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First Aid and Emergencies

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1 First Aid and Emergencies
Chapter 28 First Aid and Emergencies

2 Providing First Aid What is first aid? What are universal precautions?
First aid is the immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until professional medical care can be provided. What are universal precautions? Universal precautions are actions taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all bodily fluids as if they contained pathogens. Pathogens are any organisms that cause disease.

3 Responding to an Emergency
Recognition Common indicators of an emergency include unusual sights, sounds, odors, and behaviors Check Check the scene for safety Call Call for help Care Provide care for the victim

4 Types of Injuries Open Wounds Burns Common Injuries Poisonings
Life Threatening Emergencies

5 Open Wounds- Recognition
Not all emergencies require professional medical help. Most can be resolved with quick and simple first aid strategies. These injuries include: Abrasions Lacerations Punctures Avulsions

6 Abrasions Commonly referred to as a “scrape” or “strawberry”.
Caused by scraping the skin against a hard surface causing the skin to break and expose many small blood vessels. Because of the mechanism of injury, dirt and debris can easily enter the site. Therefore, its important to clean the wound to prevent infection and speed healing.

7 Laceration Lacerations are cuts caused by sharp objects like knives or broken glass. Usually has smooth edges, but if caused by blunt force trauma, tearing of the skin can leave jagged edges All lacerations are accompanied by bleeding, but deep ones can result in heavy bleeding as well as damage to nerves, large blood vessels and soft tissues.

8 Puncture Punctures are small but deep holes caused by pins, nails, fangs, or any other object that pierces the skin. Don’t normally cause heavy external bleeding, but can cause internal bleeding if they damage major blood vessels or internal organs. Carries a high risk of infection, including tetanus.

9 Avulsion Avulsions occur when tissue is partially or completely separated from the body. A partially avulsed piece of skin may remain attached, but it hangs like a flap. Sometimes a body part, such as a finger, can be severed. Pack the severed part in ice and call for EMS immediately.

10 First Aid for Bleeding Put gloves on!!!
Wash minor wounds with mild soap and water to remove dirt and debris. Cover the wound with sterile gauze and press firmly. If possible, elevate the wound above the heart. Cover the gauze with sterile bandage. Do not remove dressing if blood soaks through. Just add more on top of them. If necessary, apply pressure point bleeding control.

11 Burns Can be caused from heat, radiation from the sun, certain chemicals, and electricity. Chemical and electrical burns require special first aid procedures. Classified according to depth: 1st degree burns are superficial and can be treated at home. 2nd and 3rd degree burns are deep and require professional medical care.

12 Burn Classification and Treatment
1st degree Only the outer layer of skin is burned and turns red. Cool with running water for ~10 minutes. Pat dry and cover with sterile bandage. 2nd degree Top several layers of skin are damaged and will blister Cool with cold water and elevate Do not pop blisters! Cover loosely with dry sterile dressing 3rd degree Serious burns that damage deeper layers of skin and possibly fat, muscle, nerves, and bone. Call for professional help immediately Cool with large amounts of cold water Cover with dry sterile dressing

13 Common Injuries Common injuries are those that can be serious, but do not normally require Emergency Medical Services. These injuries include muscle cramps, strains, sprains, fractures, dislocations, unconsciousness, fainting, concussions, animal bites, nosebleeds, and objects in the eyes.

14 Muscle Cramps Sudden and painful involuntary tightening of muscles.
Can occur when you are physically active or at rest. Treatment Stretch out the muscle to counteract the cramp Massage the cramped muscle firmly Apply ice to the area Seek medical help if cramp persists

15 Strains and Sprains A strain is an injury to a muscle, usually after overuse. Signs and symptoms include pain, swelling, bruising, and loss of function A sprain is an injury to a ligament usually resulting from a twisting force. Some serious sprains require medical attention and possibly surgery. Both can be treated with RICE

16 R.I.C.E Rest- Avoid any movements or activities that cause pain.
Ice- Ice helps reduce inflammation. Apply ice for minutes every 3 hours. Compression- Compression can help reduce swelling and can be achieved through an elastic wrap. Wrap should be tight without being uncomfortable. Elevation- Raise the affected limb above the level of the heart to reduce pain and swelling.

17 Fractures and Dislocations
Fractures and dislocations can be treated similarly. Immobilize the joints above and below the injury and call for emergency medical help. Splints can be easily fashioned from everyday objects.

18 Unconsciousness Unconsciousness is a condition in which a person is not alert and aware of his/her surroundings There are differing levels ranging from drowsiness to coma. Victims can choke to death because of their inability to cough, clear their throat, or react to a blocked airway. Primary goal for first aid is to prevent choking until EMS arrives on scene. Place victim in recovery position

19 Fainting Occurs when blood supply to the brain is temporarily inadequate. Loss of consciousness is usually very brief. Treat as a medical emergency until symptoms are relieved and cause is known. If you feel faint, lie down or sit down with your head between your knees. If someone else faints, position the person on their back and elevate their feet 8-12 inches above the heart. Loosen any tight clothing and sponge the person’s face with cool water.

