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printed by www.postersession.com BACKGROUND Procedure Undergraduate of the variablesthe model, mean replacement was used for dealing with missing data (Takahashi, 1998). CHART or PICTURE CHART or PICTURE WHO DID THE ARE AFFILIATED WITH Extended longevity has given older adults more years of involvement with their grandchildren. Given adequate resources, grandparents strive to be generative and to support their grandchildren in various ways. The current study examined predictors of grandparental efforts (grandparents’ education, economic status and health) and their effects on grandchildren’s anticipation of grandparenthood and their sense of understanding older adults in general. Young adults (N = 470) aged 18 to 27 who responded to an online survey were asked to rate their grandparents’ grandparenting quality and general health retrospectively in three stages: childhood (up to age 12), adolescence (age 2- 18), young adulthood. Grandparents’ socioeconomic status was expected to predict their Participants Participants were 470 undergraduate students, ages from 18 to 27 (M = 20.16, SD = 1.47) Participants were 470 undergraduate students, ages from 18 to 27 (M = 20.16, SD = 1.47) Have at least one living grandparent. Have at least one living grandparent. Three quarters (74.3%) were female; 89.4% were White; 93.0% were single. Three quarters (74.3%) were female; 89.4% were White; 93.0% were single. Participants’ focal grandparents’ age ranged from 47 to 94 years (M = 74.68, SD = 7.76); 73.6% were grandmothers. Participants’ focal grandparents’ age ranged from 47 to 94 years (M = 74.68, SD = 7.76); 73.6% were grandmothers. A majority (54.7%) of the focal grandparents were married, followed by widowed (34.0%) A majority (54.7%) of the focal grandparents were married, followed by widowed (34.0%) 15.5% were fully or partially employed and the rest were either retired or always been homemakers. 15.5% were fully or partially employed and the rest were either retired or always been homemakers. Participants While 1,859 students aged 18 to 25 (M=19.30, SD=1.33) who completed the online survey, the current study focused on first-year students (N=929) whose ages ranged from 18 to 22 (M=18.37, SD=.54); 97.5% were fulltime students; 79.8% were females 88.4% were Whites and 4.2% were African Americans. Survey Instrument - An IRB approved online survey contained approximately 130 questions Health domain. Multiple items assessed participants’ health related attitudes and practices; A 5-point scale (1 = Not at all, 5 = Always) assessed participants’ attention to healthy lifestyle, eating a healthy balanced diet, drinking pop/soda, and eating junk food. Exercising frequently (30 minutes or longer), converted to per year frequency for consistency (e.g., daily = 365 times a year, once a week = 52 times a year). Participants’ smoking and drinking status was also examined; as for drinking, further questions examined how frequently they engage in drinking (converted to per year frequency for analysis purpose), how many drinks on the average they drank per occasion, and how frequently they engaged in heavy drinking (four or more drinks per occasion for females and five or more for males) per year. As for smoking, smokers were asked the number of packs they smoke per week. Academic domain. Four 5-point (1 = Not at all, 5 = Always) items assessed participants’ academic behavior (e.g., I attend every class) (Hakoyama, Griffore, & Phenice, 2014); a composite ( =.76) was used for path analysis. Perceived transition. Two 7-point (1 = Not at all, 7 = Very much/well) items assessed participants’ sense of successful college transition in two areas (adjustment, and accomplishment). Also assessed was the participants’ self-esteem; Rosenberg’s (1965,1989) self-esteem scale (RSES) consisting of ten 4-point (1 = Strongly Disagree, 4 = Strongly Agree) items; five positive statements (e.g., I take a positive attitude toward myself), while five negative (e.g., At times, I think I am no good at all); negative items were reversed to create a composite ( =.88). RSES’s reliability and validity have been reported (Bagley, Bolitho, & Bertrand, 1997) and numerous studies utilized RSES (e.g., Hakoyama, Griffore, & Phenice, 2014). Procedure An extensive IRB approved online survey was conducted in a mid-size, Midwestern university to assess factors associated with college students’ numerous developmental outcomes including academic, social-relational, and health domains. Participants were offered an option of earning extra credit. Students had several days to complete the survey, which took approximately 60 minutes. