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CHAPTER 5 English Words and Sentences 學生 : 林雅菁 NA0C0013 邱稚嵐 n98c0010 王姿方 n98c0005.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 5 English Words and Sentences 學生 : 林雅菁 NA0C0013 邱稚嵐 n98c0010 王姿方 n98c0005."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 5 English Words and Sentences 學生 : 林雅菁 NA0C0013 邱稚嵐 n98c0010 王姿方 n98c0005

2 Words in Connected Speech  Citation Form The form of a word that occurs when you say it by itself is called the citation form. At least one syllable is fully stressed and there is no reduction of the vowel quality. But in connected speech, many changes may take place. Ex. The spectrogram in figure 5.1(page 108) “or I was going to go in the opposite direction, and I went in the opposite direction.”

3  The key difference between citation speech and connected speech is the variable degree of emphasis placed on words in connected speech.  Closed-class words( a, an, the/ and, or/ of, in, with)  Strong form-  Weak form- Table 5.1(page 109)

4  Ex. The [  ] man and the [  ] old woman went to [  ] Britain and to [  ] America.  Ex. That boy and the man --- strong form  Ex. He said that woman were better. --- weak form

5 Stress  A stress syllable is often, but not always, louder than an unstressed syllable.  The most reliable thing for a listener to detect is that a stressed syllable frequently has a longer vowel than it would have if it were unstressed. But this does not mean that all long vowels are necessarily stressed.

6 Functions  It can be used in sentence to give special emphasis to a word or to contrast one word with another. Ex.  John or  Mary should  go.  I think  John  and  Mary should  go.  To indicate the syntactic category of a word. There are many noun- verb oppositions, such as an  insult to in  sult an  overflow to  over  flow an  increase to in  crease a  walkout to  walk  out a  put-on to  put  on a  pushover to  push  over

7 Degrees of stress  There are two degrees of stress in a word when it occurs at the end of a phrase or when it is said alone. Ex.  psycholin  guistics The psycholinguistics course was fun. Ex.  magnifi  cation The magnification depends on the lens. Reason: 1. intonation 2. vowel (Table 5.3)

8 Sentence rhythm  The stresses that occur on words can be modified when the words are part of sentences.  Ex:  ´Mary, ´ younger, ´ brother, ´ wanted, ´ fifty, ´chocolate, ´ peanuts (a stress on the first syllable)  ´Mary’s younger ´brother wanted ´fifty chocolate ´peanuts. (no stress on the syllable of younger, wanted, and chocolate)

9 Sentence rhythm  The stress on a polysyllabic word to be on one syllable in one sentence and on another syllable in another.  Ex:  He had a ´clarinet ´solo. (the stress on the first syllable)  He ´plays the clari´net. (the stress on the third syllable)

10 Sentence rhythm  Obama’s Iowa Victory Speech, 2008  YKCnE YKCnE

11 Sentence rhythm  speed, speedy, speedily  (reduce the variation in the interval between stresses)---regular  The ´red ´bird flew ´speedily ´home.  (the first and second stresses will be far shorter than that between the third and fourth)---irregular

12 Sentence rhythm  Conclusion:  The interval between stresses is affected by  the number of syllables within the stress group,  the number and type of vowels and consonants within each syllable,  the other factors such as variations in emphasis that are given to each word.

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