Presentation on theme: "Fricatives Fricatives are consonants with the characteristic that when they are produced, the air escapes through a small passage and makes a hissing sound."— Presentation transcript:
Fricatives Fricatives are consonants with the characteristic that when they are produced, the air escapes through a small passage and makes a hissing sound
Place of articulation alveolar palato- labio- dental glottal alveolar dental Voiceless, fortis s ʃ f θ h Voiced, lenis z ʒ v ð
Fortis fricatives are said to be articulated with greater force than the lenis ones and their friction noise is loude r. Fortis fricatives have the effect of shortening the preceding vowel, as do fortis plosives. Lenis fricatives tend to be fully voiced only when they occur between voiced sounds
s and z /s/ and /z/ are alveolar fricative consonants The soft palate is raised and the nasal resonator is shut off. The tip and blade of the tongue make a light contact with the alveolar ridge. The side rims of the tongue are in a close contact with the upper side teeth forming a short and narrow channel, thus causing friction between the tongue and the alveolar ridge.
Comparison In Estonian /s/ and /z/ are articulated nearer to the teeth English /s/ is more energetic and /z/ is a voiced consonant saisigh seinsane suuSue söösir
The pronunciation of dis and re+s disappointdisaster disappeardisease disinheritdissolve re-sentresent re-signresign / s // z /
ʃ and ʒ /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ palato-alveolar fricative consonants The place of articulation is partly palatal and partly alveolar. The tongue is in contact with the area slightly further back than that for /s/ and /z/ The passage through which the air escapes is slightly wider. Lips are rounded
Spelling / ʃ/ -shshape, wash, endings ti+voweleducation, association endings ci+vowelmusician, physician Less common: chmachine, champagne Michigan, Chicago ssure, insurance
/ ʒ/ s before endings with u or i:measure, vision -ge endings in words of French origin: beige, garage, rouge
She sells shells on the sea shore, The shells she sells are seashells I’m sure, For if she sells seashells on the seashore, Then I’m sure she sells seashore shells.
Affricates ʧ and ʤ Affricates begin as plosives and end as fricatives They start with the closure and hold phase of /t/ and /d/ but instead of a rapid release with plosion and aspiration the tongue moves to the position of the fricatives / ʃ/ and /ʒ/ So the plosive is followed immediately by fricative noise NB! we would not classify all sequences of plosive + fricative as affricates: e.g. k+f in the word breakfast is not an affricate.
The plosive and fricative must be homorganic to be classified as affricates. ʧ and ʤare palato-alveolar affricate consonants /ʧ/ is voiceless and fortis and /ʤ/ is voiced and lenis
Spelling / ʧ/ all tch:match, stretch, wretched all t+ure:future, nature, feature most ch:chin, punch, such, /ʤ/ all j:jam, job, major, BUT: Juan, Mojave all dge:judge, budge, bridge, some g before i:gin, imagine BUT: give
Practise the difference CHINGINRICHRIDGE CHEERJEERSEARCHSURGE CHOKEJOKEHAGE CHAINJANELARCHLARGE Look out! He’s choking/joking. The audience cheered/jeered at her speech. It’s not a little fir tree, It’s a larch/large tree. What happened to your chin/gi n