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis and AMOS was used for structural equation modeling. Of all the variables considered in the SEM model, only three variables had a very small number of missing cases (missing < 1.5%). Therefore, mean replacement was used for dealing with the missing data. Men drank more amount per occasion and engaged in heavy drinking more often Men were more likely to be physically active. Women were more academically focused and also reported higher perceived accomplishment than men; Men, however, reported higher sense of adjustment and higher self-esteem. Health factors played more significant roles in men than in women; three variables (consciousness, exercise, and drinking) explained more than twice the variance in both accomplishment and adjustment among men than four variables (consciousness, eating healthy, drinking, and exercise) did among women. Women’s transitional experience may be more complex; variables excluded in the current model (e.g., social relationships, family support) may play important roles in women’s transitional experience. The following approaches are suggested: 1. Self-monitoring: Simply keeping record each day of focused behaviors is likely to help make behavioral changes (Freeman & Dexter-Mazza, 2004). 2. Restrictions and goal setting: setting up personal restrictions is likely to help control and improve focused behaviors. Healthy Transition to College Life: An Examination of Factors Associated with Successful Adjustment to College Life Mikiyasu Hakoyama, Ph.D. Human Development and Family Studies, Department of Human Environmental Studies College of Education and Human Services, Central Michigan University Drinking. More than two thirds (69.6%) reported to be drinkers; No gender difference was found in the drinking status, X 2 (1, N = 927) =.48, p = ns. 41.7% reported that they engage in drinking once a week or more often while 40.2% reported once a month or less (including none); No gender difference was found between men (M = 55.18, SD = 55.85) and women (M = 49.31, SD = 56.47), t(927)= 1.27, p = ns. 52.0% reported drinking 2-5 drinks per occasion on the average; 17.4% had 6 or more drinks per occasion; men (M=5.27, SD= 3.05) drank significantly more drinks per occasion than did women (M=3.77, SD=2.21), t(239.10)= 6.29, p <. 001, 95% CI [1.02, 1.96]. Smoking. Only 8.0% (74/929) were smokers; Male students (13.8%) were significantly more likely to be smokers than were their female counterparts (6.5%), X 2 (1, N = 929) = 11.06, p =.001. A great majority of smokers (84.5%) were light smokers (1-2 packs a week). Paying attention to healthy lifestyle. 56.0% reported that they pay attention to healthy lifestyle Most Times or Always (4 or 5 in a 5-point scale); 14.1% paid attention Rarely or Never (1 or 2 in a 5-point scale, range = 1-5), M = 3.56, SD = 1.02. No gender difference was found between the mean score of male (M = 3.61, SD = 1.06) and female (M = 3.54, SD = 1.01) students, t(927) =.75, p = n.s. Eating a healthy, balanced diet. 43.7% reported that they eat a healthy, balanced diet Most Times or Always while 17.2% did so Rarely or Never, M= 3.32, SD=.92. No gender difference was found between the mean score of male (M=3.34, SD=.98) and female (M =3.31, SD=.91) students, t(927) =.38, p = n.s. Exercising. 55.1% exercised 3 times/wk or more often (156 times+ a year); 9.1% exercised once a month or less frequently (M=142.90/year, SD=85.28). Male participants (M=164.42, SD=89.50) engaged in exercising more frequently than did women (M=137.44, SD=83.35), t(927) =3.90, p <.001, 95% CI [13.42, 40.54]. Academic behavior. A composite of four 5-point items (M =16.42, SD=2.60); Women (M=16.55, SD=2.64) scored significantly higher than did men (M=15.90, SD=2.39), t(927)=-3.08, p=.002, 95% CI [-1.07, -.24]. Adjustment. 71.2% reported that they were adjusting to college life well or very well (6 or 7 in a 7-point scale); only 1.7% reported not to adjust well (1 or 2), M=5.88, SD=1.18). Men (M=6.04, SD=1.09) scored significantly higher than did women (M=5.84, SD=1.20), t(927)=2.15, p=.032, 95% CI [.02,.40]. Perceived accomplishment. 68.6% reported that they were doing well or quite well (6 or 7 in a 7-point) in college while only 1.7% were not doing well (1 or 2), M=5.82, SD=1.16. Women (M=5.89, SD =1.15) scored higher than did men (M=5.51, SD=1.17), t(927)=-4.08, p<.001, 95% CI [-.57, -.20]. Self-esteem. Rosenberg’s self-esteem scale assessed participants’ self-esteem (M = 31.49, SD = 5.09); men’s self-esteem (M=32.14, SD=4.97) was higher than women’s (M=31.33, SD=5.12), t(927)=-1.96, p=.05, 95% CI [-.00, 1.63]. Three items on transitional experience were significantly and moderately correlated, Table 3. Path Analysis examined the roles health factors play on college freshmen’s sense of adjustment to college life; in particular it examined predictive effects health consciousness and healthy behaviors have on academic behavior, perceived accomplishment, sense