Presentation on theme: "SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE MALACCA AND SINGAPORE STRAITS Sam Bateman (Maritime Security Programme, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore)"— Presentation transcript:
SAFETY AND SECURITY IN THE MALACCA AND SINGAPORE STRAITS Sam Bateman (Maritime Security Programme, Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies, Singapore)
Outline Jurisdiction in the Straits Shipping Patterns Analysis and Risk Assessments The KL IMO Meeting – what it didn’t talk about!
Jurisdiction in the Straits International waters (high seas, exclusive economic zones (EEZs) and contiguous zones); Sovereign Waters (territorial seas, archipelagic & internal waters) of the littoral States; but Some maritime boundaries have not been agreed
Jurisdiction in the Malacca and Singapore Straits
Shipping Patterns Through Traffic Local Traffic Other
THROUGH TRAFFIC Ships transiting between the Indian and Pacific Oceans For example: larger tankers and cargo carriers, including container vessels, larger bulk carriers, ro-ro ships, passenger ships and vehicle carriers.
LOCAL TRAFFIC Ships on local voyages e.g. between ports in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam or Singapore. For example: smaller product and chemical tankers, gas carriers, container ships (“feeder” vessels), tugs and barges, and general cargo ships. Small Product Tanker
OTHER TRAFFIC Other vessels using the Straits, including fishing vessels, yachts, oil rig tenders, scientific research ships, dredgers, etc.
Shipping Routes – Malacca Strait
Location of Attacks
Analysis of Attacks Most attacks occur in and around ports and anchorages. Most attacks on ships on local voyages. Mainly on smaller ships –Fishing vessels –Tugs and barges –Smaller cargo vessels e.g. product tankers Hijacking and kidnapping for ransom
Actual Attacks by Type of Voyage
Typical Vessels Attacked 640 GRT product tanker Cherry 201 attacked off Belawan in Feb 2004 – crew members kidnapped for ransom and 4 murdered. Small Japanese tug Idaten boarded by pirates in March crew members taken hostage but later released.
Attacks in 2006 – IMB On-line Map
Regional Maritime Terrorism Scenarios Less Credible - Ship sunk to block the Straits of Malacca and Singapore - Large tanker/LNG carrier used as “floating bomb” - underwater swimmer attack on “hub port”
Regional Maritime Terrorism Scenarios More Credible - Bomb attack on cruise liner or passenger ferry - “Choke point” blocked by mines - Small chemical tanker/LPG carrier used as “floating bomb” - Suicide attack by small craft
Superferry 14 Sinking Feb 04 bomb exploded and ship caught fire 90 minutes after leaving Manila 63 people killed and 53 others missing presumed dead ship sunk by fire and flooding
Kuala Lumpur Meeting on Enhancement of Safety, Security and Environmental Protection of the Straits of Malacca & Singapore (18-20 Sep 06) Forum for Cooperation under TTEG on Safety of Navigation Proposal by the littoral states of 6 safety & environmental protection projects for funding Establishment of an Aids to Navigation Fund – voluntary contributions Emergence of China as an active player No tolls or charges for passage
What was not specifically discussed at KL Meeting – Security Arrangements Meeting kept clear of “difficult political and legal issues” Preference of Indonesia, in particular, for bilateral assistance projects (e.g. gifts of patrol boats, coastal radars, training) Self interest of some user states Littoral states will continue their efforts to maintain security in their waters General acknowledgment of what the littoral states have achieved with improving security