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1 CHOKEPOINTS Got to get past ‘um, but how?. 2 WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and.

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Presentation on theme: "1 CHOKEPOINTS Got to get past ‘um, but how?. 2 WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 CHOKEPOINTS Got to get past ‘um, but how?

2 2 WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change

3 3 WH12C – interpret historical maps to identify and explain geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past WH12C – interpret historical maps to identify and explain geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past

4 4 WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change WG21C – construct and interpret maps to answer geographic questions, infer geographic relationships, and analyze geographic change WH12C – interpret historical maps to identify and explain geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past WH12C – interpret historical maps to identify and explain geographic factors that have influenced people and events in the past WG8B- compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the environment using state, national, and international activities WG8B- compare ways that humans depend on, adapt to, and modify the environment using state, national, and international activities

5 5 What are chokepoints? Hint: In your history class they might be called “bottlenecks.” Hint: In your history class they might be called “bottlenecks.” But geographers call them “chokepoints.” But geographers call them “chokepoints.” Now, take a minute and imagine what a chokepoint or a bottleneck might look like. Now, take a minute and imagine what a chokepoint or a bottleneck might look like.

6 6 Chokepoints or bottlenecks? Have you ever had trouble getting catsup out of the bottle? What caused the trouble? Was it partially caused by trying to get something too thick through too small a place?

7 7 Chokepoints or bottlenecks? Have you ever wondered how they got those ships into those bottles? Have you ever wondered how they got those ships into those bottles? How does something that big go through the narrow space at the top of the bottle? How does something that big go through the narrow space at the top of the bottle? After slide 7, think about the shape of the bottle and write a description of a chokepoint on your paper.

8 8 Chokepoints or bottlenecks? Why do people choke? Why do people choke? Sometimes it’s because something too large got stuck in their throat. Sometimes it’s because something too large got stuck in their throat.

9 9 Chokepoints It’s just the same when people try to transport goods around the world. It’s just the same when people try to transport goods around the world. Sometimes countries are trading one good for another. Sometimes countries are trading one good for another. Sometimes countries are transporting soldiers or armaments to battle sites. Sometimes countries are transporting soldiers or armaments to battle sites. The control of these narrow passageways is critical. Whoever has the control is in power. The control of these narrow passageways is critical. Whoever has the control is in power.

10 10 Chokepoints I have the power. I have the power. I control the chokepoint. I control the chokepoint.

11 11 Corinth Canal (Greece) Corinth Canal (Greece) There are approximately 200 straits ( narrow bodies of water connecting two larger bodies of water) around the world, but only a handful are known as chokepoints. On your paper define “chokepoint.”

12 12 Chokepoints A chokepoint is a strategic strait or canal which could be closed or blocked to stop sea traffic. A chokepoint is a strategic strait or canal which could be closed or blocked to stop sea traffic. The Suez Canal and the Straits of Hormuz (pictured on the map) are examples of chokepoints. The Suez Canal and the Straits of Hormuz (pictured on the map) are examples of chokepoints. Suez Canal Strait of Hormuz Make any adjustments to your definition that are needed.

13 13 CHOKEPOINTS OR BOTTLENECKS ? With the rise of industrial Europe and seaborne trade, entrepreneurs thought of building a canal to connect the Red Sea with the Mediterranean Sea directly, thus saving time either from sailing around Africa or transporting freight across the Suez Peninsula.

14 14 SUEZ CANAL The Suez Canal was completed in 1869 under the leadership of a French company under de Lesseps. European capital (money) built it and operated it. Why would European companies be willing to fund the building of the canal? How would it make them more competitive? Write your answer on your paper. conc1en/suez.html

15 15 SUEZ CANAL SUEZ CANAL Red Sea Mediterranean Sea Suez Canal The Suez Canal brought a new era of European influence in Pacific Asia by reducing the journey from Asia to Europe by about 65,000 km. The region became commercially accessible and colonial trade expanded.

16 16 The Suez Canal is only 101 miles long but was built across the Egyptian desert. It is one of the most significant maritime “shortcuts” ever built by man. conc5en/suezconstr.html

17 17 USS Wisconsin goes through the Canal.

18 18 IMPACT OF THE SUEZ CANAL Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles.

19 19 SUEZ CANAL Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Saved two weeks of shipping time. Saved two weeks of shipping time.

20 20 SUEZ CANAL Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Saved two weeks of shipping time. Saved two weeks of shipping time. If you can shorten your shipping time, you can ship more items in the same amount of time that it used to take. If you can shorten your shipping time, you can ship more items in the same amount of time that it used to take.

21 21 SUEZ CANAL Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Shortened the route around Africa by 4,000 miles. Saved two weeks of shipping time. Saved two weeks of shipping time. If you can shorten your shipping time, you can ship more items in the same amount of time that it used to take. If you can shorten your shipping time, you can ship more items in the same amount of time that it used to take. Tonnage shipped jumped from 500,000 tons to 3,500,000 tons in ten years after the Suez Canal opened. Tonnage shipped jumped from 500,000 tons to 3,500,000 tons in ten years after the Suez Canal opened.

22 22 This allowed the Europeans to take a greater interest in the Asian markets than ever before. This allowed the Europeans to take a greater interest in the Asian markets than ever before. British control of the canal was viewed as the “Lifeline of the Empire” because it allowed the British quicker access to the colonies in Asia and Africa. British control of the canal was viewed as the “Lifeline of the Empire” because it allowed the British quicker access to the colonies in Asia and Africa. On your paper, write down what you think is the most important impact of the Suez Canal. Justify your answer.

