Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

BACTERIAL MENINGITIS Changing Spectrum of Disease Gary R. Strange, MD, MA, FACEP Professor and Head Department of Emergency Medicine University of Illinois.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "BACTERIAL MENINGITIS Changing Spectrum of Disease Gary R. Strange, MD, MA, FACEP Professor and Head Department of Emergency Medicine University of Illinois."— Presentation transcript:

1 BACTERIAL MENINGITIS Changing Spectrum of Disease Gary R. Strange, MD, MA, FACEP Professor and Head Department of Emergency Medicine University of Illinois at Chicago

2 CASE PRESENTATION 18 month old AAM brought by parents due to: 18 month old AAM brought by parents due to: –Fever of 4 days duration –Irritability of 2 days duration, worsening –Associated with: Anorexia Anorexia Nausea Nausea Vomiting Vomiting Diarrhea Diarrhea

3 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Male child, lying quietly on the cart, appears lethargic Male child, lying quietly on the cart, appears lethargic Cries when disturbed, even when picked up by the mother Cries when disturbed, even when picked up by the mother Temperature 39 0 C Temperature 39 0 C Pulse rate: 130/min Pulse rate: 130/min Pulse oximetry: 98% Pulse oximetry: 98%

4 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Skin: hot, dry, no rash Skin: hot, dry, no rash HEENT: atraumatic, slightly dry mucous membranes HEENT: atraumatic, slightly dry mucous membranes Neck: Neck: –Supple –Kernig’s sign: negative –Brudzinski’s sign: questionably positive

5 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION Kernig’s sign: Kernig’s sign: –pain on leg extension following flexion of the hip to 90 0 –43% of patients with bacterial meningitis Brudzinski’s sign: Brudzinski’s sign: –involuntary flexion of the hips and knees, following passive flexion of the neck –66% of patients with bacterial meningitis

6 PHYSICAL EXAMINATION C/V: Rapid, Regular Rhythm without Murmur or Extra Sounds C/V: Rapid, Regular Rhythm without Murmur or Extra Sounds Lungs: Clear to Auscultation Lungs: Clear to Auscultation Abdomen: Soft, Non-Tender Abdomen: Soft, Non-Tender Neuro: Neuro: –lethargic/irritable –moving all extremities normally when stimulated –reflexes symmetric –cranial nerves intact

7 What is the best approach in the ED? Stat labs to include CBC, Clinical Chemistry, and Blood Cultures. Monitor the child while awaiting results. Stat labs to include CBC, Clinical Chemistry, and Blood Cultures. Monitor the child while awaiting results. Stat labs and Stat CT scan of the brain, followed by LP. Stat labs and Stat CT scan of the brain, followed by LP. Stat LP, followed by administration of intravenous antibiotics. Stat LP, followed by administration of intravenous antibiotics. Obtain blood specimens and administer intravenous antibiotics immediately Obtain blood specimens and administer intravenous antibiotics immediately

8 EPIDEMIOLOGY Neonatal 0.6 – 1.3 cases/1000 live births 0.6 – 1.3 cases/1000 live births Etiology Etiology –Group B Streptococcus –Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Salmonella spp Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Enterobacter spp, Salmonella spp –Listeria monocytogenes Incidence essentially unchanged in the past 20 years Incidence essentially unchanged in the past 20 years

9 EPIDEMIOLOGY Infant and Childhood 1990: children between 2 months and 5 years of age accounted for ¾ of all cases 1990: children between 2 months and 5 years of age accounted for ¾ of all cases –67% due to Haemophilus influenzae type b –25% due to Streptococcus pneumoniae –10% due to Neisseria meningitidis 2002: children 2 mos – 5 yrs are < ½ of cases 2002: children 2 mos – 5 yrs are < ½ of cases –Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause between 2 mos and 2 years of age Decreasing after introduction of heptavalent vaccine Decreasing after introduction of heptavalent vaccine –Neisseria meningitidis is the most common offender in the 2 – 18 year age group

10 Bacteriology Immunocompromised Host Staphylococcus spp Staphylococcus spp Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli Gram-Negative Enteric Bacilli Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pseudomonas aeruginosa

11 EPIDEMIOLOGY Now predominantly a disease of adolescents and young adults Now predominantly a disease of adolescents and young adults –College students living in dormitories –Military recruits

12 EPIDEMIOLOGY Conjugate polysaccharide Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine introduced in 1991 Conjugate polysaccharide Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine introduced in 1991 Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduced in 2000 Heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduced in 2000 –Covers 80% of invasive serotypes –Projected to prevent 12,000 cases/year

13 MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINES 5 Major Serogroups Cause Disease 5 Major Serogroups Cause Disease –A, B, C, Y, W-135 Polysaccharide vaccines effective for groups A, C, Y, W-135 in older children & adults Polysaccharide vaccines effective for groups A, C, Y, W-135 in older children & adults Poor response in young children Poor response in young children No vaccines of serogroup B No vaccines of serogroup B