20 Concussions Concussions are jarring injuries to the brain that affect normal brain function. Even with no external sign of injury, the brain can strike the inside of the skull and be damaged. To avoid spinal injury, do not move an unconscious person if you suspect head injury or concussion. Have a conscious victim lie down and use first aid for any bleeding. Check ABC’s and seek Professional help ASAP

21 Animal Bites One of the most serious results from an animal bite is rabies, a viral disease that affects the nervous system and can lead to death if untreated. There is no cure for rabies after symptoms develop. Report animal bites to animal control department. Make sure to get an accurate description of animal and its probable whereabouts. Animal bites also carry a risk of infection. First aid strategies: Wash wound with mild soap and warm water for ~5 minutes. Control bleeding Apply ice if the wound is swollen Cover wound with clean dressing

22 Nosebleeds Often occur if the nose is struck or if mucous membranes in the nose dry out. Talk to your doctor if nosebleeds occur often. Treatment Have the person sit down and lean forward DO NOT TILT HEAD BACK!!! Cotton dressing can be placed in nose to help form a clot. Apply pressure for ~15 minutes over bridge of nose Seek help if bleeding continues.

23 Objects in the Eye Foreign objects such as dirt, sand, and slivers of wood or metal that enter the eye can be extremely irritating and can cause damage. Do not rub the eye, but instead encourage the victim to blink repeatedly. Pull lower eyelid down while victim looks up and examine the eye for foreign particle. If you see the object on the surface attempt to remove it with moistened cotton swab. You can also flush the eye with saline solution or tap water. If the person is wearing contacts, do not remove them until the eye has been flushed for ~5 minutes. Seek help if you are unable to remove object.

24 Poison Facts A poison is any substance- solid, liquid or gas- that causes injury, illness, or death when introduced into the body. About 90% of all poisonings occur within the home and more than half of these happen to children under 6.

25 Types of Poison Chemicals that are swallowed
Pesticide that is absorbed through skin Venom- a poisonous substance secreted by snakes, spiders, or other creatures that is injected through stings or bites Certain plants or foods Gases or vapors All of the above require differing treatments that can be provided through the local Poison Control Center Be prepared to give name, location, and phone number Provide name of substance, when it was ingested, and the amount involved. Describe state of victim as well as age and body weight Be ready to follow any instructions

26 First Aid for Poisonings
Swallowed Quickly determine the substance that was swallowed and call Poison Control Center Follow directions given to you Don’t induce vomiting unless instructed to do so. Inhaled Quickly get the person to fresh air If victim is not breathing, begin rescue breathing On the skin Must be removed ASAP Remove contaminated clothing Rinse with water for ~15 minutes then use soap Call 911 while victim is rinsing off In the eye Immediately start flushing with water for 15 minutes Blink as much as possible Call 911

27 Snakebite Get victim to hospital ASAP
Keep victim calm and in reclining position if possible. Keep wound below level of the heart and immobilize bitten limb. Call 911 Don’t apply ice or heat and don’t give victim any aspirin or other drugs Maintain breathing and avoid aggravation of the wound.

28 Insect Bites and Stings
Some people are highly allergic and one bite/sting can present life-threatening situation. These people need immediate medical attention. Treatment Move to a safe area to avoid further harm Try to remove stinger by scraping it off with a firm, sharp-edged object like a credit card Wash with soap and water Apply ice in case of swelling Apply hydrocortisone cream, calamine lotion, or baking soda paste several times a day until pain is gone If victim has trouble breathing or shows signs of a severe reaction contact EMS

29 Poisonous Plants About 85% of American will develop a reaction if exposed to poison ivy, poison oak, or poison sumac Symptoms include blistering, burning, itching, swelling and possibly fever First defense is recognition and avoidance of plants Treatment Remove any clothes that may have come in contact Flush areas with water and use soap and water to clean Use calamine lotion to relieve itching Seek help for severe discomfort and pain

30 Life Threatening Emergencies
If a victim is unresponsive you must immediately begin the chain of survival Chain of Survival- a sequence of actions that maximize the victim’s chances of survival Link 1- Call 911 Link 2- Begin CPR Link 3- Early defibrillation Link 4- Transfer to advanced care

31 Unresponsive Victims Tap and Shout “ARE YOU OK?”
If the victim is unresponsive, begin the chain of survival Follow the ABC’s- Airway, Breathing, and Circulation Check the mouth for foreign objects that may block the airway. Tilt the head back and lift the chin to open the airway Look, listen, and feel for breathing. If not breathing normally, administer 2 rescue breaths. Check for signs of circulation such as movement, breathing, or coughing. If no signs present, begin chest compressions

32 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
To begin chest compressions, place hands in the center of the chest, between the victims nipples. Use the heels of your hands at that point and interlock your fingers Lean over the victim to where your shoulders are directly over your hands Lock your elbows and press straight down on the chest at a rate of 100 beats per minute. After 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths and continue with compressions. Keep going until EMS or an AED arrives on the scene. Follow all directions given to you by the AED.

33 Shock Shock is a failure of the cardiovascular system to keep an adequate supply of blood circulating to the vital organs of the body. Symptoms include restlessness, altered consciousness, nausea, pale appearance, cool, moist skin, and rapid breathing and pulse. Treatment Have victim lie down with legs elevated about 12 inches. Call 911 ASAP Don’t give the victim food or water Cover the victim with a blanket if possible Try to keep the victim calm until EMS arrives

34 Choking Choking is the result of a blocked airway on a conscious victim. Treatment Encourage the victim to cough repeatedly If unable to cough administer abdominal thrusts to clear airway If necessary, contact EMS

35 Abdominal Thrusts Stand behind victim with 1 foot between their legs.
Make a fist with one hand and place it 1-2 inches above their navel Cover fist with other hand and pull up and inward sharply.

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