of adjustment, and self-esteem. Gender differences were observed. However, incorporating categorical variables (e.g., gender, ethnicity) violates SEM assumptions (Gallini, 1983). Also, due to the discrepancy in the group size (nearly 80% were females), male and female participants were examined separately, Figure 2 and 3. PURPOSE AND HYPOTHESIS Many college freshmen face challenges in managing their own health as they leave home for college. Living in a dormitory with abundant temptations to engage in unhealthy lifestyles, juggling school work and maintaining personal health become quite a task for many. The current study, based on an online survey conducted in a midsize, Midwestern university, examined college freshmen’s (N = 929) sense of successful adjustment to college life. Examined in the current study include participants’ sense of adjustment to college life, academic behaviors, attitudes and practice toward healthy diet, engagement in exercising, smoking, and drinking alcoholic beverages. Along with associations among these factors, also examined were gender differences and effects of these variables on self- esteem. More than two thirds of the participants felt they were adjusting to college life well or very well; 68.4% felt they were doing quite well so far. However, only 56% paid attention to healthy lifestyles “most times/always” and 18.1% “rarely or never” paid attention; 43.7% replied that they eat a healthy, balanced diet “most times/always” and 20.3% “rarely or never” eat a healthy, balanced diet. Further, path analysis revealed directional and relative effects health and academic behaviors have on college freshmen’s sense of adjustment and self- esteem. Health consciousness toward healthy lifestyle, drinking and exercising frequency predicted the participant’s sense of adjustment and self-esteem. Implications of the findings and ways of promoting college students to adopting healthier lifestyles (e.g., healthier diet, exercising) are discussed. RESULTS DISCUSSION Miki Hakoyama, Ph.D. email@example.com Miki Hakoyama, Ph.D. firstname.lastname@example.org@cmich.edu CONTACT By applying structural equation modeling (SEM), the current study specifically examined directional and relative effects health-consciousness and health behaviors have on college students’ sense of successful transition, and subsequently on their self-esteem. It was hypothesized that health consciousness and health behaviors have direct and indirect effects on the participants’ sense of adjustment; academic behavior was expected to mediate their perceived accomplishment, subsequently predicting their sense of adjustment; the perceived accomplishment and the sense of successful adjustment, in turn, predict self- esteem, see Figure 1. Tendency to eat healthy was expected to positively predict academic behavior and the sense of adjustment while frequent drinking was expected to negatively predict academic behavior and adjustment to college life. Some gender differences were expected. ABSTRACT Table 7. Standardized Direct and Indirect Effects (Female, N = 741) HeaLifeEatHealDrFrExYAAcadiCompAdj5Adj1 Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Direc t Indirec t Eatheal.759.000 DrFr.000-3.668-.086.000 ExYA.383.000 AcadiCo.130.150.000.037-.150.000.124.000 Adj5.000.211.121.018-.124-.001.092.000.272.000 Adj1.000.092.000.047.000-.001.075.000.033.264.000 SelfEs.000.317.000.235.000-.005.000.003.000.164.266.199.169.000 Notes: HeaLife = Healthy life consciousness, EatHeal = Eating a healthy, balanced diet, ExYA = Exercising frequency, DrFr = Drinking frequency, AcadiComp = Academic behavior, Adj5 = Perceived accomplishment, Adj1 = Perceived adjustment, SelfEs = Self-esteem Table 8.Standardized Direct and Indirect Effects (Male, N = 188) DrFrHeaLifeDrQuanAcadiCompExYAAdj5Adj1 Direc t Indire ct DirectIndire ct DirectIndire ct DirectIndire ct DirectIndire ct DirectIndire ct DirectIndire ct DrQuan.633.000 AcadiCo.000.268.000.-143.000 ExYA.000.359.000 Adj5.000.185.000.185.000-.075.529.000.120.000 Adj1.000.088.000.088.000-.036.000.251.000.057.475.000 SelfEs.000.051.000.051.000-.021.000.146.000.033.167.108.228.000 EatHeal.000.796.000 Notes: HeaLife = Healthy life consciousness, EatHeal = Eating a healthy, balanced diet, ExYA = Exercising frequency, DrFr = Drinking frequency, DrQuan = Drinking quantity per occasion, AcadiComp = Academic behavior, Adj5 = Perceived accomplishment, Adj1 = Perceived adjustment, SelfEs = Self-esteem METHODS The American Public Health Association 142 th annual meeting and exposition, New Orleans LA, November 2014. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Funding for this project came from a grant (C 61370) from the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at Central Michigan University.
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