14 MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINES Conjugation of polysaccharide vaccine to a protein carrier increases efficacy in infants and young children Conjugation of polysaccharide vaccine to a protein carrier increases efficacy in infants and young children Conjugate serogroup C vaccine in use in UK since 1999: very effective in young children Conjugate serogroup C vaccine in use in UK since 1999: very effective in young children Conjugate vaccine for A, C, Y & W-135 under development Conjugate vaccine for A, C, Y & W-135 under development

15 MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINES Use for 1 st Year College Students Controversial in the Past Use for 1 st Year College Students Controversial in the Past –No cost savings Low # of cases Low # of cases High cost of vaccination High cost of vaccination –From individual perspective, may be worthwhile

16 MENINGOCOCCAL VACCINES 2005 AAP Recommendations Administer MCV4 to Administer MCV4 to –11-12 year olds, especially if at increased risk –Students entering high school or at age 15 –College freshmen who will be living in dormitories

17 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Hematogenous spread Hematogenous spread –blood to subarachnoid space Mechanical disruption Mechanical disruption –Fracture of the base of the skull –Direct extension from ear, mastoid air cells, sinuses, orbit or other adjacent structure

18 PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Pathologic changes of meningitis Pathologic changes of meningitis –Directly due to infection –Indirectly due to infection via the response of the immune system to infection

19 PRESENTATION Classic Signs Classic Signs –Headache –Photophobia –Stiff neck –Change in mental status –Bulging fontanelle –Nausea –Vomiting

20 PRESENTATION Signs of Meningeal Irritation Signs of Meningeal Irritation –Brudzinski Sign: when the inflamed meninges are stretched with neck flexion, the hips and knees involuntarily flex. –Kernig Sign: when the hip is flexed to 90 0, examiner is unable to passively extend the leg fully. –Children with meningeal irritation often resist walking or being carried –Absence does not rule out intracranial infection –Not useful in neonates and young infants

21 Symptoms of Bacterial Meningitis Rothrock Clinical Feature Untreated (175) Pretreated (83) Mean Duration of Symptoms 4.6 days 2.9 days Fever99%95% Lethargy or Irritability87%95% Vomiting71%54% URI symptoms 55%46% Seizure22%23%

22 Signs of Bacterial Meningitis Fever82-96% Lethargy17-95% Irritability18-40% Vomiting20-100% Bulging Fontanelle 18-40%

23 Signs of Bacterial Meningitis Altered Mental Status 53-78% Seizure4-23% Focal Neuro 5-6%

24 Signs of Bacterial Meningitis Nuchal Rigidity 27-95% Kernig’s Sign 0-36% Brudzinski’s10-83% > 1 Meningeal 26-93% All signs less common in neonates except fontanelle

25 PRESENTATION Neonates and Young Infants Less obvious signs and symptoms Less obvious signs and symptoms Poor Feeding Poor Feeding Irritability Irritability Inconsolability Inconsolability Listlessness Listlessness

26 PRESENTATION Course of Disease Insidious (90%) Insidious (90%) –High likelihood of early presentation with non- specific illness –Typical of pneumococcal illness Fulminant (10%) Fulminant (10%) –Typical of meningococcal illness –May progress rapidly to petechiae, purpura fulminans, cardiovascular collapse

27 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Early Stage of Disease Gastroenteritis Gastroenteritis Upper respiratory infection Upper respiratory infection Pneumonia Pneumonia Otitis media Otitis media Viral syndrome Viral syndrome

28 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Later Stage of Disease Encephalitis Encephalitis Subarachnoid/Subdural Hemorrhage Subarachnoid/Subdural Hemorrhage Traumatic (Abuse or Unintentional) Traumatic (Abuse or Unintentional) Spontaneous Spontaneous Cerebral Abscess Cerebral Abscess Reye’s Syndrome Reye’s Syndrome Toxic Ingestions Toxic Ingestions Seizure Disorders Seizure Disorders DKA or other altered metabolic states DKA or other altered metabolic states Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism Intussusception Intussusception

29 MANAGEMENT Unstable Patients Always assure stability of vital functions before attempting diagnostic procedures Always assure stability of vital functions before attempting diagnostic procedures Withhold lumbar puncture until after stabilization and antibiotic administration Withhold lumbar puncture until after stabilization and antibiotic administration Shock: rapid intravenous or intraosseous infusion of crystalloid solution in 20 mL/kg aliquots until stable Shock: rapid intravenous or intraosseous infusion of crystalloid solution in 20 mL/kg aliquots until stable Limit fluids to maintenance rate after stabilized Limit fluids to maintenance rate after stabilized –Fluid overload can lead to worsening of cerebral edema

