Technology to Engage in Electronic Commerce 3-1 Copyright 2001, Prentice-Hall, Inc.

2 Electronic Commerce Electronic commerce is the use of computers to facilitate the firm’s operations internal (finance, marketing, manufacturing, ...) external (customers, suppliers, government, ...) 3-2

3 Environmental Responsibilities of Functional Areas
Human Information Finance Resources Services Manufacturing Marketing Customers Suppliers Stockholders Labor Unions Government Financial Community Global Community Competitors X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X 3-3

4 Electronic Commerce Benefits
Improved service, especially to customers Improved relationships to suppliers and the financial community Increased return on stockholder and owner investments 3-4

5 Electronic Commerce Constraints
High costs Security concerns Immature or unavailable software 3-5

6 New Electronic Commerce Era
Instead of specialized software, firms are designing systems to use Internet Browsers Making a common interface for customers and electronic commerce partners 3-6

7 Selection of Electronic Commerce Strategy, Methodology, and Technology
Strategic Business Plan Enabling strategy Interorganiza- tional Electronic data interchange Enabling methodology System life cycle Business process redesign Enabling technology Direct connectivity Value-added networks The Internet Business Intelligence Competitive Advantage 3-7

8 Business Intelligence (BI)
Evolved from simply gathering data about competitors to data gathering about all environmental elements 3-8

9 The Five Basic Intelligence Tasks
Data 5 1 2 3 4 Collect data Store intelligence Disseminate intelligence Evaluate data Analyze data Intelligence Data Intelligence The Five Basic Intelligence Tasks 3-9

10 External Databases Important commercial databases that provide information on virtually any subject LEXIS-NEXIS, DIALOG, DOWJONES.COM Over 1,000 data service sites listed by YAHOO.COM Less expensive to use database services than to perform research 3-10

11 Search Engines Special computer programs that ask users for a word or group of words to be found at Internet sites Yahoo, Excite, AltaVista, HotBot, Lycos, and Webcrawler are examples Government databases 3-11

12 Extranets Allow sharing of sensitive computer-based information using Internet technology Limited to trusted suppliers and large customers Security and privacy issues Firewalls 3-12

13 Interorganizational System (IOS)
These link two or more firms so that they function as a single system to accomplish a common goal Generate internal efficiency in addition to interorganizational efficiency Provides customers with unique product features, reduced search-related costs, and raises the customer’s switching costs 3-13

14 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
Consists of direct computer-to-computer transmissions among multiple firms of data in a machine-readable, structured format Typical linkages Supply side Customer side Transaction set Vendor stock replenishment (VSR) Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) 3-14

15 Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Adheres to Standard Formats
Request for a price quote Price quote Purchase order The Firm Suppliers Acknowledge P.O. receipt Invoice 3-15 ANSI ASC X12 - North America EDIFACT - International

16 Selected EDI Transaction Sets and Sample Invoice Data
104 Air Shipment Information Student Educational Record (Transcript) 152 Statistical Government Information (Booking Request) (Ocean) 311 Canadian Customs Information Invoice Name Address Information Marking, Packaging, Loading Industry Code Quantity Currency Tax Information Pricing Information Item Physical Details Terms of Sale / Deferred Terms of Sale Carrier Detail Product / Item Description Invoice Shipment Summary Transaction Totals 3-16

17 Mapping Software Translates Data to and from Standard Formats
Sending firm’s computer Application software Mapping Receiving firm’s computer Application software Mapping Standard EDI format 3-17

18 Degree of EDI Implementation
Level-one users One or two transmission sets sent to limited trading partners Level-two users Many transaction sets transmitted to large number of trading partners Level-three users Many transaction sets transmitted to large number of trading partners and firm’s computer applications are tailored to EDI approach 3-18

19 Adoption Influences Competitive pressure, this is reactive
Exercised power, this is proactive Internal need, this is proactive Top management support, this is both proactive and reactive 3-19

