Filtration: Types and Comparison Normal Filtration Cross- flow Filtration Normal Filtration: Water with contaminants pass in direction perpendicular to filter media. The contaminants will choke the pores of the filter media. Cross- flow Filtration: Water with contaminants pass in direction parallel to the filter media. The Outlet from this filtration will have two streams coming out. The concentrate stream will carry along with it the contaminants. The filtered water will come out of a separate outlet. The frequency of filter media getting choked is very low when compared to normal filtration.
Cross- flow Membrane Processes: SS Macromolecules Sugar, DV Salts, DA MV Salts, UA MF UF NF RO Water KEY: SS - Suspended solids DV Salts - Divalent salts DA - Dissociated acids MV Salts - Monovalent salts UA - Undissociated acids Reject portion Permeate portion MF – Micro filtration UF - Ultra filtration NF – Nano Filtration RO – Reverse Osmosis
Membrane processes overview: S. N0 Separation Process Pore SizeComponents retained. Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO). 1Reverse osmosis1-15 A99% of most ions MWCO: above 150 Daltons 2Nano filtration8-80 A95% divalent ions, 40% monovalent ions MWCO: 180- 10,000 Daltons 3Ultra filtration0.001- 0.1 micro meter 10-1000 Angstrom Most organics over 1000 Daltons 4Micro filtration0.05-2.0 micro meter Small suspended particles greater than 0.1 microns MWCO: Molecular Weight Cut Off is the molecular weight of species rejected by the membrane. 1 micro meter = 10 -6 meters. 1 Angstrom( A) = 10 -10 meters.
Specific advantages of membrane based treatment systems: Compact and less space occupying. Skid mounted systems. Very low electricity consumption. Requires no civil construction.
OleoSepa- Ultra Filtration Organics and Alkali Solution Separation
Ultra Filtration Salient Features: Separation is due to simple sieving mechanism. Organics of Molecular weight in the region of 1000- 10000 Daltons is rejected by the UF membranes Alkaline Water along with Salts gets filtered through the UF System which can be reused in the degreasing bath. Organics separated can be disposed.
Major contaminants and their removal: S.NoContaminantRemoval Process 1.Suspended Solids Stainless Steel Bag Filter 2.Microscopic oil particlesActivated Carbon Filter 3.BacteriaUV Disinfection 4.Organic SeparationIONICS unit using Ultra Filtration membrane
Process Flow Diagram Alkali & OrganicsUV DisinfectionMicron Filter High pressure pump UF based IONICS Unit Permeate (Reuse/ disposal) Pump Concentrate (disposal/reuse)
Benefits: Physical Separation of Organics and Alkali Solution. Allied Product: Hollow Fibre Ultrafiltration Systems.
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