30 MANAGEMENT Increased Intracranial Pressure Recognition: worsening mental status, papilledema, bulging fontanelle, widening of sutures Recognition: worsening mental status, papilledema, bulging fontanelle, widening of sutures Treatment Treatment –Elevate head of bed to 30 0 –Controlled ventilation to keep PCO 2 between 30 and 35 mmHg –Mannitol, 0.25 – 1 g/kg –Furosemide, 1 mg/kg

31 MANAGEMENT Stable Patients Phlebotomy for diagnostic studies Phlebotomy for diagnostic studies –Complete Blood Count –Serum Electrolytes –Blood Glucose –Renal Functions –Blood Culture Lumbar Puncture for Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis Lumbar Puncture for Cerebrospinal Fluid Analysis

32 CSF ANALYSIS Normal Values for an Infant/Child Cell count: 0-7 wbc/mm 3 (0% PMNs) Cell count: 0-7 wbc/mm 3 (0% PMNs) Glucose: mg/dL (> 50% of Blood Sugar) Glucose: mg/dL (> 50% of Blood Sugar) Protein: 5-40 mg/dL Protein: 5-40 mg/dL

33 CSF ANALYSIS Interpretation Viral Etiology Viral Etiology –Low wbc count –Predominantly mononuclear cell type –Normal glucose –Normal protein Bacterial Etiology Bacterial Etiology –Elevated wbc count –Predominantly polymorphonuclear leukocytes –Low glucose –High protein

34 INITIAL ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT Neonates Ampicillin, 100 mg/kg Ampicillin, 100 mg/kgAND Aminoglycoside Aminoglycoside –Gentamicin, 2.5 mg/kg Cephalosporin active against gram negative bacilli may be used instead of an aminoglycoside Cephalosporin active against gram negative bacilli may be used instead of an aminoglycoside –Cefotaxime, 50 mg/kg

35 INITIAL ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT Infants and Children Cephalosporin Cephalosporin –Ceftriaxone, 100 mg/kg OR –Cefotaxime, 50 mg/kg If unavailable: If unavailable: –Amoxicillin, 100 mg/kg AND –Chloramphenicol, 25 mg/kg

36 INITIAL ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT ADULTS Cephalosporin Cephalosporin –Ceftriaxone, 2 grams IV OR –Cefotaxime, 2 grams IV

37 INITIAL ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT Known or Suspected Pneumococcal Infection Penicillin and cephalosporin resistance is possible Penicillin and cephalosporin resistance is possible Vancomycin is the only antibiotic to which all strains of pneumococci are susceptible Vancomycin is the only antibiotic to which all strains of pneumococci are susceptible –Add Vancomycin, 15 mg/kg

38 CORTICOSTEROID TREATMENT Dexamethasone, 0.15 mg/kg IV administered prior to or along with the initial antibiotics has been shown to decrease ICP, cerebral edema & CSF lactate. Dexamethasone, 0.15 mg/kg IV administered prior to or along with the initial antibiotics has been shown to decrease ICP, cerebral edema & CSF lactate. Significantly decreases neurologic sequelae, including deafness Significantly decreases neurologic sequelae, including deafness

39 SEQUELAE Mortality: 20-40% Mortality: 20-40% Long-Term Sequelae: 20% Long-Term Sequelae: 20%

40 SUMMARY Vaccinations for H flu & Pneumococcus are highly effective Vaccinations for H flu & Pneumococcus are highly effective Bacterial meningitis is now predominantly a disease of adolescents and young adults Bacterial meningitis is now predominantly a disease of adolescents and young adults Development of an effective meningococcal vaccine has proved more challenging Development of an effective meningococcal vaccine has proved more challenging

41 SUMMARY Classic signs & symptoms are often missing, even in older children Classic signs & symptoms are often missing, even in older children Paradoxical irritation may be seen Paradoxical irritation may be seen Initiate antibiotics before diagnostic work- up in toxic-appearing patients Initiate antibiotics before diagnostic work- up in toxic-appearing patients CT scan before LP needed only if you suspect a mass lesion CT scan before LP needed only if you suspect a mass lesion

42 SUMMARY Empiric Antibiotics for Neonates Empiric Antibiotics for Neonates –Ampicillin & Aminoglycoside OR –Ampicillin & Cefotaxime Empiric Antibiotics for Infants/Children/Adults Empiric Antibiotics for Infants/Children/Adults –Ceftriaxone & Vancomycin Corticosteroid Treatment Corticosteroid Treatment –Dexamethasone prior to or along with the initial antibiotics


Download ppt "BACTERIAL MENINGITIS Changing Spectrum of Disease Gary R. Strange, MD, MA, FACEP Professor and Head Department of Emergency Medicine University of Illinois."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google