20 Internal and Environmental Influences on EDI Adoption
Internal Influences Internal Need Top Management Support Exercised Power Pressure Trading Partners Competitors EDI 3-20

21 EDI Benefits Direct Indirect Reduced errors Reduced costs
Increased operational efficiency Indirect Increased ability to compete Improved relationships with trading partners Improved customer service 3-21

22 EDI Direct and Indirect Benefits
Reduced Errors Increased Operational Efficiency Costs Competitors Trade Partners Increased Ability to Compete Improved Relationships Improved Service Customers 3-22

23 A Challenge to EDI Extensible markup language (XML) Extension of HTML
Provides file formatting structure and means for describing data Allows Web pages to perform many EDI functions 3-23

24 Electronic Commerce Technology
Direct Connectivity Uses dial-up or private lines to connect Value-Added Networks (VANs) Circuit provided by vendor Vendor provides additional services The Internet Global communications network 3-24

25 Internet Evolution Derived from the Advanced Research Projects Agency network (ARPANET) Designed to let computer-to-computer communications continue even during military attacks ARPANET joined with Computer Science Network (CSNET) and National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) to form today’s Internet 3-25

26 Internet Evolution [cont.)
During the 1970’s various other networks were connected This led to the 1980’s Internet concept which means each network can seamlessly interconnect with other networks Businesses began using the new Internet with workstations and local area networks The Internet has become a network of networks 3-26

27 Internet Evolution (cont.)
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee of CERN came up with the hypertext concept World-Wide Web is really the application of hypertext documents and other materials Hypertext is conceptually a ‘speed dial’ feature in that a user points to and presses the hypertext link and the system automatically goes to that location 3-27

28 Key Web Terminology Website Hypertext link Web page Home page
Universal resource locator (URL) Protocol Domain name Path Browser FTP (File Transfer Protocol) 3-28

29 Parts of a URL hypertext
transmission protocol hypertext markup language path (directory and file name on the web server) domain name 3-29

30 Internet Client/Server Information Retrieval Systems
Gopher Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) USENET Each of these predates the WWW and represents a major step forward in Internet Use 3-30

31 Internet Client/Server Architecture
Terminal Emulator PC or Macintosh Unix X11 NextStep Addressing schema, Protocols, Format negotiation Gateway is HTTP server plus other application. Database, info system, etc. FTP Gopher HTTP News WAIS 3-31

32 Internet Security Any resources linked to data communications have risk Security by physically separating the Web site from the firm’s computer resources Security by using passwords that allow access to computing resources ‘Firewalls’ using routers, intermediary computers or application-level methods 3-32

33 Internet Connectivity
An Application-Level Firewall Internet Incoming packets from the Internet pass through the connectivity supplier’s network to a router and to the organization Internet Connectivity Supplier’s Network The packet goes to a router box that duplicates the function of the external router Router Rather than routing the packet directly to its destination, the router redirects traffic through an external services host and an IP “choke” host Isolation Mechanism Border Router External Services The external services host runs desired apps such as interface IP Choke Protocol Filter The IP choke performs actual protocol filtering Internal/External Service Gateway Traffic is sent through a gateway to a separate router box on the internal network, configured according to internal security policy Internal Router Internal Network 3-33

34 Intranet Internet technology used for internal communications and applications Used for many business applications requiring communication 3-34

35 Business Applications for the Internet
Marketing research Competitive intelligence Retailing applications The future impact of the Internet on business is enhanced as the National Information Infrastructure programs become established 3-35

36 Successful Internet Use
Make sure your Web site is robust Make sure your browser and database structure are both flexible and intuitive Update often Look beyond customers Target content to specific users’ needs Make the interface intuitive Be in the right Web location Create a sense of community Get help if you need it 3-36

37 Summary E-Commerce begins with business intelligence
Primary and secondary data comprise business intelligence Reasons for IOS Comparative efficiency Bargaining power Three levels of EDI 3-37

38 Summary [cont.] Internet Intranets National information infrastructure
Network of networks Security concerns Firewalls Intranets National information infrastructure 3-38

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