23 23 Strait of Gibraltar Has long been fought over Has been held by the Phoenicians, Romans, Visigoths, and the Moslems The British won the Battle of Trafalgar defeating Napoleon

24 24 D:\whs588.htm D:\whs588.htm D:\whs588.htm After viewing the animation of the Battle of Trafalgar, click on the X to close the animation. That will return you to the PowerPoint. Click first on the D: to go to the animation.

25 25 acon/mapchokepoints.html

26 26 OIL DEPENDENCY

27 27 OIL DEPENDENCY For the past 50 years, one of the main sources of energy used by developed and developing nations has been oil. For the past 50 years, one of the main sources of energy used by developed and developing nations has been oil. For nations with little of this resource, disruption of the availability of oil or a large price increase, causes economic or political problems. For nations with little of this resource, disruption of the availability of oil or a large price increase, causes economic or political problems. On your paper, write down two effects of closing a chokepoint.

28 28

29 29 SECURING THE SUPPLY: STRATEGIC POINTS OF CONCERN For centuries, straits such as Gibraltar have been protected by international law. For centuries, straits such as Gibraltar have been protected by international law. In 1982, the Law of Sea Conventions further protected the international access for nations to sail through straits and canals. In 1982, the Law of Sea Conventions further protected the international access for nations to sail through straits and canals. On your paper, explain why straits would be protected by international laws.

30 30 After you have visited each of the chokepoints, click on this button. Click on each of the tankers for information about the chokepoint.

31 31 Suez Canal It is the only sea route between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. With the Middle East tension, the Suez Canal is a prime target for many nations. In 1967, the Arab- Israeli War shut down the canal for 8 years. A third of the cargo is oil. Click on button to return to map.

32 32 BAB el MANDEB Bottleneck for traffic between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean 3.2 million barrels of oil daily move through this chokepoint. All the nations along the Red Sea are Islamic and the rulers of Sudan are backed by Iran. Click button to return to map.

33 33 STRAIT OF HORMUZ Critical point in the lifeline flow of oil from the Persian Gulf area. A quarter of the world’s oil supply passes through this strait million barrels of oil a day pass through. Closely monitored by the U.S. military and its allies Connects the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (part of the Indian Ocean

34 34 Strait of Hormuz Click on button to return to map.

35 35 THE BOSPORUS STRAIT √Joins the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara √Russians and Turks have fought many battles over this strait. Turks are now citing environmental concerns as an excuse to restrict Russian access to the strait.

36 36 Click on button to return to map

37 37 Strait of Malacca Tankers pass through this strait bordered by Indonesia and Malaysia. Located in the Indian Ocean, this strait is a shortcut for oil tankers traveling between the Middle East and the oil-dependent nations of the Pacific Rim (especially Japan.) More than 50,000 ships pass through this strait yearly. Click button to return to map

38 38 Panama Canal Connects the Pacific Ocean with the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean 0.5 million barrels of oil go through it daily Needs to be widened Click on button to return to map.

39 39 Barrels of Oil Transported through Chokepoints Daily

40 40 Let’s recap what we know about chokepoints. A chokepoint is a strategic strait or canal which could be closed or blocked to stop sea traffic. A chokepoint is a strategic strait or canal which could be closed or blocked to stop sea traffic. The Suez Canal and the Straits of Hormuz (pictured on the map) are examples of chokepoints. The Suez Canal and the Straits of Hormuz (pictured on the map) are examples of chokepoints. Suez Canal Strait of Hormuz

41 41 Now, review what else you know. If a chokepoint is closed, it affects world trade patterns, the economy and politics. If a chokepoint is closed, it affects world trade patterns, the economy and politics. That can lead to higher prices and/or war. That can lead to higher prices and/or war. Keeping these straits or chokepoints open is very important. Keeping these straits or chokepoints open is very important. The control of these narrow passageways is critical. Whoever has the control is in power. The control of these narrow passageways is critical. Whoever has the control is in power.

42 42 Complete a flow chart showing these effects. Complete a flow chart showing these effects. Closure of Strait of Hormuz U.S. and Japan scramble for oil. ?

43 43 Which best fits in the last box of the flow chart? A. Saudi Arabia pipes the oil to the A. Saudi Arabia pipes the oil to the Red Sea. Red Sea. B. The U.S. sends in troops and aircraft to B. The U.S. sends in troops and aircraft to take over the Strait of Hormuz. take over the Strait of Hormuz. C. Diplomatic pressure makes Turkey C. Diplomatic pressure makes Turkey open the Strait. open the Strait. D. The price of oil products goes down D. The price of oil products goes down worldwide. worldwide.

44 44 Yes, the correct answer is B. The United States sends in troops to open the Strait of Hormuz. A is incorrect. Saudi Arabia might be able to pump more oil to the Red Sea but the quantity would not be sufficient. A is incorrect. Saudi Arabia might be able to pump more oil to the Red Sea but the quantity would not be sufficient. C is incorrect. Turkey controls the Bosporus Strait, not the Strait of Hormuz. C is incorrect. Turkey controls the Bosporus Strait, not the Strait of Hormuz. D is incorrect. The price of oil products would go up significantly around the world. D is incorrect. The price of oil products would go up significantly around the world.

45 45 Congratulations, you have finished the tutorial on chokepoints. Congratulations, you have finished the tutorial on chokepoints. Now see if you can answer two more questions on your worksheet. Now see if you can answer two more questions on your worksheet. Have your teacher check your answers. Have your teacher check your answers. You should ace this part of the TAKS now. You have the power. You should ace this part of the TAKS now. You have the power.


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